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1.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed objective definitions of extreme phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using a multivariate approach, and demonstrate their utility for identifying characteristics that confer predisposition towards or protection against OSA in a new prospective sample. METHODS: In a large international sample, we calculated race-specific liability scores from a weighted logistic regression including age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Extreme Cases were defined as individuals with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 events/hour, but low likelihood of OSA based on age, gender and BMI (liability scores >90th percentile). Similarly, Extreme Controls were individuals with AHI<5, but high likelihood of OSA (liability scores <10th percentile). Definitions were applied to a prospective sample from the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC) and differences in photography-based craniofacial and intraoral phenotypes evaluated. RESULTS: Retrospective data included 81,338 individuals. We identified 4,168 Extreme Cases and 1,432 Extreme Controls using liability scores. Extreme Cases were younger (43.1±14.7 years), overweight (28.6±6.8 kg/m2), and predominantly female (71.1%). Extreme Controls were older (53.8±14.1 years), obese (34.0±8.1 kg/m2), and predominantly male (65.8%). These objective definitions identified 29 Extreme Cases and 87 Extreme Controls among 1,424 SAGIC participants with photography-based phenotyping; comparisons suggest greater cervicomental angle increases risk for OSA in the absence of clinical risk factors and smaller facial widths are protective in the presence of clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This objective definition can be applied in sleep centers throughout the world to consistently define OSA extreme phenotypes for future studies on genetic, anatomic and physiological pathways to OSA.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 228, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed breast cancer mortality in older versus younger women according to race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), and health insurance status. METHODS: The study included female breast cancer cases 18 years of age and older, diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 in the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to generate hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer specific deaths and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for older (60+ years) versus younger (< 60 years) patients separately by race/ethnicity, nSES, and health insurance status. RESULTS: Risk of dying from breast cancer was higher in older than younger patients after multivariable adjustment, which varied in magnitude by race/ethnicity (P-interaction< 0.0001). Comparing older to younger patients, higher mortality differences were shown for non-Hispanic White (HR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.36-1.51) and Hispanic women (HR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.26-1.50) and lower differences for non-Hispanic Blacks (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (HR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.31). HRs comparing older to younger patients varied by insurance status (P-interaction< 0.0001), with largest mortality differences observed for privately insured women (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.43-1.59) and lowest in Medicaid/military/other public insurance (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26). No age differences were shown for uninsured women. HRs comparing older to younger patients were similar across nSES strata. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence for the continued disparity in Black-White breast cancer mortality, which is magnified in younger women. Moreover, insurance status continues to play a role in breast cancer mortality, with uninsured women having the highest risk for breast cancer death, regardless of age.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(10): 1059-1069, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin is a key pathway of survival and therapeutic resistance in breast cancer. We evaluated the pan-Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in combination with standard therapy in patients with high-risk early-stage breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: I-SPY 2 is a multicenter, phase II, open-label, adaptively randomized neoadjuvant platform trial that screens experimental therapies and efficiently identifies potential predictive biomarker signatures. Patients are categorized by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hormone receptor (HR), and MammaPrint statuses in a 2 × 2 × 2 layout. Patients within each of these 8 biomarker subtypes are adaptively randomly assigned to one of several experimental therapies, including MK-2206, or control. Therapies are evaluated for 10 biomarker signatures, each of which is a combination of these subtypes. The primary end point is pathologic complete response (pCR). A therapy graduates with one or more of these signatures if and when it has an 85% Bayesian predictive probability of success in a hypothetical phase III trial, adjusting for biomarker covariates. Patients in the current report received standard taxane- and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant therapy without (control) or with oral MK-2206 135 mg/week. RESULTS: MK-2206 graduated with 94 patients and 57 concurrently randomly assigned controls in 3 graduation signatures: HR-negative/HER2-positive, HR-negative, and HER2-positive. Respective Bayesian mean covariate-adjusted pCR rates and percentage probability that MK-2206 is superior to control were 0.48:0.29 (97%), 0.62:0.36 (99%), and 0.46:0.26 (94%). In exploratory analyses, MK-2206 evinced a numerical improvement in event-free survival in its graduating signatures. The most significant grade 3-4 toxicity was rash (14% maculopapular, 8.6% acneiform). CONCLUSION: The Akt inhibitor MK-2206 combined with standard neoadjuvant therapy resulted in higher estimated pCR rates in HR-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. Although MK-2206 is not being further developed at this time, this class of agents remains of clinical interest.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053137

