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1.
Neurocase ; 25(6): 243-250, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532322

RESUMO

We describe a patient with acute herpes simplex encephalitis with left-hemispheric hippocampal, parahippocampal and insular lesions. Although prototypic language areas were unaffected, the patient suffered from an inability to name objects or animals displayed on pictures. This deficit was transient and gradually disappeared 8 weeks after the initial diagnosis. Our findings are in line with a previous report showing similar deficits in a patient with a comparable lesion pattern and support the hypothesis that left insular lesions can produce severe naming deficits. Using FDG-PET we ruled out that functional deactivation in classical language areas account for the observed naming deficits.

2.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3246-3254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558140

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Perihemorrhagic edema (PHE) is associated with poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Infiltration of immune cells is considered a major contributor of PHE. Recent studies suggest that immunomodulation via S1PR (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor) modulators improve outcome in ICH. Siponimod, a selective modulator of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors type 1 and type 5, demonstrated an excellent safety profile in a large study of patients with multiple sclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of siponimod treatment on perihemorrhagic edema, neurological deficits, and survival in a mouse model of ICH. Methods- ICH was induced by intracranial injection of 0.075 U of bacterial collagenase in 123 mice. Mice were randomly assigned to different treatment groups: vehicle, siponimod given as a single dosage 30 minutes after the operation or given 3× for 3 consecutive days starting 30 minutes after operation. The primary outcome of our study was evolution of PHE measured by magnetic resonance-imaging on T2-maps 72 hours after ICH, secondary outcomes included evolution of PHE 24 hours after ICH, survival and neurological deficits, as well as effects on circulating blood cells and body weight. Results- Siponimod significantly reduced PHE measured by magnetic resonance imaging (P=0.021) as well as wet-dry method (P=0.04) 72 hours after ICH. Evaluation of PHE 24 hours after ICH showed a tendency toward attenuated brain edema in the low-dosage group (P=0.08). Multiple treatments with siponimod significantly improved neurological deficits measured by Garcia Score (P=0.03). Survival at day 10 was improved in mice treated with multiple dosages of siponimod (P=0.037). Mice treated with siponimod showed a reduced weight loss after ICH (P=0.036). Conclusions- Siponimod (BAF-312) attenuated PHE after ICH, increased survival, and reduced ICH-induced sensorimotor deficits in our experimental ICH-model. Findings encourage further investigation of inflammatory modulators as well as the translation of BAF-312 to a human study of ICH patients.

3.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3051-3056, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558143

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Heart failure (HF) in patients with acute ischemic stroke constitutes the source of various detrimental pathophysiologic mechanisms including prothrombotic and proinflammatory states, worsening of cerebral tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamic impairment. In addition, HF might affect the safety and efficacy of the acute recanalization stroke therapies. Methods- Patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or mechanical recanalization at a universitary stroke center were included into a prospective registry. Patients received cardiological evaluation, including echocardiography, during acute care. Functional outcome was assessed after 90 days by structured telephone interviews. Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy were investigated among patients with HF and compared with patients with normal cardiac function after propensity score matching. Results- One thousand two hundred nine patients were included. HF was present in 378 patients (31%) and an independent predictor of unfavorable functional outcome. Recanalization rates were equal among patients with HF after intravenous thrombolysis and after mechanical recanalization or combined treatment. The rate of secondary intracranial hemorrhage was not different (7% versus 8%; P=0.909 after thrombolysis and 15% versus 20%, P=0.364 after mechanical recanalization or combined therapy). Early mortality within 48 hours after admission was equal (<1.5% in both groups). Conclusions- In this real-world cohort of patients with stroke, HF was an independent predictor of unfavorable functional long-term outcome, while the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical recanalization appeared unaffected.

4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(19): 1361-1366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559618

RESUMO

Performing a diagnostic lumbar puncture is an essential clinical skill for the clinician. The procedure is of high importance for both, the emergency care for patients with suspected infection of the cerebral nervous system or subarachnoidal hemorrhage, as well as the elective diagnostic work up of chronic disease including multiple sclerosis and dementia. Furthermore the technique's principles are applied for spinal anesthesia or the intrathecal administration of drugs. This article describes a Standard Operating Procedure for the lumbar puncture step by step. Based on the latest evidence, it particularly focusses on clinically relevant questions and practical aspects.

