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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474326

RESUMO

Patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are typically elderly with several co-morbidities, which might limit prognosis despite successful procedural outcome. To date, the prevalence and clinical impact of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI remains poorly defined. This study included 495 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. ID was defined as ferritin <100 ng/ml or ferritin 100 to 300 ng/ml, when transferrin saturation was <20%. The primary end point of the study was a composite of all-cause mortality, unplanned readmission for worsening heart failure or red blood cell transfusions during the first year after TAVI, which occurred in 22% (109 of 495) of the population. ID was present in 54% (268 of 495) of the entire cohort and was associated with a higher rate of the primary end point (27.6% [74 of 268] vs 15.4% [35 of 227]; p = 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the association of ID with the primary end point remained significant (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [1.08 to 2.48]; p = 0.019). In a subgroup of ferropenic patients (n = 56), treatment with intravenous iron before TAVI was feasible, resulting in a considerable improvement of ferritin, transferrin saturation and symptoms at 30-day follow-up. In conclusion, ID is common in TAVI patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcome after TAVI. Correction of ID with intravenous iron seems feasible in contemporary TAVI patients. Whether this reduces transfusion rates and impacts clinical outcome after TAVI remains to be investigated in future prospective trials.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative merits of ticagrelor as compared with prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom invasive evaluation is planned are uncertain. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes and for whom invasive evaluation was planned to receive either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. A major secondary end point (the safety end point) was bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 4018 patients underwent randomization. A primary-end point event occurred in 184 of 2012 patients (9.3%) in the ticagrelor group and in 137 of 2006 patients (6.9%) in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.70; P = 0.006). The respective incidences of the individual components of the primary end point in the ticagrelor group and the prasugrel group were as follows: death, 4.5% and 3.7%; myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 3.0%; and stroke, 1.1% and 1.0%. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 1.3% of patients assigned to ticagrelor and 1.0% of patients assigned to prasugrel, and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Major bleeding (as defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium scale) was observed in 5.4% of patients in the ticagrelor group and in 4.8% of patients in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.51; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation, the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was significantly lower among those who received prasugrel than among those who received ticagrelor, and the incidence of major bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research and Deutsches Herzzentrum München; ISAR-REACT 5 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01944800.).

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(21): 1664-1666, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152549
5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228190

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be influenced by a common allele in guanylate cyclase GUCY1A3, which has been shown to modify platelet function and increase CVD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated whether homozygotes of the GUCY1A3 rs7692387 risk (G) allele benefited from aspirin in two long-term, randomized placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in primary CVD prevention: the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294) and a myocardial infarction (MI, N = 550) and stroke (N = 382) case-control set from the Physician's Health Study (PHS, N = 22 071). Bleeding risk was evaluated in the WGHS. In the placebo group of the WGHS, the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele was confirmed to increase CVD risk [hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; P = 0.01]. Random-effects meta-analysis of the WGHS and PHS revealed that aspirin reduced CVD events among risk allele homozygotes [G/G: odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03] but increased CVD events among non-risk allele carriers (e.g. G/A: OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03) thus implying an interaction between genotype stratum and aspirin intake (Pinteraction = 0.01). Bleeding associated with aspirin increased in all genotype groups, with higher risks in heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: In two randomized placebo-controlled trials in the setting of primary prevention, aspirin reduced the incidence of CVD events in individuals homozygous for the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele, whereas heterozygote individuals had more events when taking aspirin.