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 25% of patients with early-stage breast cancer who receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy experience a recurrence within 5 years. Improvements in therapy are greatly needed. Objective: To determine if pembrolizumab plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in early-stage breast cancer is likely to be successful in a 300-patient, confirmatory randomized phase 3 neoadjuvant clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: The I-SPY2 study is an ongoing open-label, multicenter, adaptively randomized phase 2 platform trial for high-risk, stage II/III breast cancer, evaluating multiple investigational arms in parallel. Standard NACT serves as the common control arm; investigational agent(s) are added to this backbone. Patients with ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-negative breast cancer were eligible for randomization to pembrolizumab between November 2015 and November 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive taxane- and anthracycline-based NACT with or without pembrolizumab, followed by definitive surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR). Secondary end points were residual cancer burden (RCB) and 3-year event-free and distant recurrence-free survival. Investigational arms graduated when demonstrating an 85% predictive probability of success in a hypothetical confirmatory phase 3 trial. Results: Of the 250 women included in the final analysis, 181 were randomized to the standard NACT control group (median [range] age, 47 [24.77] years). Sixty-nine women (median [range] age, 50 [27-71] years) were randomized to 4 cycles of pembrolizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel followed by AC; 40 hormone receptor (HR)-positive and 29 triple-negative. Pembrolizumab graduated in all 3 biomarker signatures studied. Final estimated pCR rates, evaluated in March 2017, were 44% vs 17%, 30% vs 13%, and 60% vs 22% for pembrolizumab vs control in the ERBB2-negative, HR-positive/ERBB2-negative, and triple-negative cohorts, respectively. Pembrolizumab shifted the RCB distribution to a lower disease burden for each cohort evaluated. Adverse events included immune-related endocrinopathies, notably thyroid abnormalities (13.0%) and adrenal insufficiency (8.7%). Achieving a pCR appeared predictive of long-term outcome, where patients with pCR following pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy had high event-free survival rates (93% at 3 years with 2.8 years' median follow-up). Conclusions and Relevance: When added to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pembrolizumab more than doubled the estimated pCR rates for both HR-positive/ERBB2-negative and triple-negative breast cancer, indicating that checkpoint blockade in women with early-stage, high-risk, ERBB2-negative breast cancer is highly likely to succeed in a phase 3 trial. Pembrolizumab was the first of 10 agents to graduate in the HR-positive/ERBB2-negative signature. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01042379.

5.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(2): 423-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of a nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM) program for improving weight loss and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) care among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: We now report its impact on arrhythmia outcomes in a subgroup of patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: Participating patients with obesity and/or need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA) underwent in-person consultation and monthly telephone calls with the nurse for up to 1 year. Arrhythmias were assessed by office ECGs and ≥2 wearable monitors. Outcomes, defined as Arrhythmia control (0-6 self-terminating recurrences, with ≤1 cardioversion for nonparoxysmal AF) and Freedom from arrhythmias (no recurrences on or off antiarrhythmic drugs), were compared at 1 year between patients undergoing catheter ablation who enrolled and declined RFM. RESULTS: Between 1 November 2016 and 1 April 2018, 195 patients enrolled and 196 declined RFM (body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.7 vs 34.3 ± 6.3 kg/m2 ; 50% vs 50% paroxysmal AF; P = NS). At 1 year, enrolled patients demonstrated significant weight loss (4.7% ± 5.3% vs 0.3% ± 4.4% in declined patients; P < .0001) and improved OSA care (78% [n = 43] of patients diagnosed with OSA began treatment). However, outcomes were similar between enrolled and declined patients undergoing ablation (arrhythmia control in 80% [n = 48] vs 79% [n = 38]; freedom from arrhythmia in 58% [n = 35] vs 71% [n = 34]; P = NS). CONCLUSION: Despite improving weight loss and OSA care, our nurse-led RFM program did not impact 1-year arrhythmia outcomes in patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(6): 718-727, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918559

