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2.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address to what extent central hemodynamic measurements, improve risk stratification, and determine outcome-based diagnostic thresholds, we constructed the International Database of Central Arterial Properties for Risk Stratification (IDCARS), allowing a participant-level meta-analysis. The purpose of this article was to describe the characteristics of IDCARS participants and to highlight research perspectives. METHODS: Longitudinal or cross-sectional cohort studies with central blood pressure measured with the SphygmoCor devices and software were included. RESULTS: The database included 10930 subjects (54.8% women; median age 46.0 years) from thirteen studies in Europe, Africa, Asia and South America. The prevalence of office hypertension was 4446 (40.1%), of which 2713 (61.0%) were treated, and of diabetes mellitus was 629 (5.8%). The peripheral and central systolic/diastolic blood pressure averaged 129.5/78.7 mm Hg and 118.2/79.7 mm Hg, respectively. Mean aortic pulse wave velocity was 7.3 meter per seconds. Among 6871 participants enrolled in 9 longitudinal studies, the median follow-up was 4.2 years (5th-95th percentile interval, 1.3-12.2 years). During 38957 person-years of follow-up, 339 participants experienced a composite cardiovascular event and 212 died, 67 of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: IDCARS will provide a unique opportunity to investigate hypotheses on central hemodynamic measurements that could not reliably be studied in individual studies. The results of these analyses might inform guidelines and be of help to clinicians involved in the management of patients with suspected or established hypertension.

3.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385688

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) is a global health challenge. Isometric resistance training (IRT) has demonstrated antihypertensive effects, but safety data are not available, thereby limiting its recommendation for clinical use. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing IRT to controls in adults with elevated BP (systolic ≥130 mmHg/diastolic ≥85 mmHg). This review provides an update to office BP estimations and is the first to investigate 24-h ambulatory BP, central BP, and safety. Data were analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis. We assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the quality of evidence with GRADE. Twenty-four trials were included (n = 1143; age = 56 ± 9 years, 56% female). IRT resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in office systolic (-6.97 mmHg, 95% CI -8.77 to -5.18, p < 0.0001) and office diastolic BP (-3.86 mmHg, 95% CI -5.31 to -2.41, p < 0.0001). Novel findings included reductions in central systolic (-7.48 mmHg, 95% CI -14.89 to -0.07, p = 0.035), central diastolic (-3.75 mmHg, 95% CI -6.38 to -1.12, p = 0.005), and 24-h diastolic (-2.39 mmHg, 95% CI -4.28 to -0.40, p = 0.02) but not 24-h systolic BP (-2.77 mmHg, 95% CI -6.80 to 1.25, p = 0.18). These results are very low/low certainty with high heterogeneity. There was no significant increase in the risk of IRT, risk ratio (1.12, 95% CI 0.47 to 2.68, p = 0.8), or the risk difference (1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03, p = 0.13). This means that there is one adverse event per 38,444 bouts of IRT. IRT appears safe and may cause clinically relevant reductions in BP (office, central BP, and 24-h diastolic). High-quality trials are required to improve confidence in these findings. PROSPERO (CRD42020201888); OSF ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/H58BZ ).