5.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 48(1-2): 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The management of acute ischemic stroke in patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is challenging. However, the substance-specific plasma level could guide treatment decisions on recanalization therapies. We present a plasma-level-based protocol for emergency treatment of stroke patients on oral anticoagulants. Bleeding complications and clinical outcome for patients on DOACs are reported and compared to patients on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and suspected use of DOACs within 48 h prior to hospital admission, plasma levels were measured using the calibrated Xa-activity (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) or the Hemoclot®-assay (dabigatran). Levels <50 ng/mL were supportive for thrombolysis, while high values >100 ng/mL excluded patients from recombinant tissue plasminogen activator use. For patients on VKAs, the cutoff was set at international normalized ratio of 1.7. Endovascular thrombectomy of a large vessel occlusion was performed independently from coagulation testing. Consecutive patients were included in an observational registry. RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-two patients (261 on VKAs and 261 on DOACs) were included. Thirty patients (11.5%) on VKAs and 24 (9.2%) on DOACs received thrombolysis, followed by mechanical thrombectomy in 10 and 14 patients, respectively. Seventeen patients in each group received thrombectomy only. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage associated with thrombolysis occurred in 1 patient on VKA (3.3%) and 1 on DOAC (4.2%; p = 0.872). The turnaround time of specific assays did not show a significant delay in comparison to standard coagulation parameters. CONCLUSION: DOAC plasma levels could support decisions on emergency treatment of ischemic stroke. Systemic thrombolysis below suggested thresholds appears preliminary feasible and safe without an excess in bleeding complications.

6.
Neurology ; 93(12): e1159-e1170, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) location and volume and hematoma surface on perihemorrhagic edema evolution. METHODS: Patients with ICH of the prospective Universitätsklinikum Erlangen Cohort of Patients With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage (UKER-ICH) cohort study (NCT03183167) between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. Hematoma and edema volume during hospital stay were volumetrically assessed, and time course of edema evolution and peak edema correlated to hematoma volume, location, and surface to verify the strength of the parameters on edema evolution. RESULTS: Overall, 300 patients with supratentorial ICH were analyzed. Peak edema showed a high correlation with hematoma surface (R 2 = 0.864, p < 0.001) rather than with hematoma volumes, regardless of hematoma location. Smaller hematomas with a higher ratio of hematoma surface to volume showed exponentially higher relative edema (R 2 = 0.755, p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a cutoff ICH volume of 30 mL, beyond which an increase of total mass lesion volume (combined volume of hematoma and edema) was not associated with worse functional outcome. Specifically, peak edema was associated with worse functional outcome in ICH <30 mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-4.12, p < 0.001), contrary to ICH ≥30 mL (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.88-1.63, p = 0.247). There were no significant differences between patients with lobar and those with deep ICH after adjustment for hematoma volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Peak perihemorrhagic edema, although influencing mortality, is not associated with worse functional outcomes in ICH volumes >30 mL. Although hematoma volume correlates with peak edema extent, hematoma surface is the major parameter for edema evolution. The effect of edema on functional outcome is therefore more pronounced in smaller and irregularly shaped hematomas, and these patients may particularly benefit from edema-modifying therapies.