RESUMO

Rationale: Obesity is the primary risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Tongue fat is increased in obese persons with OSA, and may explain the relationship between obesity and OSA. Weight loss improves OSA, but the mechanism is unknown.Objectives: To determine the effect of weight loss on upper airway anatomy in subjects with obesity and OSA. We hypothesized that weight loss would decrease soft tissue volumes and tongue fat, and that these changes would correlate with reductions in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI).Methods: A total of 67 individuals with obesity and OSA (AHI ≥ 10 events/h) underwent a sleep study and upper airway and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging before and after a weight loss intervention (intensive lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery). Airway sizes and soft tissue, tongue fat, and abdominal fat volumes were quantified. Associations between weight loss and changes in these structures, and relationships to AHI changes, were examined.Measurements and Main Results: Weight loss was significantly associated with reductions in tongue fat and pterygoid and total lateral wall volumes. Reductions in tongue fat were strongly correlated with reductions in AHI (Pearson's rho = 0.62, P < 0.0001); results remained after controlling for weight loss (Pearson's rho = 0.36, P = 0.014). Reduction in tongue fat volume was the primary upper airway mediator of the relationship between weight loss and AHI improvement.Conclusions: Weight loss reduced volumes of several upper airway soft tissues in subjects with obesity and OSA. Improved AHI with weight loss was mediated by reductions in tongue fat. New treatments that reduce tongue fat should be considered for patients with OSA.

7.
Sleep ; 43(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691827

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term safety and maintenance of efficacy of solriamfetol treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Participants with narcolepsy or OSA who completed a prior solriamfetol study were eligible. A 2-week titration period was followed by a maintenance phase (up to 50 weeks). Efficacy was assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Patient and Clinical Global Impression of Change (PGI-C and CGI-C, respectively). After approximately 6 months of treatment, a subgroup entered a 2-week placebo-controlled randomized withdrawal (RW) phase. Change in ESS from beginning to end of the RW phase was the primary endpoint; PGI-C and CGI-C were secondary endpoints. Safety was assessed throughout the study. RESULTS: In the maintenance phase, solriamfetol-treated participants demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements on ESS, PGI-C, and CGI-C. In the RW phase, least squares mean change on ESS was 1.6 in participants continuing solriamfetol versus 5.3 in participants switched to placebo (p < .0001). For both secondary endpoints, higher percentages of participants receiving placebo were reported as worse at the end of the RW phase versus solriamfetol (p < .0001). Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) with solriamfetol were headache, nausea, nasopharyngitis, insomnia, dry mouth, anxiety, decreased appetite, and upper respiratory tract infection; 27 (4.2%) participants experienced at least one serious TEAE, and 61 (9.5%) withdrew because of TEAEs. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated long-term maintenance of efficacy of solriamfetol under open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Safety profile of solriamfetol was consistent with previous 12-week studies; no new safety concerns were identified. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02348632.

8.
Sleep ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735957

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated differences in upper airway, soft tissues and craniofacial structures between Asians from China and Europeans from Iceland with OSA using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Airway sizes, soft tissue volumes and craniofacial dimensions were compared between Icelandic (N=108) and Chinese (N=57) patients with oxygen desaturation index (ODI)≥10 events/hour matched for age, gender and ODI. Mixed effects models adjusting for height or BMI and residual differences in age and ODI were utilized. RESULTS: In our matched sample, compared to Icelandic OSA patients, Chinese patients had smaller BMI (p<0.0001) and neck circumference (p=0.011). In covariate adjusted analyses, Chinese showed smaller retropalatal airway size (p≤0.002), and smaller combined soft tissues, tongue, fat pads and pterygoid (all p≤0.0001), but male Chinese demonstrated a larger soft palate volume (p≤0.001). For craniofacial dimensions, Chinese demonstrated bigger ANB angle (p≤0.0196), differently shaped mandibles, including shorter corpus length (p<0.0001) but longer ramus length (p<0.0001), and a wider (p<0.0001) and shallower (p≤0.0001) maxilla. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to Icelandic patients of similar age, gender and ODI, Chinese patients had smaller retropalatal airway and combined soft tissue, but bigger soft palate volume (in males), and differently shaped mandible and maxilla with more bony restrictions. Results support an ethnic difference in upper airway anatomy related to OSA, which may inform targeted therapies.