4.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381669

RESUMO

Background: The implications of city lockdown on vital signs during the COVID-19 outbreak are unknown. Objective: We longitudinally tracked vital signs using data from wearable sensors and determined associations with anxiety and depression. Methods: We selected all participants in the HUAWEI Heart Study from Wuhan and four nearby large provincial capital cities (Guangzhou, Chongqing, Hangzhou, Zhengzhou) and extracted all data from 26 December 2019 (one month before city lockdown) to 21 February 2020. Sleep duration and quality, daily steps, oxygen saturation and heart rate were collected on a daily basis. We compared the vital signs before and after the lockdown using segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time series. The depression and anxiety cases were defined as scores ≥8 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression and anxiety subscales [HADS-D and HADS-A] in 727 participants who finished the survey. Results: We included 19,960 participants (mean age 36 yrs, 90% men). Compared with pre-lockdown, resting heart rate dropped immediately by 1.1 bpm after city lockdown (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.8, -0.4). Sleep duration increased by 0.5 hour (95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) but deep sleep ratio decreased by 0.9% (95% CI: -1.2, -0.6). Daily steps decreased by 3352 steps (95% CI: -4333, -2370). Anxiety and depression existed in 26% and 17% among 727 available participants, respectively, and associated with longer sleep duration (0.2 and 0.1 hour, both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Lockdown of Wuhan in China was associated with an adverse vital signs profile (reduced physical activity, heart rate, and sleep quality, but increased sleep duration). Wearable devices in combination with mobile-based apps may be useful to monitor both physical and mental health. Clinical trial registration: The trial is registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) website (ChiCTR-OOC-17014138).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Política Pública , Sono , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinais Vitais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
5.
Blood Press ; 30(5): 269-281, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes cause chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (DVD) as forerunners of disability and death. Home blood pressure telemonitoring (HTM) and urinary peptidomic profiling (UPP) are technologies enabling prevention. METHODS: UPRIGHT-HTM (Urinary Proteomics Combined with Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring for Health Care Reform [NCT04299529]) is an investigator-initiated 5-year clinical trial with patient-centred design, which will randomise 1148 patients to be recruited in Europe, sub-Saharan Africa and South America. During the whole study, HTM data will be collected and freely accessible for patients and caregivers. The UPP, measured at enrolment only, will be communicated early during follow-up to 50% of patients and their caregivers (intervention), but only at trial closure in 50% (control). The hypothesis is that early knowledge of the UPP risk profile will lead to more rigorous risk factor management and result in benefit. Eligible patients, aged 55-75 years old, are asymptomatic, but have ≥5 CKD- or DVD-related risk factors, preferably including hypertension, type-2 diabetes, or both. The primary endpoint is a composite of new-onset intermediate and hard cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Demonstrating that combining UPP with HTM is feasible in a multicultural context and defining the molecular signatures of early CKD and DVD are secondary endpoints. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The expected outcome is that application of UPP on top of HTM will be superior to HTM alone in the prevention of CKD and DVD and associated complications and that UPP allows shifting emphasis from treating to preventing disease, thereby empowering patients.

6.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(9): 615-616, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230648
7.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172825

RESUMO

Exogenous estrogens and progestins may affect the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Changes in ventricular blood volume are associated with increased secretion of N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which may also be affected by hormonal contraceptives. In this study, we aimed to compare components of the RAAS and NT-proBNP between groups using different hormonal contraceptives, including the combination pill, the injection or implant, and controls (no contraception) in black and white women of fertile age (20 - 30 years). Secondly, we determined whether blood pressure and NT-proBNP are associated with the RAAS components. We included 397 black and white women not using contraceptives, 120 using the combination pill, and 103 receiving an injection/implant. RAAS Triple-A analysis was carried out with LC-MS/MS quantification, and blood pressure measurements (ABPM) taken over 24 h. We found that serum aldosterone was higher (475.7 vs. 249.2 pmol/L; p < 0.001) in the combination pill group than in the no contraception group of white women. The aldosterone-angiotensin II ratio (AA2) was higher (5.4 vs. 2.5; p < 0.001) in the combination pill group than in the no contraception group. In the black women using the combination pill, we found a borderline-positive and borderline-negative association between 24-h systolic blood pressure and NT-proBNP with equilibrium (eq) Ang II, respectively. In white women using the combination pill, only CRP contributed positively and independently to NT-proBNP. To conclude, activation of RAAS by different hormonal contraceptives may increase future risk for the development of hypertension in young black and white women.

9.
Microvasc Res ; 137: 104180, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015274

RESUMO

AIMS: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), traditionally associated with fibrinolysis, is increasingly implicated in impaired vascular function. However, studies on its association with microvascular function are limited to the cutaneous and coronary microvascular beds in older and diseased individuals. To better understand its potential involvement in the early stages of disease development, we investigated the associations of retinal vasodilatory responses to flicker light with PAI-1 activity (PAI-1act) in young and healthy individuals. METHODS: We included healthy Black and White women and men (n = 518; aged 20-30 years), and measured plasma PAI-1act and retinal vasodilatory responses to flicker light provocation. We also collected demographic and lifestyle data, measured blood pressure, anthropometry, blood lipids, inflammatory and other biomarkers. RESULTS: In multivariate regression analyses, maximal retinal venular dilation associated independently and inversely with PAI-1act (adj. R2 = 0.11; ß = -0.15; p = 0.001) in the total group. In exploratory subgroup analyses, this association remained in White women (adj. R2 = 0.07; ß = -0.23; p = 0.005), and was more robust with younger age and lower blood pressure and in non-smokers, but also with greater central adiposity, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inflammation (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that in young individuals, PAI-1 may already be associated with subclinical microvascular dysfunction.