7.
Brain ; 142(10): 3059-3071, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373622

RESUMO

The aim of epilepsy surgery in patients with focal, pharmacoresistant epilepsies is to remove the complete epileptogenic zone to achieve long-term seizure freedom. In addition to a spectrum of diagnostic methods, magnetoencephalography focus localization is used for planning of epilepsy surgery. We present results from a retrospective observational cohort study of 1000 patients, evaluated using magnetoencephalography at the University Hospital Erlangen over the time span of 28 years. One thousand consecutive cases were included in the study, evaluated at the University Hospital Erlangen between 1990 and 2018. All patients underwent magnetoencephalography as part of clinical workup for epilepsy surgery. Of these, 405 underwent epilepsy surgery after magnetoencephalography, with postsurgical follow-ups of up to 20 years. Sensitivity for interictal epileptic activity was evaluated, in addition to concordance of localization with the consensus of presurgical workup on a lobar level. We evaluate magnetoencephalography characteristics of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery versus patients who did not proceed to surgery. In operated patients, resection of magnetoencephalography localizations were related to postsurgical seizure outcomes, including long-term results after several years. In comparison, association of lesionectomy with seizure outcomes was analysed. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for magnetoencephalography resection and lesionectomy. Sensitivity for interictal epileptic activity was 72% with significant differences between temporal and extra-temporal lobe epilepsy. Magnetoencephalography was concordant with the presurgical consensus in 51% and showed additional or more focal involvement in an additional 32%. Patients who proceeded to surgery showed a significantly higher percentage of monofocal magnetoencephalography results. Complete magnetoencephalography resection was associated with significantly higher chances to achieve seizure freedom in the short and long-term. Diagnostic accuracy was significant in temporal and extra-temporal lobe cases, but was significantly higher in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (diagnostic odds ratios of 4.4 and 41.6). Odds ratios were also higher in non-lesional versus lesional cases (42.0 versus 6.2). The results show that magnetoencephalography provides non-redundant information, which significantly contributes to patient selection, focus localization and ultimately long-term seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery. Specifically in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy and non-lesional cases, magnetoencephalography provides excellent accuracy.

8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 129, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376017

RESUMO

Metal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse environment. One WCB was the previously described Ochrobactrum tritici pCHRGFP2 and the second, Nitrospirillum amazonense pCHRGFP2, is a newly engineered naturally-occurring endophytic microorganism. Three rice varieties (IAC 4440, BRS 6 CHUÍ, IRGA 425) and one maize variety (1060) were tested as hosts and subjected to Cr(VI) treatments (25 µM), with different results obtained. Inoculation of each WCB into plants exposed to Cr(VI) showed GFP expression within plant tissues. WCBs penetrated the root tissues and later colonized the shoots and leaves. In general, a higher fluorescence signal was detected in roots, together with a higher Cr content and denser WCB colonization. Best fluorescence intensities per plant biomass of shoots were obtained for plant host IRGA 425. Therefore, by analyzing colonized tissues, both WCBs allowed the detection of Cr(VI) contamination in soils and its transfer to plants commonly used in crops for human diet.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cromo/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Rhodospirillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhodospirillaceae/genética , Rhodospirillaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
9.
Neuroradiology ; 61(12): 1469-1476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO), endovascular treatment (EVT) is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, data on functional outcome are lacking for patients, which show no or minimal mismatch between ischemic core and penumbra. METHODS: Forty-five patients with AIS due to LVO of the anterior circulation were retrospectively analyzed within 6 h since onset when administered to our department. In all patients, there was no relevant penumbra according to CT perfusion (CTP). Functional outcome, defined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 30 and 90 days, was analyzed according to LVO treatment (EVT versus non-EVT). Confounding was addressed by multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: mRS values at 30 days (p = 0.002) and 90 days (p = 0.005) after AIS occurrence were significantly lower in patients who had received EVT. There was no significant difference regarding good functional outcome, as measured by mRS of 0-2 at 30 (p = 0.432) and 90 days, respectively (p = 0.186). Mortality was significantly reduced in patients undergoing EVT at 30-day (p < 0.001) and at 90-day follow-up (p = 0.003), respectively. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that EVT was associated with reduced mortality at 30 (OR 0.091; CI (0.013-0.612); p = 0.014) and 90 days (OR 0.134; CI (0.021-0.857); p = 0.034) after AIS. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a small and highly selected patient collective, our study indicates that AIS patients with minimal penumbra in CTP might benefit from EVT in terms of reduced mortality at 30 and 90 days after AIS. However, in this group of patients, we could not prove favorable functional outcome at 30 and 90 days, despite receiving EVT.