9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(10): 1580-1590, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532580

RESUMO

Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but not all, have a reduction in blood pressure (BP) with positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Our objective was to determine whether the BP response following PAP treatment is related to obesity. A total of 188 adults with OSA underwent 24-hour BP monitoring and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine collection at baseline. Obesity was assessed by waist circumference, body mass index, and abdominal visceral fat volume. Participants adherent to PAP treatment were reassessed after 4 months. Primary outcomes were 24-hour mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine level. Obstructive sleep apnea participants had a significant reduction in 24-hour MAP following PAP treatment (-1.22 [95% CI: -2.38, -0.06] mm Hg; P = .039). No significant correlations were present with any of the 3 obesity measures for BP or urinary norepinephrine measures at baseline in all OSA participants or for changes in BP measures in participants adherent to PAP treatment. Changes in BP measures following treatment were not correlated with baseline or change in urinary norepinephrine. Similar results were obtained when BP or urinary norepinephrine measures were compared between participants dichotomized using the sex-specific median of each obesity measure. Greater reductions in urinary norepinephrine were correlated with higher waist circumference (rho = -0.21, P = .037), with a greater decrease from baseline in obese compared to non-obese participants (-6.26 [-8.82, -3.69] vs -2.14 [-4.63, 0.35] ng/mg creatinine; P = .027). The results indicate that the BP response to PAP treatment in adults with OSA is not related to obesity or urinary norepinephrine levels.

10.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The ADHERE Registry is a multicenter prospective observational study following outcomes of upper airway stimulation (UAS) therapy in patients who have failed continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this registry and purpose of this article were to examine the outcomes of patients receiving UAS for treatment of OSA. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort Study. METHODS: Demographic and sleep study data collection occurred at baseline, implantation visit, post-titration (6 months), and final visit (12 months). Patient and physician reported outcomes were also collected. Post hoc univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of therapy response, defined as ≥50% decrease in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and AHI ≤20 at the 12-month visit. RESULTS: The registry has enrolled 1,017 patients from October 2016 through February 2019. Thus far, 640 patients have completed their 6-month follow-up and 382 have completed the 12-month follow-up. After 12 months, median AHI was reduced from 32.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 23.6-45.0) to 9.5 (IQR, 4.0-18.5); mean, 35.8 ± 15.4 to 14.2 ± 15.0, P < .0001. Epworth Sleepiness Scale was similarly improved from 11.0 (IQR, 7-16) to 7.0 (IQR, 4-11); mean, 11.4 ± 5.6 to 7.2 ± 4.8, P < .0001. Therapy usage was 5.6 ± 2.1 hours per night after 12 months. In a multivariate model, only female sex and lower baseline body mass index remained as significant predictors of therapy response. CONCLUSIONS: Across a multi-institutional study, UAS therapy continues to show significant improvement in subjective and objective OSA outcomes. This analysis shows that the therapy effect is durable and adherence is high. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 2019.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(12): 1513-1521, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322417

RESUMO

Rationale: A model for stratifying progression of respiratory muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would identify disease mechanisms and phenotypes suitable for future investigations. This study sought to categorize progression of FVC after presentation to an outpatient ALS clinic.Objectives: To identify clinical phenotypes of ALS respiratory progression based on FVC trajectories over time.Methods: We derived a group-based trajectory model from a single-center cohort of 837 patients with ALS who presented between 2006 and 2015. We applied our model to the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with 7,461 patients with ALS. Baseline characteristics at first visit were used as predictors of trajectory group membership. The primary outcome was trajectory of FVC over time in months.Measurements and Main Results: We found three trajectories of FVC over time, termed "stable low," "rapid progressor," and "slow progressor." Compared with the slow progressors, the rapid progressors had shorter diagnosis delay, more bulbar-onset disease, and a lower ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) total score at baseline. The stable low group had a shorter diagnosis delay, lower body mass index, more bulbar-onset disease, lower ALSFRS-R total score, and were more likely to have an ALSFRS-R orthopnea score lower than 4 compared with the slow progressors. We found that projected group membership predicted respiratory insufficiency in the PRO-ACT cohort (concordance statistic = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.76-0.79).Conclusions: We derived a group-based trajectory model for FVC progression in ALS, which validated against the outcome of respiratory insufficiency in an external cohort. Future studies may focus on patients predicted to be rapid progressors.

