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1.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The optimal antiplatelet strategy in patients undergoing CABG remains unclear. This is the first meta-analysis investigating the clinical outcomes associated with ticagrelor-based antiplatelet regimens in patients receiving CABG. METHODS: Relevant scientific databases were searched for studies investigating antiplatelet regimens after CABG from inception until April 1, 2019. Studies which randomly assigned CABG patients to either ticagrelor-based or control antiplatelet regimens were eligible. The primary outcome of this analysis was all-cause death. The main secondary outcome was MI. Other outcomes of interest were cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, stroke and bleeding. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019122192. RESULTS: Five trials comprising 3996 patients (2002 assigned to ticagrelor-based and 1994 to control antiplatelet regimens) were eligible for quantitative synthesis. The median follow-up was 12 months. Control antiplatelet regimens consisted of either aspirin or clopidogrel or both. As compared to control, ticagrelor-based regimens reduced the risk of all-cause death [0.61 (0.43-0.87); P = 0.007], cardiac death [0.58 (0.39-0.86); P = 0.007] and major adverse cardiac events [0.79 (0.63-0.98); P = 0.03], without difference in the risk of MI [0.76 (0.50-1.18); P = 0.22], stroke [0.99 (0.56-1.78); P = 0.98] or bleeding [1.04 (0.95-1.14); P = 0.41]. There was a treatment effect modification for the primary outcome associated with trials enrolling predominantly patients with acute coronary syndrome (P for interaction = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In patients receiving CABG, ticagrelor-based regimens reduce mortality and major adverse cardiac events without excess bleeding risk as compared with aspirin monotherapy or the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel. The benefit of ticagrelor-based regimens is more relevant in those studies enrolling predominantly patients with acute coronary syndrome. These findings require further confirmation in randomized trials focused on this subset of patients and powered for clinical outcomes.

4.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of shock index with long-term mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains poorly investigated. We aimed to assess the association between shock index and eight-year mortality after STEMI. METHODS: The study included 1369 patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Patients were categorized into three groups: a group with shock index in the first tertile (shock index, 0.21 to 0.52; n = 458), a group with shock index in the second tertile (shock index > 0.52 to 0.67; n = 457) and a group with shock index in the third tertile (shock index > 0.67 to 2.80; n = 454). The primary outcome was eight-year mortality. RESULTS: In patients with shock index in the first to third tertiles, inhospital cardiogenic shock (n = 153) occurred in 3.5, 3.9 and 26.2% of patients, respectively [adjusted odds ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 1.69, P < 0.001]; 30-day deaths (n = 122) occurred in 2.8, 5.5 and 18.5% of patients, respectively [adjusted hazard ratio = 1.06 (1.01-1.12); P = 0.024]; eight-year deaths (n = 300) occurred in 22.9, 21.6 and 36.1% of patients, respectively [adjusted hazard ratio = 1.06 (1.02-1.11); P = 0.007] with all risk estimates calculated per 0.1 unit increment in shock index values. From 30 days to 8 years, deaths (n = 178) occurred in 20.7, 17.0 and 21.5% of patients in the first to third shock index tertiles, respectively (the difference was nonsignificant for all intertertile comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI, elevated shock index is associated with the risk of inhospital cardiogenic shock and mortality up to 8 years after PPCI. The long-term adverse prognosis was almost entirely driven by events within the first 30 days.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative merits of ticagrelor as compared with prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom invasive evaluation is planned are uncertain. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes and for whom invasive evaluation was planned to receive either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. A major secondary end point (the safety end point) was bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 4018 patients underwent randomization. A primary-end point event occurred in 184 of 2012 patients (9.3%) in the ticagrelor group and in 137 of 2006 patients (6.9%) in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.70; P = 0.006). The respective incidences of the individual components of the primary end point in the ticagrelor group and the prasugrel group were as follows: death, 4.5% and 3.7%; myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 3.0%; and stroke, 1.1% and 1.0%. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 1.3% of patients assigned to ticagrelor and 1.0% of patients assigned to prasugrel, and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Major bleeding (as defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium scale) was observed in 5.4% of patients in the ticagrelor group and in 4.8% of patients in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.51; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation, the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was significantly lower among those who received prasugrel than among those who received ticagrelor, and the incidence of major bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research and Deutsches Herzzentrum München; ISAR-REACT 5 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01944800.).