6.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182269

RESUMO

AIM: Psoas muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) is a proposed marker of frailty associated with mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We assessed the impact of psoas CSA on medium-term mortality over 5 years in a large cohort, adjusted for pre-procedural variables. METHOD: This single-centre registry-derived analysis assessed 1,731 consecutive TAVI patients between 2007 and 31 April 2015 with available abdominal computed tomography scans. Sex-stratified, height-adjusted psoas CSA was measured mid-body of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Kaplan-Meier survival distributions across psoas CSA quartiles were compared. Cox and logistic regression models were used to assess baseline variables associated with the primary outcome, which was mortality within 5 years. RESULTS: Median age was 81 years (interquartile range, 77 - 85); 52.5% were women. The primary end point occurred in 555 patients over a mean follow-up of 775 days. Lower psoas CSA quartile patients were older, had a lower body mass index, lower creatinine clearance, and lower rates of previous cardiac surgery, with higher rates of diabetes, coronary artery disease, pacemaker, anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and higher European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation. Unadjusted survival by psoas CSA quartile was significantly different in men (log rank p=0.041) but not women (p=0.099). In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariate analysis, psoas CSA quartiles were not significantly associated with mortality. Hypoalbuminaemia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 - 2.87 [p<0.001]) and increasing age (HR, 1.03 per year; 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.05 [p=0.002]) were associated with increased risk; female sex (HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.51 - 0.78 [p<0.001]), and hypercholesterolaemia (HR, 0.67; 95%, CI 0.54 0.83 [p<0.001]) with reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Psoas CSA was not significantly associated with mortality after adjusting for pre-procedural variables. Hypoalbuminaemia, sex, hypercholesterolaemia, and age were significantly associated with mortality after TAVI.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2932-2942, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on coronary artery disease (CAD) and investigated the genetic relationship to CV and non-CV diseases with reported CAD comorbidity. METHODS: This study examined 425,196 UK Biobank participants to determine a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 300 CAD associated variants (CAD-GRS). This score was associated with 22 traits, including risk factors, diseases secondary to CAD, as well as comorbid and non-CV conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed in individuals free from CAD or stable angina diagnosis. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.29) and hypertension (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.12) were strongly associated with the CAD-GRS, which indicated that the score contained variants predisposing to these conditions. However, the CAD-GRS was also significant in patients with CAD who were free of CAD risk factors (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.44). The study observed significant associations between the CAD-GRS and peripheral arterial disease (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.32), abdominal aortic aneurysms (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.37), and stroke (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), which remained significant in sensitivity analyses that suggested shared genetic predisposition. The score was also associated with heart failure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.29), atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), and premature death (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06). These associations were abolished in sensitivity analyses that indicated that they were secondary to prevalent CAD. Finally, an inverse association was observed between the score and migraine headaches (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A wide spectrum of CV conditions, including premature death, might develop consecutively or in parallel with CAD for the same genetic roots. In conditions like heart failure, the study found evidence that the CAD-GRS could be used to stratify patients with no or limited genetic overlap with CAD risk. Increased genetic predisposition to CAD was inversely associated with migraine headaches.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2946-2957, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants currently known to affect coronary artery disease (CAD) risk explain less than one-quarter of disease heritability. The heritability contribution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in CAD, which are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the heritability contributions of single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting gene expression (eSNPs) in GRNs causally linked to CAD. METHODS: Seven vascular and metabolic tissues collected in 2 independent genetics-of-gene-expression studies of patients with CAD were used to identify eSNPs and to infer coexpression networks. To construct GRNs with causal relations to CAD, the prior information of eSNPs in the coexpression networks was used in a Bayesian algorithm. Narrow-sense CAD heritability conferred by the GRNs was calculated from individual-level genotype data from 9 European genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (13,612 cases, 13,758 control cases). RESULTS: The authors identified and replicated 28 independent GRNs active in CAD. The genetic variation in these networks contributed to 10.0% of CAD heritability beyond the 22% attributable to risk loci identified by GWAS. GRNs in the atherosclerotic arterial wall (n = 7) and subcutaneous or visceral abdominal fat (n = 9) were most strongly implicated, jointly explaining 8.2% of CAD heritability. In all, these 28 GRNs (each contributing to >0.2% of CAD heritability) comprised 24 to 841 genes, whereof 1 to 28 genes had strong regulatory effects (key disease drivers) and harbored many relevant functions previously associated with CAD. The gene activity in these 28 GRNs also displayed strong associations with genetic and phenotypic cardiometabolic disease variations both in humans and mice, indicative of their pivotal roles as mediators of gene-environmental interactions in CAD. CONCLUSIONS: GRNs capture a major portion of genetic variance and contribute to heritability beyond that of genetic loci currently known to affect CAD risk. These networks provide a framework to identify novel risk genes/pathways and study molecular interactions within and across disease-relevant tissues leading to CAD.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