12.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X19862182, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307289

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent obstruction of the airways during sleep. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an index of cerebral vessels' ability to respond to a vasoactive stimulus, such as increased CO2. We hypothesized that OSA alters CVR, expressed as a breath-hold index (BHI) defined as the rate of change in CBF or BOLD signal during a controlled breath-hold stimulus mimicking spontaneous apneas by being both hypercapnic and hypoxic. In 37 OSA and 23 matched non sleep apnea (NSA) subjects, we obtained high temporal resolution CBF and BOLD MRI data before, during, and between five consecutive BH stimuli of 24 s, each averaged to yield a single BHI value. Greater BHI was observed in OSA relative to NSA as derived from whole-brain CBF (78.6 ± 29.6 vs. 60.0 ± 20.0 mL/min2/100 g, P = 0.010) as well as from flow velocity in the superior sagittal sinus (0.48 ± 0.18 vs. 0.36 ± 0.10 cm/s2, P = 0.014). Similarly, BOLD-based BHI was greater in OSA in whole brain (0.19 ± 0.08 vs. 0.15 ± 0.03%/s, P = 0.009), gray matter (0.22 ± 0.09 vs. 0.17 ± 0.03%/s, P = 0.011), and white matter (0.14 ± 0.06 vs. 0.10 ± 0.02%/s, P = 0.010). The greater CVR is not currently understood but may represent a compensatory mechanism of the brain to maintain oxygen supply during intermittent apneas.

13.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(5): 897-903, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery was associated with efficacy of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with hypoglossal nerve stimulation. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort (retrospective and prospective). SETTING: Eleven academic medical centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adults treated with hypoglossal nerve stimulation were enrolled in the ADHERE Registry. Outcomes were defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), in 3 ways: change in the AHI and 2 definitions of therapy response requiring ≥50% reduction in the AHI to a level <20 events/h (Response20) or 15 events/h (Response15). Previous palate and hypopharyngeal (tongue, epiglottis, or maxillofacial) procedures were documented. Linear and logistic regression examined the association between previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery and outcomes, with adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. RESULTS: The majority (73%, 217 of 299) had no previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery, while 25% and 9% had previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery, respectively, including 6% with previous palate and hypopharyngeal surgery. Baseline AHI (36.0 ± 15.6 events/h) decreased to 12.0 ± 13.3 at therapy titration (P < .001) and 11.4 ± 12.6 at final follow-up (P < .001). Any previous surgery, previous palate surgery, and previous hypopharyngeal surgery were not clearly associated with treatment response; for example, any previous surgery was associated with a 0.69 (95% CI: 0.37, 1.27) odds of response (Response20 measure) at therapy titration and a 0.55 (95% CI: 0.22, 1.34) odds of response (Response20 measure) at final follow-up. CONCLUSION: Previous upper airway surgery was not clearly associated with efficacy of hypoglossal nerve stimulation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Nervo Hipoglosso , Hipofaringe/cirurgia , Palato/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058253

RESUMO

Purpose: To date, evidence for tissue epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression as a biomarker for anti-EGFR therapies has been weak. We investigated the genomic landscape of EGFR amplification in blood-derived cell-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) across diverse cancers and the role of anti-EGFR therapies in achieving response. Methods: We assessed EGFR amplification status among 28,584 patients with malignancies evaluated by clinical-grade next-generation sequencing (NGS) of blood-derived cfDNA (54- to 73-gene panel). Furthermore, we curated the clinical characteristics of 1,434 patients at the University of California San Diego who had cfDNA testing by this NGS test. Results: Overall, EGFR amplification was detected in cfDNA from 8.5% of patients (2,423 of 28,584), most commonly in colorectal (16.3% [458 of 2,807]), non-small-cell lung (9.0% [1,096 of 12,197]), and genitourinary cancers (8.1% [170 of 2,104]). Most patients had genomic coalterations (96.9% [95 of 98]), frequently involving genes affecting other tyrosine kinases (72.4% [71 of 98]), mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades (56.1% [55 of 98]), cell-cycle-associated signals (52.0% [51 of 98]), and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway (35.7% [35 of 98]). EGFR amplification emerged in serial cfDNA after various anticancer therapies (n = 6), including checkpoint inhibitors (n = 4), suggesting a possible role for these amplifications in acquired resistance. Nine evaluable patients with EGFR amplification were treated with anti-EGFR-based regimens; five (55.6%) achieved partial responses, including three patients whose tissue NGS lacked EGFR amplification. Conclusion: EGFR amplification was detected in cfDNA among 8.5% of 28,584 diverse cancers. Most patients had coexisting alterations. Responses were observed in five of nine patients who received EGFR inhibitors. Incorporating EGFR inhibitors into the treatment regimens of patients harboring EGFR amplification in cfDNA merits additional study.