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511862

RESUMO

AIMS: Consensus is lacking regarding the best treatment for coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR). The two most effective treatments are angioplasty with paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) and repeat stenting with drug-eluting stent (DES) but individual trials were not statistically powered for clinical endpoints, results were heterogeneous, and evidence about comparative efficacy and safety in relevant subsets was limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Difference in Anti-restenotic Effectiveness of Drug-eluting stent and drug-coated balloon AngiopLasty for the occUrrence of coronary in-Stent restenosis (DAEDALUS) study was a comprehensive, investigator-initiated, collaborative, individual patient data meta-analysis comparing angioplasty with PCB alone vs. repeat stenting with DES alone for the treatment of coronary ISR. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075007). All 10 available randomized clinical trials were included with 1976 patients enrolled, 1033 assigned to PCB and 943 to DES. At 3-year follow-up, PCB was associated with a significant increase in the risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR) compared with DES [hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% CI 1.02-1.70, P = 0.035; number-needed-to-harm 28.5]. There was a significant interaction between treatment effect and type of restenosed stent (P = 0.029) with a more marked difference in patients with DES-ISR and comparable effects in patients with bare-metal stent-ISR. At 3-year follow-up, the primary safety endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis was comparable between treatments (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58-1.09, P = 0.152). A pre-specified subgroup analysis indicated a significant interaction between treatment effect and type of DES used to treat ISR (P = 0.033), with a lower incidence of events associated with PCB compared with first-generation DES and similar effect between PCB and second-generation DES (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.71-1.60, P = 0.764). Long-term all-cause mortality was similar between PCB and DES (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.53-1.22, P = 0.310); results were consistent comparing PCB and non-paclitaxel-based DES (HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.80-2.54, P = 0.235). Myocardial infarction and target lesion thrombosis were comparable between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coronary ISR, repeat stenting with DES is moderately more effective than angioplasty with PCB at reducing the need for TLR at 3 years. The incidence of a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis was similar between groups. The rates of individual endpoints, including all-cause mortality, were not significantly different between groups.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498111

RESUMO

AIMS: Elevated gradients have been proposed to be associated with hemodynamic structural valve deterioration (SVD) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and data regarding their characterization remain scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: 691 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI were enrolled. The primary endpoint was moderate or severe hemodynamic SVD during 12-month follow-up after TAVI, defined as (I) mean transvalvular gradient ≥20 mmHg or (II) mean transvalvular gradient change ≥10 mmHg. The primary endpoint was observed in 10.3% after TAVI. Use of 20mm valve, valve-in-valve procedure and oral anticoagulation (OAC) were independently associated with hemodynamic SVD, whereas valve-in-valve procedure and OAC were the only significant variables after accounting for death as a competing event. OAC was significantly associated with both, hemodynamic SVD (RR 8.65; p=0.004) and death (RR 3.57; p=0.06), whereas valve-in-valve procedure was only associated with hemodynamic SVD (RR 52.76; p<0.001). Valve thrombosis was present in 0.87% (6/691) of all patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of moderate or greater hemodynamic SVD during the first 12 months after TAVI is 10.3%. Procedural factors and pharmacotherapy seem to play a key role during manifestation. Future studies should focus on the underlying mechanisms.