10.
Clin Chim Acta ; 496: 55-61, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the association of ALT with the prognosis of patients with CAD. METHODS: The study included 9523 patients with angiography-proven CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Baseline ALT activity measurements were available for analysis in all patients. The primary outcome was 3-year cardiac mortality. RESULTS: Patients were divided into three groups: a group with ALT within the 1st tertile (ALT 2.0 U/L to ≤17.0 U/L; n = 3276 patients), a group with ALT within the 2nd tertile (ALT >17.0 U/L to ≤26.0 U/L; n = 3075 patients) and a group with ALT within 3rd tertile (>26 U/L to ≤50.0 U/L; n = 3172 patients). Cardiac death (primary outcome) occurred in 441 patients: 201 (7.1%), 126 (4.7%) and 114 (4.0%) of these occurring in patients in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd ALT tertiles, respectively (with percentages representing Kaplan-Meier estimates of 3-year cardiac mortality); adjusted hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.85, P = 0.006 calculated for 1 unit decrement in the logarithmic scale of ALT. The multivariable model for cardiac mortality with baseline variables without ALT had a C-statistic of 0.827 [0.801-0.853], P < 0.001, which increased to 0.832 [0.806-0.857], P < 0.001 after incorporation of ALT (P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CAD, ALT was inversely and independently associated with the risk of 3-year cardiac mortality. Low ALT may reflect cardiovascular risk that is poorly mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

11.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(9): 1539-1545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226721

RESUMO

Despite dual antiplatelet therapy patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continue to experience periprocedural ischemic events. In addition, all currently used antithrombotic drugs increase the bleeding risk. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for antithrombotic strategies with improved efficacy and no increase in bleeding. Revacept is a novel, lesion-directed antithrombotic drug that does not interfere with the function of circulating platelets. This dimeric fusion protein of the extracellular domain of glycoprotein VI (the major platelet collagen receptor) and the human Fc-fragment inhibits collagen-mediated platelet adhesion and subsequent aggregation at the site of vascular injury. The randomized, double-blinded, phase II ISAR-PLASTER trial is based on extensive preclinical evaluation of Revacept and a favorable first-in-man trial. A total of 332 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI will be randomized to either Revacept 160 mg, Revacept 80 mg, or placebo administered as single intravenous infusion directly before the intervention, on top of standard dual antiplatelet therapy and either heparin or bivalirudin, based on local practice and current guidelines. The primary endpoint is the composite of death or myocardial injury (defined as increase in high sensitivity troponin T ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) at 48 hours. The safety endpoint is bleeding of class 2 or higher according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 30 days. This phase II randomized, double blind trial will assess for the first time the efficacy and safety of Revacept-a lesion-directed inhibitor of platelet adhesion-in patients undergoing elective PCI.

12.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 180, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) displays circadian variability with the highest incidence in the morning hours. Data on whether the time-of-day at symptom onset affects infarct size or patients' long-term prognosis are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association of time-of-day at symptom onset with infarct size or long-term mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: This study included 1206 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. All patients underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi before and 7-14 days after PPCI. The co-primary endpoints were final infarct size on day 10 after STEMI and all-cause mortality at 5-year follow-up. Time-of-day at symptom onset of STEMI was categorized in 6-h intervals. RESULTS: In patients presenting from 0 to 6 h, 6 to 12 h, 12 to 18 h, and 18 to 24 h, the infarct sizes (median [25th-75th percentiles]) were 10.0 [3.0-24.7], 10.0 [3.0-24.0], 10.0 [3.0-22.0], and 9.0 [3.0-21.0] of the left ventricle, respectively (p = 0.87); the Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year all-cause mortality were 13.6%, 8.7%, 13.7% and 9.3%, respectively (log-rank test p = 0.30). After adjustment, time-of-day was not associated with infarct size (p ≥ 0.76 for comparisons with infarct size from reference [6-12 h] time interval) or 5-year all-cause mortality (p ≥ 0.25 for comparisons with mortality from reference [6-12 h] time interval). Time-of-day at symptom onset of STEMI was not associated with differences in the recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction 6 months after STEMI. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI, time-of-day at symptom onset was neither associated with scintigraphic infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction recovery at 6 months nor with 5-year mortality.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049679