15.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(4): 629-639, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952214

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a global health issue and is associated with obesity and oropharyngeal crowding. Global data are limited on the effect of ethnicity and sex on these relationships. We compare associations between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and these risk factors across ethnicities and sexes within sleep clinics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study of patients with OSA from eight sleep centers representing the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC). Four distinct ethnic groups were analyzed, using a structured questionnaire: Caucasians (Australia, Iceland, Germany, United States), African Americans (United States), Asians (Taiwan), and South Americans (Brazil). Regression analyses and interaction tests were used to assess ethnic and sex differences in relationships between AHI and anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], neck circumference, waist circumference) or Mallampati score. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,585 individuals from four ethnic groups: Caucasian (60.6%), African American (17.5%), Asian (13.1%), and South American (8.9%). BMI was most strongly associated with AHI in South Americans (7.8% increase in AHI per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI; P < .0001) and most weakly in African Americans (1.9% increase in AHI per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI; P = .002). In Caucasians and South Americans, associations were stronger in males than females. Mallampati score differed between ethnicities but did not influence AHI differently across groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate ethnic and sex variations in associations between obesity and OSA. For similar BMI increases, South American patients show greatest AHI increases compared to African Americans. Findings highlight the importance of considering ethnicity and sex in clinical assessments of OSA risk.

16.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(5): 1001-1011, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926636

RESUMO

Clinical-grade next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tissue- and blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) allows assessment of multiple genomic alterations in patients with cancer. We analyzed ctDNA (54-70 genes) in 62 patients with advanced breast cancer (median = five prior therapies); 38 also had tissue NGS (236-315 genes). Overall, 42 of 62 patients (68%) had detectable (characterized) ctDNA alterations (variants of unknown significance excluded), and 37 of 38 (97%) had tissue alterations. The median (range) number of characterized alterations in ctDNA was 1 (0-7), and in tissue, 4 (0-17). The most common alterations in ctDNA were in TP53 (37% of patients) and PIK3CA (23%), and for tissue, TP53 (37%) and PIK3CA (24%); EGFR amplification was seen in ctDNA (11%), but not in tissue. Concordance between ctDNA and tissue appeared higher if <6 months separated the sample acquisition, although small sample size precluded statistical validation. Overall, 32 of 67 tissue alterations (48%) were also detected in ctDNA; 35 of 72 ctDNA alterations (48%) were also in tissue. Excluding estrogen receptor and ERBB2, 41 of 62 patients (66%) had potentially actionable alterations in ctDNA, and 36 of 38 (95%), in tissue (with potential actionability based on either preclinical or clinical evidence). If ≥1 genomic alteration had ctDNA ≥5%, survival was shorter than if ctDNA was <5% (median, 6.7 vs. 17.9 months; P = 0.01). In conclusion, tissue and ctDNA NGS reveal potentially actionable alterations in most patients. The genomic results of ctDNA and tissue NGS overlap, but there are differences, perhaps reflecting temporal spacing and tumor heterogeneity. ctDNA quantification also provides prognostic information.

17.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728207

RESUMO

A clinically useful model to prognose onset of respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would inform disease interventions, communication and clinical trial design. We aimed to derive and validate a clinical prognostic model for respiratory insufficiency within 6 months of presentation to an outpatient ALS clinic.We used multivariable logistic regression and internal cross-validation to derive a clinical prognostic model using a single-centre cohort of 765 ALS patients who presented between 2006 and 2015. External validation was performed using the multicentre Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with 7083 ALS patients. Predictors included baseline characteristics at first outpatient visit. The primary outcome was respiratory insufficiency within 6 months, defined by initiation of noninvasive ventilation, forced vital capacity (FVC) <50% predicted, tracheostomy, or death.Of 765 patients in our centre, 300 (39%) had respiratory insufficiency or death within 6 months. Six baseline characteristics (diagnosis age, delay between symptom onset and diagnosis, FVC, symptom onset site, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) total score and ALSFRS-R dyspnoea score) were used to prognose the risk of the primary outcome. The derivation cohort c-statistic was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89) and internal cross-validation produced a c-statistic of 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.87). External validation of the model using the PRO-ACT cohort produced a c-statistic of 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.75).We derived and externally validated a clinical prognostic rule for respiratory insufficiency in ALS. Future studies should investigate interventions on equivalent high-risk patients.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 392, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674876