10.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(5): e588, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355322

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without infection as surrogate of a systemic immune response is associated with poor long-term functional outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: We analyzed consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH from our prospective cohort study (2018-2015). SIRS was defined according to standard criteria: i.e., 2 or more of the following parameters during hospitalization: body temperature <36°C or >38°C, respiratory rate >20 per minute, heart rate >90 per minute, or white blood cell count <4,000/µL or >12,000/µL in the absence of infection. The primary outcome consisted of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 and 12 months investigated by adjusted ordinal shift analyses. Bias and confounding were addressed by propensity score matching and multivariable regression models. Results: Of 780 patients with ICH, 21.8% (n = 170) developed SIRS during hospitalization. Patients with SIRS showed more severe ICH compared with those without; i.e., larger ICH volumes (18.3 cm3, interquartile range [IQR 4.6-47.2 cm3] vs 7.4 cm3, IQR [2.4-18.6 cm3]; p < 0.01), increased intraventricular hemorrhage (57.6%, n = 98/170 vs 24.8%, n = 79/319; p < 0.01), and poorer neurologic admission status (NIH Stroke Scale score 16, IQR [7-30] vs 6, IQR [3-12]; p < 0.01). ICH severity-adjusted analyses revealed an independent association of SIRS with poorer functional outcome after 3 (OR 1.80, 95% CI [1.08-3.00]; p = 0.025) and 12 months (OR 1.76, 95% CI [1.04-2.96]; p = 0.034). Increased ICH volumes on follow-up imaging (OR 1.38, 95% CI [1.01-1.89]; p = 0.05) and previous liver dysfunction (OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.03-10.19]; p = 0.04) were associated with SIRS. Conclusions: In patients with ICH, we identified SIRS to be predictive of poorer long-term functional outcome over the entire range of mRS estimates. Clinically relevant associations with SIRS were documented for previous liver dysfunction and hematoma enlargement.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0217472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ischemic Stroke System is a novel device designed to deliver stimulation to the sphenopalatine ganglion(SPG).The SPG sends parasympathetic innervations to the anterior cerebral circulation. In rat stroke models, SPG stimulation results in increased cerebral blood flow, reduced infarct volume, protects the blood brain barrier, and improved neurological outcome. We present here the results of a prospective, multinational, single-arm, feasibility study designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and potential benefit of SPG stimulation inpatients with acute ischemic stroke(AIS). METHODS: Patients with anterior AIS, baseline NIHSS 7-20 and ability to initiate treatment within 24h from stroke onset, were implanted and treated with the SPG stimulation. Patients were followed up for 90 days. Effect was assessed by comparing the patient outcome to a matched population from the NINDS rt-PA trial placebo patients. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were enrolled (mean age 57years, mean baseline NIHSS 12 and mean treatment time from stroke onset 19h). The observed mortality rate(12.2%), serious adverse events (SAE)incidence(23.5%) and nature of SAE were within the expected range for the population. The modified intention to treat cohort consisted of 84 patients who were compared to matched patients from the NINDS placebo arm. Patients treated with SPG stimulation had an average mRS lower by 0.76 than the historical controls(CMH test p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The implantation procedure and the SPG stimulation, initiated within 24hr from stroke onset, are feasible, safe, and tolerable. The results call for a follow-up randomized trial (funded by BrainsGate; clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT03733236).

12.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(3): 777-789, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177380

RESUMO

Nine bacterial strains were previously isolated in association with pinewood nematode (PWN) from wilted pine trees. They proved to be nematicidal in vitro, and one of the highest activities, with potential to control PWN, was showed by Serratia sp. M24T3. Its ecology in association with plants remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of strain M24T3 to colonize the internal tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using confocal microscopy. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) functional traits were tested and retrieved in the genome of strain M24T3. In greenhouse conditions, the bacterial effects of all nematicidal strains were also evaluated, co-inoculated or not with Bradyrhizobium sp. 3267, on Vigna unguiculata fitness. Inoculation of strain M24T3 increased the number of A. thaliana lateral roots and the confocal analysis confirmed effective bacterial colonization in the plant. Strain M24T3 showed cellulolytic activity, siderophores production, phosphate and zinc solubilization ability, and indole acetic acid production independent of supplementation with L-tryptophan. In the genome of strain M24T3, genes involved in the interaction with the plants such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinolytic activity, and quorum sensing were also detected. The genomic organization showed ACC deaminase and its leucine-responsive transcriptional regulator, and the activity of ACC deaminase was 594.6 nmol α-ketobutyrate µg protein-1 µl-1. Strain M24T3 in co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. 3267 promoted the growth of V. unguiculata. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the ability of strain M24T3 to colonize other plants besides pine trees as an endophyte and displays PGPB traits that probably increased plant tolerance to stresses.