8.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474326

RESUMO

Patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are typically elderly with several co-morbidities, which might limit prognosis despite successful procedural outcome. To date, the prevalence and clinical impact of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI remains poorly defined. This study included 495 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. ID was defined as ferritin <100 ng/ml or ferritin 100 to 300 ng/ml, when transferrin saturation was <20%. The primary end point of the study was a composite of all-cause mortality, unplanned readmission for worsening heart failure or red blood cell transfusions during the first year after TAVI, which occurred in 22% (109 of 495) of the population. ID was present in 54% (268 of 495) of the entire cohort and was associated with a higher rate of the primary end point (27.6% [74 of 268] vs 15.4% [35 of 227]; p = 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the association of ID with the primary end point remained significant (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [1.08 to 2.48]; p = 0.019). In a subgroup of ferropenic patients (n = 56), treatment with intravenous iron before TAVI was feasible, resulting in a considerable improvement of ferritin, transferrin saturation and symptoms at 30-day follow-up. In conclusion, ID is common in TAVI patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcome after TAVI. Correction of ID with intravenous iron seems feasible in contemporary TAVI patients. Whether this reduces transfusion rates and impacts clinical outcome after TAVI remains to be investigated in future prospective trials.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 40(21): 1664-1666, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152549
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2932-2942, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on coronary artery disease (CAD) and investigated the genetic relationship to CV and non-CV diseases with reported CAD comorbidity. METHODS: This study examined 425,196 UK Biobank participants to determine a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 300 CAD associated variants (CAD-GRS). This score was associated with 22 traits, including risk factors, diseases secondary to CAD, as well as comorbid and non-CV conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed in individuals free from CAD or stable angina diagnosis. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.29) and hypertension (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.12) were strongly associated with the CAD-GRS, which indicated that the score contained variants predisposing to these conditions. However, the CAD-GRS was also significant in patients with CAD who were free of CAD risk factors (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.44). The study observed significant associations between the CAD-GRS and peripheral arterial disease (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.32), abdominal aortic aneurysms (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.37), and stroke (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), which remained significant in sensitivity analyses that suggested shared genetic predisposition. The score was also associated with heart failure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.29), atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), and premature death (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06). These associations were abolished in sensitivity analyses that indicated that they were secondary to prevalent CAD. Finally, an inverse association was observed between the score and migraine headaches (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A wide spectrum of CV conditions, including premature death, might develop consecutively or in parallel with CAD for the same genetic roots. In conditions like heart failure, the study found evidence that the CAD-GRS could be used to stratify patients with no or limited genetic overlap with CAD risk. Increased genetic predisposition to CAD was inversely associated with migraine headaches.

12.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(9): 1539-1545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226721

RESUMO

Despite dual antiplatelet therapy patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continue to experience periprocedural ischemic events. In addition, all currently used antithrombotic drugs increase the bleeding risk. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for antithrombotic strategies with improved efficacy and no increase in bleeding. Revacept is a novel, lesion-directed antithrombotic drug that does not interfere with the function of circulating platelets. This dimeric fusion protein of the extracellular domain of glycoprotein VI (the major platelet collagen receptor) and the human Fc-fragment inhibits collagen-mediated platelet adhesion and subsequent aggregation at the site of vascular injury. The randomized, double-blinded, phase II ISAR-PLASTER trial is based on extensive preclinical evaluation of Revacept and a favorable first-in-man trial. A total of 332 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI will be randomized to either Revacept 160 mg, Revacept 80 mg, or placebo administered as single intravenous infusion directly before the intervention, on top of standard dual antiplatelet therapy and either heparin or bivalirudin, based on local practice and current guidelines. The primary endpoint is the composite of death or myocardial injury (defined as increase in high sensitivity troponin T ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) at 48 hours. The safety endpoint is bleeding of class 2 or higher according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 30 days. This phase II randomized, double blind trial will assess for the first time the efficacy and safety of Revacept-a lesion-directed inhibitor of platelet adhesion-in patients undergoing elective PCI.

13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 496: 55-61, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the association of ALT with the prognosis of patients with CAD. METHODS: The study included 9523 patients with angiography-proven CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Baseline ALT activity measurements were available for analysis in all patients. The primary outcome was 3-year cardiac mortality. RESULTS: Patients were divided into three groups: a group with ALT within the 1st tertile (ALT 2.0 U/L to ≤17.0 U/L; n = 3276 patients), a group with ALT within the 2nd tertile (ALT >17.0 U/L to ≤26.0 U/L; n = 3075 patients) and a group with ALT within 3rd tertile (>26 U/L to ≤50.0 U/L; n = 3172 patients). Cardiac death (primary outcome) occurred in 441 patients: 201 (7.1%), 126 (4.7%) and 114 (4.0%) of these occurring in patients in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd ALT tertiles, respectively (with percentages representing Kaplan-Meier estimates of 3-year cardiac mortality); adjusted hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.85, P = 0.006 calculated for 1 unit decrement in the logarithmic scale of ALT. The multivariable model for cardiac mortality with baseline variables without ALT had a C-statistic of 0.827 [0.801-0.853], P < 0.001, which increased to 0.832 [0.806-0.857], P < 0.001 after incorporation of ALT (P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CAD, ALT was inversely and independently associated with the risk of 3-year cardiac mortality. Low ALT may reflect cardiovascular risk that is poorly mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228190