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate 1-year outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the SAPIEN 3 (S3) prosthesis with emphasis on the composite endpoints "clinical efficacy after 30 days" and "time-related valve safety" proposed by the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred and two consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with the S3 were enrolled. Mean age was 81 ± 6 years, 43% were female and median logistic EuroSCORE I was 12% [8-19]. Device success was achieved in 93% (374/402) with moderate or severe paravalvular leakage (PVL) in 2%. At 1 year all-cause mortality was 8.9% [95% CI 6.4-12.2] and new permanent pacemaker implantation rate was 16% [95% CI 12.7-20.4]. The composite endpoint time-related valve safety occurred in 29% with structural valve deterioration, defined as elevated gradients or more than moderate PVL, occurring in 13%. The clinical efficacy endpoint after 30 days was observed in 37% of patients with the main contributor symptom worsening with New York Heart Association functional class III + in 17% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, VARC-2-defined composite endpoints at 1 year are reported and reveal a considerable proportion of patients experiencing the endpoint of time-related valve safety (29%) and clinical efficacy after 30 days (37%).

14.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145798

RESUMO

AIMS: The antiplatelet treatment strategy providing optimal balance between thrombotic and bleeding risks in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. We prospectively compared the efficacy of ticagrelor and aspirin after CABG. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomly assigned in double-blind fashion patients scheduled for CABG to either ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or 100 mg aspirin (1:1) once daily. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization, and stroke 12 months after CABG. The main safety endpoint was based on the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium classification, defined as BARC ≥4 for periprocedural and hospital stay-related bleedings and BARC ≥3 for post-discharge bleedings. The study was prematurely halted after recruitment of 1859 out of 3850 planned patients. Twelve months after CABG, the primary endpoint occurred in 86 out of 931 patients (9.7%) in the ticagrelor group and in 73 out of 928 patients (8.2%) in the aspirin group [hazard ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.62; P = 0.28]. All-cause mortality (ticagrelor 2.5% vs. aspirin 2.6%, hazard ratio 0.96, CI 0.53-1.72; P = 0.89), cardiovascular death (ticagrelor 1.2% vs. aspirin 1.4%, hazard ratio 0.85, CI 0.38-1.89; P = 0.68), MI (ticagrelor 2.1% vs. aspirin 3.4%, hazard ratio 0.63, CI 0.36-1.12, P = 0.12), and stroke (ticagrelor 3.1% vs. 2.6%, hazard ratio 1.21, CI 0.70-2.08; P = 0.49), showed no significant difference between the ticagrelor and aspirin group. The main safety endpoint was also not significantly different (ticagrelor 3.7% vs. aspirin 3.2%, hazard ratio 1.17, CI 0.71-1.92; P = 0.53). CONCLUSION: In this prematurely terminated and thus underpowered randomized trial of ticagrelor vs. aspirin in patients after CABG no significant differences in major cardiovascular events or major bleeding could be demonstrated. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01755520.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2959, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814609