10.
Biomarkers ; 26(6): 508-516, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938341

RESUMO

To reduce cardiovascular risks imposed by Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and ADAMTS13 from young ages, knowledge on health behaviours that may affect their concentrations is essential. We therefore determined whether circulating vWF antigen and ADAMTS13 associate with health behaviours. We included 1196 black and white healthy adults aged 20-30 years and used questionnaires for socio-economic, tobacco and alcohol use data. vWF:Ag was measured from citrated samples and ADAMTS13, cotinine and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) from serum. Salt intake was estimated from 24-hour urine and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Black adults had higher vWF:Ag and lower ADAMTS13 levels compared to whites (all p < 0.001). In multiple regression analyses in the total group, vWF:Ag associated positively with BMI (p = 0.037), while ADAMTS13 associated negatively with BMI (p = 0.016) and cotinine (p = 0.029); and positively with GGT (p = 0.002). When exploring within each ethnic group, vWF:Ag associated positively with estimated salt intake (p = 0.043) only in blacks. In whites, vWF:Ag associated positively with BMI (p = 0.023) while ADAMTS13 associated positively with GGT (p = 0.003) and negatively with cotinine (p = 0.041). Young black adults may have an increased thrombotic risk due to higher vWF and lower ADAMTS13. The ethnic-specific associations observed may have implications for public health initiatives to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2023-2032, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Africa, but some obese individuals maintain cardiometabolic health. The aims were to track metabolically healthy overweight or obesity (MHO) over 10 years in African adults and to identify factors associated with a transition to metabolically unhealthy overweight or obesity (MUO). METHODS AND RESULTS: The participants were the South African cohort of the international Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological study. From the baseline data of 1937 adults, 649 women and 274 men were followed for 10 years. The combined overweight and obesity prevalence of men (19.2%-23.8%, p = .02) and women (58%-64.7%, p < .001), and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in all participants (25.4%-40.2%, p < .001) increased significantly. More than a quarter (26.2%) of the women and 10.9% of men were MHO at baseline, 11.4% of women and 5.1% of men maintained MHO over 10 years, while similar proportions (12.3% of women, 4.7% of men) transitioned to MUO. Female sex, age, and total fat intake were positively associated with a transition to MUO over 10 years, while physical activity was negatively associated with the transition. HIV positive participants were more likely to be MHO at follow-up than their HIV negative counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: One in two black adults with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 maintained MHO over 10 years, while a similar proportion transitioned into MUO. Interventions should focus on lower fat intakes and higher physical activity to prevent the transition to MUO.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/diagnóstico , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Saúde da População Rural , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da População Urbana
12.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804132

RESUMO

It is unknown whether a healthy diet or unhealthy diet combined with specific supplements may jointly contribute to incidence of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We included 69,990 participants from the 45 and Up Study who completed both baseline (2006-2009) and follow-up (2012-2015) surveys. We found that compared to participants with a long-term healthy diet and no supplement consumption, those with a long-term healthy diet combined with multivitamins and minerals (MVM) or fish oil consumption were associated with a lower incidence of CVD (p < 0.001); whilst those with an unhealthy diet and no MVM or fish oil consumption were associated with a higher risk of obesity (p < 0.05). Compared to participants with a long-term healthy diet and no calcium consumption, the combination of a long-term healthy diet and calcium consumption was linked to a lower risk of CVD (IRR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78; 0.96). In conclusion, a long-term healthy diet combined with MVM or fish oil was associated with a lower incidence of CVD. Participants who maintained a healthy diet and used calcium supplements were associated with a lower incidence of obesity. However, these associations were not found among those with an unhealthy diet, despite taking similar supplements.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925056

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants face nutrition and lifestyle changes upon arrival in a host country. The shift in diet and lifestyle reflects post-migration acculturation and could predispose migrants to nutrition- and lifestyle- related chronic diseases. A mixed-methods systematic review of published studies and the grey literature on post-migration nutrition and lifestyle transition among SSA migrants will be undertaken. Studies published in English and conducted from 2000 to 2020 using quantitative and/or qualitative methods will be included. Ten bibliographic databases will be searched: Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Informit and Web of Science. Data extraction will be informed by the Cochrane PROGRESS-Plus framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute manual. The quality of the included studies will be appraised for risk of bias using validated tools. An integrated approach to quantitative and qualitative data synthesis through data transformation will be undertaken, and a narrative synthesis of the findings will be provided. This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines and provides insight into the scope and parameters of the systematic review to be conducted. The aim of the review is to evaluate the association between post-migration nutrition and lifestyle transition and the risk of developing chronic diseases among SSA migrants in Australia. This review will provide insight into possible areas for interventions to improve the health of migrants. Systematic Review Registration: The protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews CRD42020206560.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Austrália , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 808-826, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793340