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be influenced by a common allele in guanylate cyclase GUCY1A3, which has been shown to modify platelet function and increase CVD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated whether homozygotes of the GUCY1A3 rs7692387 risk (G) allele benefited from aspirin in two long-term, randomized placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in primary CVD prevention: the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294) and a myocardial infarction (MI, N = 550) and stroke (N = 382) case-control set from the Physician's Health Study (PHS, N = 22 071). Bleeding risk was evaluated in the WGHS. In the placebo group of the WGHS, the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele was confirmed to increase CVD risk [hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; P = 0.01]. Random-effects meta-analysis of the WGHS and PHS revealed that aspirin reduced CVD events among risk allele homozygotes [G/G: odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03] but increased CVD events among non-risk allele carriers (e.g. G/A: OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03) thus implying an interaction between genotype stratum and aspirin intake (Pinteraction = 0.01). Bleeding associated with aspirin increased in all genotype groups, with higher risks in heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: In two randomized placebo-controlled trials in the setting of primary prevention, aspirin reduced the incidence of CVD events in individuals homozygous for the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele, whereas heterozygote individuals had more events when taking aspirin.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2413-2420, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

16.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182269

RESUMO

AIM: Psoas muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) is a proposed marker of frailty associated with mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We assessed the impact of psoas CSA on medium-term mortality over 5 years in a large cohort, adjusted for pre-procedural variables. METHOD: This single-centre registry-derived analysis assessed 1,731 consecutive TAVI patients between 2007 and 31 April 2015 with available abdominal computed tomography scans. Sex-stratified, height-adjusted psoas CSA was measured mid-body of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Kaplan-Meier survival distributions across psoas CSA quartiles were compared. Cox and logistic regression models were used to assess baseline variables associated with the primary outcome, which was mortality within 5 years. RESULTS: Median age was 81 years (interquartile range, 77 - 85); 52.5% were women. The primary end point occurred in 555 patients over a mean follow-up of 775 days. Lower psoas CSA quartile patients were older, had a lower body mass index, lower creatinine clearance, and lower rates of previous cardiac surgery, with higher rates of diabetes, coronary artery disease, pacemaker, anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and higher European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation. Unadjusted survival by psoas CSA quartile was significantly different in men (log rank p=0.041) but not women (p=0.099). In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariate analysis, psoas CSA quartiles were not significantly associated with mortality. Hypoalbuminaemia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 - 2.87 [p<0.001]) and increasing age (HR, 1.03 per year; 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.05 [p=0.002]) were associated with increased risk; female sex (HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.51 - 0.78 [p<0.001]), and hypercholesterolaemia (HR, 0.67; 95%, CI 0.54 0.83 [p<0.001]) with reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Psoas CSA was not significantly associated with mortality after adjusting for pre-procedural variables. Hypoalbuminaemia, sex, hypercholesterolaemia, and age were significantly associated with mortality after TAVI.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2946-2957, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants currently known to affect coronary artery disease (CAD) risk explain less than one-quarter of disease heritability. The heritability contribution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in CAD, which are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the heritability contributions of single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting gene expression (eSNPs) in GRNs causally linked to CAD. METHODS: Seven vascular and metabolic tissues collected in 2 independent genetics-of-gene-expression studies of patients with CAD were used to identify eSNPs and to infer coexpression networks. To construct GRNs with causal relations to CAD, the prior information of eSNPs in the coexpression networks was used in a Bayesian algorithm. Narrow-sense CAD heritability conferred by the GRNs was calculated from individual-level genotype data from 9 European genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (13,612 cases, 13,758 control cases). RESULTS: The authors identified and replicated 28 independent GRNs active in CAD. The genetic variation in these networks contributed to 10.0% of CAD heritability beyond the 22% attributable to risk loci identified by GWAS. GRNs in the atherosclerotic arterial wall (n = 7) and subcutaneous or visceral abdominal fat (n = 9) were most strongly implicated, jointly explaining 8.2% of CAD heritability. In all, these 28 GRNs (each contributing to >0.2% of CAD heritability) comprised 24 to 841 genes, whereof 1 to 28 genes had strong regulatory effects (key disease drivers) and harbored many relevant functions previously associated with CAD. The gene activity in these 28 GRNs also displayed strong associations with genetic and phenotypic cardiometabolic disease variations both in humans and mice, indicative of their pivotal roles as mediators of gene-environmental interactions in CAD. CONCLUSIONS: GRNs capture a major portion of genetic variance and contribute to heritability beyond that of genetic loci currently known to affect CAD risk. These networks provide a framework to identify novel risk genes/pathways and study molecular interactions within and across disease-relevant tissues leading to CAD.