13.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1682-1687, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182002

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Oral angioedema (OA) is a rare but life-threatening complication in patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis with r-tPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). This study intended to determine associations between thrombolysis-related OA and ischemic stroke lesion sites using a voxel-wise lesion analysis. Methods- Prospective registry data were used to identify ischemic stroke patients with thrombolysis-related OA between 2002 and 2018. For the study registry, ethics approval was obtained by the Ethics Committee of the Friedrich-Alexander Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg (clinical registry registration: 377_17Bc). Ischemic stroke patients with thrombolysis treatment but without OA admitted in the years 2011 and 2012 comprised the control group. Ischemic lesions were manually outlined on magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T or 3T) or computed tomographic scans and transformed into stereotaxic space. We determined the lesion overlap and compared the absence or presence of OA voxel-wise between patients with and without lesions in a given voxel using the Liebermeister test. Stroke severity was rated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose levels, and body temperature were determined on admission. Results- Fifteen ischemic stroke patients with thrombolysis-related OA were identified. The voxel-wise analysis yielded associations between OA and ischemic lesions in the insulo-opercular region with a right hemispheric dominance. Mean blood pressure was significantly lower in patients with OA than in controls. Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, infarct volumes, heart rate, and blood glucose levels did not differ between patients with and without OA. Conclusions- The voxel-wise analysis linked thrombolysis-related OA to right insulo-opercular lesions. The lower blood pressure in patients with thrombolysis-related OA may reflect bradykinin effects causing vasodilatation and increasing vascular permeability.

14.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 139-147, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke thrombolysis with alteplase is currently recommended 0-4·5 h after stroke onset. We aimed to determine whether perfusion imaging can identify patients with salvageable brain tissue with symptoms 4·5 h or more from stroke onset or with symptoms on waking who might benefit from thrombolysis. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data, we searched PubMed for randomised trials published in English between Jan 1, 2006, and March 1, 2019. We also reviewed the reference list of a previous systematic review of thrombolysis and searched ClinicalTrials.gov for interventional studies of ischaemic stroke. Studies of alteplase versus placebo in patients (aged ≥18 years) with ischaemic stroke treated more than 4·5 h after onset, or with wake-up stroke, who were imaged with perfusion-diffusion MRI or CT perfusion were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was excellent functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-1) at 3 months, adjusted for baseline age and clinical severity. Safety outcomes were death and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage. We calculated odds ratios, adjusted for baseline age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, using mixed-effects logistic regression models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019128036. FINDINGS: We identified three trials that met eligibility criteria: EXTEND, ECASS4-EXTEND, and EPITHET. Of the 414 patients included in the three trials, 213 (51%) were assigned to receive alteplase and 201 (49%) were assigned to receive placebo. Overall, 211 patients in the alteplase group and 199 patients in the placebo group had mRS assessment data at 3 months and thus were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. 76 (36%) of 211 patients in the alteplase group and 58 (29%) of 199 patients in the placebo group had achieved excellent functional outcome at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·86, 95% CI 1·15-2·99, p=0·011). Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage was more common in the alteplase group than the placebo group (ten [5%] of 213 patients vs one [<1%] of 201 patients in the placebo group; adjusted OR 9·7, 95% CI 1·23-76·55, p=0·031). 29 (14%) of 213 patients in the alteplase group and 18 (9%) of 201 patients in the placebo group died (adjusted OR 1·55, 0·81-2·96, p=0·66). INTERPRETATION: Patients with ischaemic stroke 4·5-9 h from stroke onset or wake-up stroke with salvageable brain tissue who were treated with alteplase achieved better functional outcomes than did patients given placebo. The rate of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage was higher with alteplase, but this increase did not negate the overall net benefit of thrombolysis. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem de Perfusão , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084468