RESUMO

In recent decades low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been witnessing a significant shift toward raised blood pressure; yet in LMICs, only 1 in 3 are aware of their hypertension status, and ≈8% have their blood pressure controlled. This rising burden widens the inequality gap, contributes to massive economic hardships of patients and carers, and increases costs to the health system, facing challenges such as low physician-to-patient ratios and lack of access to medicines. Established risk factors include unhealthy diet (high salt and low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and obesity. Emerging risk factors include pollution (air, water, noise, and light), urbanization, and a loss of green space. Risk factors that require further in-depth research are low birth weight and social and commercial determinants of health. Global actions include the HEARTS technical package and the push for universal health care. Promising research efforts highlight that successful interventions are feasible in LMICs. These include creation of health-promoting environments by introducing salt-reduction policies and sugar and alcohol tax; implementing cost-effective screening and simplified treatment protocols to mitigate treatment inertia; pooled procurement of low-cost single-pill combination therapy to improve adherence; increasing access to telehealth and mHealth (mobile health); and training health care staff, including community health workers, to strengthen team-based care. As the blood pressure trajectory continues creeping upward in LMICs, contextual research on effective, safe, and cost-effective interventions is urgent. New emergent risk factors require novel solutions. Lowering blood pressure in LMICs requires urgent global political and scientific priority and action.

15.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 813-814, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649285
16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(7): 1418-1427, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Circulating growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-responsive cytokine that increases in older individuals with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and obesity. To address potential targets in primary prevention, we aimed to determine whether body weight, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA) and leptin associate with GDF-15 in young underweight, lean and overweight/obese (ow/ob) adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 1189 adults aged 20-30 years. We grouped participants as underweight (BMI ≤ 18 kg/m2, n = 59), lean (BMI > 18 kg/m2 and ≤25 kg/m2; n = 616) or ow/ob (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; n = 514) and determined serum GDF-15 and leptin levels. Body composition measurements, leptin and blood pressure readings were higher in the ow/ob group compared to the underweight and lean groups (all p < 0.0001). GDF-15 was higher in the underweight group compared to the lean and combined ow/ob groups (p = 0.041), and higher in obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) compared to overweight (p = 0.002) individuals. In multiple regression analysis, we found positive associations (all p ≤ 0.020) of body weight (adj. R2 = 0.398; ß = 0.11), waist circumference (adj. R2 = 0.271; ß = 0.11), waist/height ratio (adj. R2 = 0.168; ß = 0.14), BMI (adj. R2 = 0.263; ß = 0.14), BSA (adj. R2 = 0.508; ß = 0.083) and leptin (adj. R2 = 0.622; ß = 0.10) with GDF-15 in the ow/ob group. However, waist circumference (adj. R2 = 0.536; ß = -0.45), waist/height ratio (adj. R2 = 0.471; ß = -0.51) and leptin (adj. R2 = 434; ß = -0.25) associated inversely with GDF-15 in the underweight group (all p < 0.050). CONCLUSION: Our findings may suggest that in young adults with either underweight or excess adiposity, increased GDF-15 levels may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular health risks associated with pro-inflammation.

17.
J Pediatr ; 234: 158-163.e2, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular health in South African adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Circulating Hcy concentrations of 172 South African adolescents (105 girls, ages 13 to <18 years) were measured. Anthropometric and cardiovascular factors were also included and cross-sectionally analyzed through general linear models. RESULTS: Hcy correlated positively with body weight (P = .03; after adjusting for multiple testing, it was not regarded as significant) and muscle mass (P = .01), but negatively with fibrinogen concentrations (P = .001). Across Hcy tertiles, blood pressure produced approximating U-shaped curves, with differences between the middle and upper tertiles (all P < .02). Forty percent of the adolescents had elevated blood pressure, of whom 37% fell in the lowest and 38% in the highest Hcy tertiles. Hcy differed between the sexes (with boys having higher Hcy), but not between subgroups based on puberty, weight, stunting, smoking, or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Both high and low Hcy could be early contributing risk factors to cardiovascular health. The associations between Hcy and blood pressure suggest that dietary and lifestyle manipulation, to achieve the optimal range of Hcy, may be beneficial in preventing Hcy-related hypertension in adulthood. The inverse relationship between Hcy and fibrinogen remains to be clarified.