RESUMO

Focal oncogene amplification and rearrangements drive tumor growth and evolution in multiple cancer types. We present AmpliconArchitect (AA), a tool to reconstruct the fine structure of focally amplified regions using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and validate it extensively on multiple simulated and real datasets, across a wide range of coverage and copy numbers. Analysis of AA-reconstructed amplicons in a pan-cancer dataset reveals many novel properties of copy number amplifications in cancer. These findings support a model in which focal amplifications arise due to the formation and replication of extrachromosomal DNA. Applying AA to 68 viral-mediated cancer samples, we identify a large fraction of amplicons with specific structural signatures suggestive of hybrid, human-viral extrachromosomal DNA. AA reconstruction, integrated with metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PacBio sequencing on the cell-line UPCI:SCC090 confirm the extrachromosomal origin and fine structure of a Forkhead box E1 (FOXE1)-containing hybrid amplicon.


Assuntos
Amplificação de Genes , Neoplasias/genética , Algoritmos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Computadores Moleculares , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Genes Virais , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(4): 1370-1377, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622177

RESUMO

Breast cancers enduring treatment with chemotherapy may be enriched for cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells, which have an enhanced capacity for self-renewal, tumor initiation, and/or metastasis. Breast cancer cells that express the type I tyrosine kinaselike orphan receptor ROR1 also may have such features. Here we find that the expression of ROR1 increased in breast cancer cells following treatment with chemotherapy, which also enhanced expression of genes induced by the activation of Rho-GTPases, Hippo-YAP/TAZ, or B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1). Expression of ROR1 also enhanced the capacity of breast cancer cells to invade Matrigel, form spheroids, engraft in Rag2-/-[Formula: see text] mice, or survive treatment with paclitaxel. Treatment of mice bearing breast cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) with the humanized anti-ROR1 monoclonal antibody cirmtuzumab repressed expression of genes associated with breast cancer stemness, reduced activation of Rho-GTPases, Hippo-YAP/TAZ, or BMI1, and impaired the capacity of breast cancer PDXs to metastasize or reengraft Rag2-/-[Formula: see text] mice. Finally, treatment of PDX-bearing mice with cirmtuzumab and paclitaxel was more effective than treatment with either alone in eradicating breast cancer PDXs. These results indicate that targeting ROR1 may improve the response to chemotherapy of patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 303-310, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in younger patients is reported to be more aggressive and associated with lower survival; however, factors associated with age-specific mortality differences have not been adequately assessed. METHODS: We used data from the population-based California Cancer Registry for 38,509 younger (18-49 years) and 121,573 older (50 years and older) women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer, 2005-2014. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate breast cancer-specific mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), stratified by tumor subtype, guideline treatment, and care at an NCI-designated cancer center (NCICC). RESULTS: Older breast cancer patients at diagnosis experienced 17% higher disease-specific mortality than younger patients, after multivariable adjustment (MRR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.23). Higher MRRs (95% CI) were observed for older versus younger patients with hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2- (1.24; 1.14-1.35) and HR+/HER2+ (1.38; 1.17-1.62), but not for HR-/HER2+ (HR = 0.94; 0.79-1.12) nor triple-negative breast cancers (1.01; 0.92-1.11). The higher mortality in older versus younger patients was diminished among patients who received guideline-concordant treatment (MRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and reversed among those seen at an NCICC (MRR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.73-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although younger women tend to be diagnosed with more aggressive breast cancers, adjusting for these aggressive features results in older patients having higher mortality than younger patients, with variations by age, tumor subtype, receipt of guideline treatment, and being cared for at an NCICC. IMPACT: Higher breast cancer mortality in older compared with younger women could partly be addressed by ensuring optimal treatment and comprehensive patient-centered care.

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