RESUMO

Targeted temperature management, or therapeutic hypothermia, is a potent neuroprotective approach after ischemic brain injury. Hypothermia should be induced as soon as possible after the onset of acute stroke to assure better outcomes. Accordingly, drugs with a fast-acting hypothermic effect sustainable through the period of emergency transportation to hospital would have clinical advantages. Activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) can induce hypothermia. Our immunohistochemical investigations confirmed that TRPV1 was distributed to perivascular and periventricular regions of the rat brain, where TRPV1 can be easily detected by TRPV1 agonists. An endogenous TRPV1 selective agonist, N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA), and a synthetic antagonist, AMG 9810, were injected intraperitoneally into healthy adult male Wister rats, and brain and core temperatures and gross motor activities were monitored. Comparison with baseline temperatures showed that TRPV1 injection immediately induced mild hypothermia (p < 0.05 in brain and p < 0.01 in body), and AMG 9810 induced immediate mild hyperthermia (not significant). However, the OLDA-induced hypothermia did not decrease lesion volume after middle carotid artery occlusion in rats. Relative to vehicle, OLDA yielded poorer outcomes and AMG 9810 yielded better outcomes in neurological scores and lesion size. Our study showed that, as an agonist of TRPV1, OLDA has suitable hypothermia-inducing properties, but did not decrease lesion volume. Therefore, the search for novel TRPV1 agonists and/or antagonists providing hypothermia and neuroprotection should continue. Further investigations should also target OLDA-induced transient hypothermia combined with long-term hypothermia maintenance with surface cooling, which mimics the anticipated clinical use of this class of drug.

16.
Int J Stroke ; 14(5): 483-490, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase within a time window up to 4.5 h is the only approved pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. We studied whether acute ischemic stroke patients with penumbral tissue identified on magnetic resonance imaging 4.5-9 h after symptom onset benefit from intravenous thrombolysis compared to placebo. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients with salvageable brain tissue identified on a magnetic resonance imaging were randomly assigned to receive standard dose alteplase or placebo. The primary end point was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin scale, which has a range of 0-6 (with 0 indicating no symptoms at all and 6 indicating death). Safety end points included death, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and other serious adverse events. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for slow recruitment after the enrollment of 119 (61 alteplase, 58 placebo) of 264 patients planned. Median time to intravenous thrombolysis was 7 h 42 min. The primary endpoint showed no significant difference in the modified Rankin scale distribution at day 90 (odds ratio alteplase versus placebo, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.63-2.27, P = 0.58). One symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in the alteplase group. Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly between the two groups (11.5 and 6.8%, respectively; P = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous alteplase administered between 4.5 and 9 h after the onset of symptoms in patients with salvageable tissue did not result in a significant benefit over placebo. (Supported by Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany; ISRCTN 71616222).

17.
Ann Neurol ; 85(6): 823-834, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared outcomes after treatment with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a recent cerebral ischemia. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data analysis of seven prospective cohort studies. We included patients with AF and a recent cerebral ischemia (<3 months before starting oral anticoagulation) and a minimum follow-up of 3 months. We analyzed the association between type of anticoagulation (DOAC versus VKA) with the composite primary endpoint (recurrent ischemic stroke [AIS], intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], or mortality) using mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards regression models; we calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: We included 4,912 patients (median age, 78 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 71-84]; 2,331 [47.5%] women; median National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scale at onset, 5 [IQR, 2-12]); 2,256 (45.9%) patients received VKAs and 2,656 (54.1%) DOACs. Median time from index event to starting oral anticoagulation was 5 days (IQR, 2-14) for VKAs and 5 days (IQR, 2-11) for DOACs (p = 0.53). There were 262 acute ischemic strokes (AISs; 4.4%/year), 71 intracranial hemorrrhages (ICHs; 1.2%/year), and 439 deaths (7.4%/year) during the total follow-up of 5,970 patient-years. Compared to VKAs, DOAC treatment was associated with reduced risks of the composite endpoint (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.00; p = 0.05) and ICH (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71; p < 0.01); we found no differences for the risk of recurrent AIS (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.19; p = 0.5) and mortality (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.03; p = 0.09). INTERPRETATION: DOAC treatment commenced early after recent cerebral ischemia related to AF was associated with reduced risk of poor clinical outcomes compared to VKA, mainly attributed to lower risks of ICH. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:823-834.