18.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 806-812, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517681

RESUMO

High systolic blood pressure (BP) is the single leading modifiable risk factor for death worldwide. Accurate BP measurement is the cornerstone for screening, diagnosis, and management of hypertension. Inaccurate BP measurement is a leading patient safety challenge. A recent World Health Organization report has outlined the technical specifications for automated noninvasive clinical BP measurement with cuff. The report is applicable to ambulatory, home, and office devices used for clinical purposes. The report recommends that for routine clinical purposes, (1) automated devices be used, (2) an upper arm cuff be used, and (3) that only automated devices that have passed accepted international accuracy standards (eg, the International Organization for Standardization 81060-2; 2018 protocol) be used. Accurate measurement also depends on standardized patient preparation and measurement technique and a quiet, comfortable setting. The World Health Organization report provides steps for governments, manufacturers, health care providers, and their organizations that need to be taken to implement the report recommendations and to ensure accurate BP measurement for clinical purposes. Although, health and scientific organizations have had similar recommendations for many years, the World Health Organization as the leading governmental health organization globally provides a potentially synergistic nongovernment government opportunity to enhance the accuracy of clinical BP assessment.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Braço/fisiopatologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Circulation ; 143(18): 1735-1749, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease experience a high burden of hypertension, but the magnitude and consistency of blood pressure (BP) lowering with canagliflozin in this population are uncertain. Whether the effects of canagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes vary by baseline BP or BP-lowering therapy is also unknown. METHODS: The CREDENCE trial (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) randomized people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. In a post hoc analysis, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin on systolic BP across subgroups defined by baseline systolic BP, number of BP-lowering drug classes, and history of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (BP ≥130/80 mm Hg while receiving ≥3 classes of BP-lowering drugs, including a diuretic). We also assessed whether effects on clinical outcomes differed across these subgroups. RESULTS: The trial included 4401 participants, of whom 3361 (76.4%) had baseline systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg, and 1371 (31.2%) had resistant hypertension. By week 3, canagliflozin reduced systolic BP by 3.50 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.27 to -2.72), an effect maintained over the duration of the trial, with similar reductions across BP and BP-lowering therapy subgroups (all P interaction ≥0.05). Canagliflozin also reduced the need for initiation of additional BP-lowering agents during the trial (hazard ratio, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.61-0.75]). The effect of canagliflozin on kidney failure, doubling of serum creatinine, or death caused by kidney or cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.59-0.82]) was consistent across BP and BP-lowering therapy subgroups (all P interaction ≥0.35), as were effects on other key kidney, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, canagliflozin lowers systolic BP across all BP-defined subgroups and reduces the need for additional BP-lowering agents. These findings support use of canagliflozin for end-organ protection and as an adjunct BP-lowering therapy in people with chronic kidney disease. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02065791.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
20.
Hypertens Res ; 44(7): 840-849, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564179

RESUMO

Raised blood pressure (BP) causes pathophysiological cardiovascular changes resulting in target organ damage. Although ambulatory and central BP relate more strongly to outcomes than clinical brachial BP in the elderly population, it is unknown which measure of BP is most strongly associated with markers of organ damage in younger populations. We compared the strength of associations between different BPs and measures of subclinical organ damage and investigated whether ethnic differences exist between these associations. The design was a cross-sectional analysis of the African-PREDICT study, including young black and white men and women (aged 20-30, N = 1202). We obtained clinic, ambulatory, and central BP readings, as well as measures of subclinical organ damage: central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) from fundus images, echocardiography to determine left ventricular mass index (LVMi), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) determined from spot urine samples. Overall, weak correlations were evident between CIMT, ACR, and BP, whereas CRAE, LVMi, and PWV correlated strongly with BP. In the total group, clinic brachial BP had stronger associations with CRAE, LVMi, and PWV (all p < 0.001) than ambulatory and central BP. Although the ethnic groups showed similar correlations between CRAE, LVMi, CIMT, and the various BPs, PWV correlated more strongly with ambulatory systolic BP (p < 0.001) in white participants. In young healthy adults, clinic brachial BP correlated more strongly with measures of early target organ damage than central or ambulatory BP. No differences were observed between correlations of BP and measures of target organ damage in the two ethnic groups.

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