RESUMO

The genetics of many congenital heart diseases (CHDs) can only unsatisfactorily be explained by known chromosomal or Mendelian syndromes. Here, we present sequencing data of a family with a potentially multigenic origin of CHD. Twelve of nineteen family members carry a familial mutation [NM_004329.2:c.1328 G > A (p.R443H)] which encodes a predicted deleterious variant of BMPR1A. This mutation co-segregates with a linkage region on chromosome 1 that associates with the emergence of severe CHDs including Ebstein's anomaly, atrioventricular septal defect, and others. We show that the continuous overexpression of the zebrafish homologous mutation bmpr1aap.R438H within endocardium causes a reduced AV valve area, a downregulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling at the AV canal, and growth of additional tissue mass in adult zebrafish hearts. This finding opens the possibility of testing genetic interactions between BMPR1A and other candidate genes within linkage region 1 which may provide a first step towards unravelling more complex genetic patterns in cardiovascular disease aetiology.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1060, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837465

RESUMO

Circulating levels of glycine have previously been associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it remains uncertain if glycine plays an aetiological role. We present a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for glycine in 80,003 participants and investigate the causality and potential mechanisms of the association between glycine and cardio-metabolic diseases using genetic approaches. We identify 27 genetic loci, of which 22 have not previously been reported for glycine. We show that glycine is genetically associated with lower CHD risk and find that this may be partly driven by blood pressure. Evidence for a genetic association of glycine with T2D is weaker, but we find a strong inverse genetic effect of hyperinsulinaemia on glycine. Our findings strengthen evidence for a protective effect of glycine on CHD and show that the glycine-T2D association may be driven by a glycine-lowering effect of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glicina/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834895

RESUMO

AIMS: Clopidogrel is the P2Y12 inhibitor of choice in patients who undergo PCI and have an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC). Prediction of the bleeding risk is of major interest in this population. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether an enhanced platelet inhibition by clopidogrel measured by platelet function testing (PFT) with the Multiplate analyzer is associated with an increased bleeding risk in patients on triple antithrombotic therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This investigation was performed in a cohort of 524 patients from the randomized ISAR TRIPLE trial and 458 (87.4%) had PFT results available in the first 24 hours after PCI. Patients belonging to the lowest quintile according to PFT were considered as enhanced responders to clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was major bleeding according to TIMI criteria at 9 months. The median of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the whole population was 163 AU*min [107-241]. Patients in the lowest quintile had values below 93 AU*min. These enhanced responders (92 patients) had a significantly higher risk of TIMI Major Bleeding (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.13, [95% confidence interval: 1.38-7.09], p=0.01) and overall mortality (HR: 3.42, [1.55-7.52], p=0.004) compared with the remaining patients (366 patients). No significant difference was observed for the secondary combined ischemic endpoint (HR: 1.27, [0.47-3.47], p=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced platelet inhibition delivered by clopidogrel is associated with an increased risk for major bleeding and death in patients on OAC that undergo PCI. These results support the use of PFT to identify patients with an increased risk for bleeding.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 1-year outcome using the ACURATE neo (Symetis S.A., a Boston Scientific Company, Ecublens, Switzerland) according to the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2) with emphasis on the composite endpoints "clinical efficacy after 30 days" and "time-related valve safety". BACKGROUND: Initial reports on the clinical performance of patients treated with the ACURATE neo are promising; however, information regarding one-year outcome is scarce, especially with regard to the composite endpoints proposed by the VARC-2. METHODS: One hundred and fifty one consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the ACURATE neo for severe aortic valve stenosis were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected and event rates during follow-up were calculated as the Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: Mean age was 81.1 ± 5.9 years and 49.7% (75/151) were female with a median logistic EuroScore of 13.8% [8.2-20.5]. Device success was achieved in 88.1% (133/151) and procedure related mortality was 0.7% (1/151). At one-year, all-cause mortality was 3.3% (5/151), while permanent pacemaker implantation occurred in 12.7% (19/151) of patients. The "clinical efficacy after 30 days" was observed in 24.8% (37/151), where the main contributor was symptom worsening in 14.8% (22/151) of cases. "Time-related valve safety" occurred in 22.0% (33/151) with structural valve deterioration as main contributor in 10.7% (16/151) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Using the ACURATE neo, we found a favorable safety profile with low all-cause mortality at 1 year. The reported VARC-2 defined composite endpoints at 1 year reveal low rates of "clinical efficacy after 30 days" and "time-related valve safety".

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