18.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 669-678, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term outcome of psychological status, personality, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to define predictors of favorable outcome of cessation of PNES. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with PNES during video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring at the Erlangen Epilepsy Center were contacted 1-16 years after communicating the diagnosis. Follow-up information from each participant was obtained by interview (PNES outcome) and by self-reported questionnaires of psychological symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II, Symptom Checklist-90-Standard, Dissociative Symptoms questionnaire), personality traits (Freiburg Personality Inventory-Revised), and HRQoL (36-Item Short Form Health Survey). RESULTS: Fifty-two patients participated in the study (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 40.5 ± 14.0 years; 75% female, follow-up: 5.3 ± 4.2 years). Nineteen patients (37%) were free of PNES for the past 12 months. Patients with persisting PNES were older at disease onset (32.9 vs 22.3 years, P < 0.01) and diagnosis (40.5 vs 27.2 years, P < 0.001), and showed worse psychological functioning, lower extraversion and life satisfaction, and higher inhibitedness and worse HRQoL than PNES-free patients. Patients with cessation of PNES were within the normal range in all dimensions. Cessation of PNES was best predicted by younger age at PNES onset and higher extraversion. SIGNIFICANCE: Outcome of PNES is poor, psychopathology is high, and HRQoL is low in patients with persistent PNES but may normalize with PNES cessation. High introversion and older age at PNES onset are risk factors for persistent PNES.

19.
Stroke ; 50(4): 873-879, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852963

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In patients with ischemic stroke on therapy with vitamin K antagonists, stroke severity and clinical course are affected by the quality of anticoagulation at the time of stroke onset, but clinical data for patients using direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are limited. Methods- Data from our registry including all patients admitted with acute cerebral ischemia while taking oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation between November 2014 and October 2017 were investigated. The activity of vitamin K antagonists was assessed using the international normalized ratio on admission and categorized according to a threshold of 1.7. DOAC plasma levels were measured using the calibrated Xa-activity (apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban) or the Hemoclot-assay (dabigatran) and categorized into low (<50 ng/mL), intermediate (50-100 ng/mL), or high (>100 ng/mL). Primary objective was the association between anticoagulant activity and clinical and imaging characteristics. Results- Four hundred sixty patients were included (49% on vitamin K antagonists and 51% on DOAC). Patients on vitamin K antagonists with low international normalized ratio values had higher scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and a higher risk of large vessel occlusion on admission. For patients on DOAC, plasma levels were available in 75.6% and found to be low in 49 (27.7%), intermediate in 41 (23.2%), and high in 87 patients (49.2%). Low plasma levels were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission (low: 8 [interquartile range, 3-15] versus intermediate: 4 [1-11] versus high: 3 [0-8]; P<0.001) and higher risk of persisting neurological deficits or cerebral infarction on imaging (85.7% versus 75.6% versus 54.0%; P<0.001). Low DOAC plasma levels were an independent predictor of large vessel occlusion (odds ratio, 3.84 [95% CI, 1.80-8.20]; P=0.001). Conclusions- The activity of anticoagulation measured by specific DOAC plasma levels on admission is associated with stroke severity and presence of large vessel occlusion.

20.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(2): 211-217, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bowel incontinence in multiple sclerosis might be associated with specific lesion sites. This study intended to determine associations between bowel incontinence and cerebral multiple sclerosis lesions using a voxel-wise lesion symptom mapping analysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of multiple sclerosis patients with self-reported bowel incontinence and matched controls. Lesions were manually outlined on T2-weighted MRI scans and transformed into stereotaxic space. We performed a voxel-wise subtraction analysis subtracting the lesion overlap of patients without from patients with bowel incontinence. Finally, we compared the absence or presence of bowel incontinence between patients with and without lesions in a given voxel using the Liebermeister test. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in the study. The analysis yielded associations between bowel incontinence and lesions in the supramarginal gyrus of the left secondary somatosensory cortex and another lesion cluster in the right parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates associations between bowel incontinence and lesions in the left supramarginal gyral area contributing to integrating anorectal-visceral sensation and in the right parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala contributing to generating visceral autonomic arousal states. Moreover, our results suggest left hemispheric dominance of sensory visceral integration, while limbic areas of the right hemisphere seem to contribute to the autonomic component of the defecation process. A limitation of our study is the retrospective evaluation of the bowel incontinence status based on medical records. Further research should evaluate the bowel incontinence status in multiple sclerosis patients prospectively to overcome the limitations of the current study.

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