18.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 180, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) displays circadian variability with the highest incidence in the morning hours. Data on whether the time-of-day at symptom onset affects infarct size or patients' long-term prognosis are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association of time-of-day at symptom onset with infarct size or long-term mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: This study included 1206 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. All patients underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi before and 7-14 days after PPCI. The co-primary endpoints were final infarct size on day 10 after STEMI and all-cause mortality at 5-year follow-up. Time-of-day at symptom onset of STEMI was categorized in 6-h intervals. RESULTS: In patients presenting from 0 to 6 h, 6 to 12 h, 12 to 18 h, and 18 to 24 h, the infarct sizes (median [25th-75th percentiles]) were 10.0 [3.0-24.7], 10.0 [3.0-24.0], 10.0 [3.0-22.0], and 9.0 [3.0-21.0] of the left ventricle, respectively (p = 0.87); the Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year all-cause mortality were 13.6%, 8.7%, 13.7% and 9.3%, respectively (log-rank test p = 0.30). After adjustment, time-of-day was not associated with infarct size (p ≥ 0.76 for comparisons with infarct size from reference [6-12 h] time interval) or 5-year all-cause mortality (p ≥ 0.25 for comparisons with mortality from reference [6-12 h] time interval). Time-of-day at symptom onset of STEMI was not associated with differences in the recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction 6 months after STEMI. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI, time-of-day at symptom onset was neither associated with scintigraphic infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction recovery at 6 months nor with 5-year mortality.

19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049679

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate 1-year outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the SAPIEN 3 (S3) prosthesis with emphasis on the composite endpoints "clinical efficacy after 30 days" and "time-related valve safety" proposed by the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred and two consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with the S3 were enrolled. Mean age was 81 ± 6 years, 43% were female and median logistic EuroSCORE I was 12% [8-19]. Device success was achieved in 93% (374/402) with moderate or severe paravalvular leakage (PVL) in 2%. At 1 year all-cause mortality was 8.9% [95% CI 6.4-12.2] and new permanent pacemaker implantation rate was 16% [95% CI 12.7-20.4]. The composite endpoint time-related valve safety occurred in 29% with structural valve deterioration, defined as elevated gradients or more than moderate PVL, occurring in 13%. The clinical efficacy endpoint after 30 days was observed in 37% of patients with the main contributor symptom worsening with New York Heart Association functional class III + in 17% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, VARC-2-defined composite endpoints at 1 year are reported and reveal a considerable proportion of patients experiencing the endpoint of time-related valve safety (29%) and clinical efficacy after 30 days (37%).

20.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2432-2440, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145798

RESUMO

AIMS: The antiplatelet treatment strategy providing optimal balance between thrombotic and bleeding risks in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. We prospectively compared the efficacy of ticagrelor and aspirin after CABG. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomly assigned in double-blind fashion patients scheduled for CABG to either ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or 100 mg aspirin (1:1) once daily. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization, and stroke 12 months after CABG. The main safety endpoint was based on the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium classification, defined as BARC ≥4 for periprocedural and hospital stay-related bleedings and BARC ≥3 for post-discharge bleedings. The study was prematurely halted after recruitment of 1859 out of 3850 planned patients. Twelve months after CABG, the primary endpoint occurred in 86 out of 931 patients (9.7%) in the ticagrelor group and in 73 out of 928 patients (8.2%) in the aspirin group [hazard ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.62; P = 0.28]. All-cause mortality (ticagrelor 2.5% vs. aspirin 2.6%, hazard ratio 0.96, CI 0.53-1.72; P = 0.89), cardiovascular death (ticagrelor 1.2% vs. aspirin 1.4%, hazard ratio 0.85, CI 0.38-1.89; P = 0.68), MI (ticagrelor 2.1% vs. aspirin 3.4%, hazard ratio 0.63, CI 0.36-1.12, P = 0.12), and stroke (ticagrelor 3.1% vs. 2.6%, hazard ratio 1.21, CI 0.70-2.08; P = 0.49), showed no significant difference between the ticagrelor and aspirin group. The main safety endpoint was also not significantly different (ticagrelor 3.7% vs. aspirin 3.2%, hazard ratio 1.17, CI 0.71-1.92; P = 0.53). CONCLUSION: In this prematurely terminated and thus underpowered randomized trial of ticagrelor vs. aspirin in patients after CABG no significant differences in major cardiovascular events or major bleeding could be demonstrated. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01755520.

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