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1.
Food Chem ; 347: 129016, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486364

RESUMO

Roasting is crucial for producing large-leaf yellow tea (LYT) as it substantially affects chemical composition and sensory quality. However, the effect of roasting degree on LYT flavor quality is not clear. To investigate the effect of roasting degree on LYT flavor, the odor profiles and sensory evaluations of LYTs produced with small fire, medium fire and old fire roasting (OF) were determined. The OF was essential for the formation of LYT flavor with strong roasted, nutty, woody odors and weak fatty, fruity odors, and retaining high levels of GCG, total volatiles and heterocyclic compounds. Furthermore, the characteristic crispy-rice-like odor was only found in LYT with OF treatment and burnt flavor was missing. 2,3-Diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trans-ß-ionone with odor activity value above 1600 and 39 respectively offered roasted, floral odors, respectively in LYT. The current results provide a scientific basis for understanding the reactions that occur during the conventional production of LYT.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
2.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130885

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key hormone in non-climacteric Fragaria spp, regulating multiple physiological processes throughout fruit ripening. Its level increases during ripening, and it promotes fruit (receptacle) development. However, its metabolism in the fruit is largely unknown. We analyzed the levels of ABA and its catabolites at different developmental stages of strawberry ripening in diploid and octoploid genotypes and identified two functional ABA-glucosyltransferases (FvUGT71A49 and FvUGT73AC3) and two regiospecific ABA-8'-hydroxylases (FaCYP707A4a and FaCYP707A1/3). ABA-glucose-ester content increased during ripening in diploid F. vesca varieties but decreased in octoploid F. xananassa. Dihydrophaseic acid content increased throughout ripening in all analyzed receptacles, while 7'-hydroxy-ABA and neo-phaseic acid did not show significant changes during ripening. In the studied F. vesca varieties, the receptacle seems to be the main tissue for ABA metabolism, as the content of ABA and its metabolites in the receptacle was generally 100 times higher than in achenes, respectively. The accumulation patterns of ABA catabolites and transcriptomic data from the literature show that all strawberry fruits produce and metabolize considerable amounts of the plant hormone ABA during ripening, which is therefore a conserved process, but also illustrate the diversity of this metabolic pathway which is species, variety and tissue dependent.

3.
Plant Physiol ; 184(4): 1744-1761, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020252

RESUMO

C13-apocarotenoids (norisoprenoids) are carotenoid-derived oxidation products that perform important physiological functions in plants. Although their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied, their metabolism including glycosylation remains poorly understood. Candidate uridine-diphosphate glycosyltransferase genes (UGTs) were selected based on their high transcript abundance in comparison with other UGTs in vegetative tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana and peppermint (Mentha × piperita), as these tissues are rich sources of apocarotenoid glucosides. Hydroxylated C13-apocarotenol substrates were produced by P450-catalyzed biotransformation and microbial/plant enzyme systems were established for the synthesis of glycosides. Natural substrates were identified by physiological aglycone libraries prepared from isolated plant glycosides. In total, we identified six UGTs that catalyze the glucosylation of C13-apocarotenols, where Glc is bound either to the cyclohexene ring or the butane side chain. MpUGT86C10 is a superior novel enzyme that catalyzes the glucosylation of allelopathic 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-α-ionol (Blumenol C), and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-ß-ionol, whereas a germination test demonstrated the higher phytotoxic potential of a norisoprenoid glucoside in comparison to its aglycone. Glycosylation of C13-apocarotenoids has several functions in plants, including increased allelopathic activity of the aglycone, facilitating exudation by roots and allowing symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The results enable in-depth analysis of the roles of glycosylated norisoprenoid allelochemicals, the physiological functions of apocarotenoids during arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and the associated maintenance of carotenoid homeostasis.

4.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777072

RESUMO

Uridine-diphosphate dependent glycosyltransferases catalyse the glycosylation of small molecules and play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis and regulating plant development. Glycosyltransferases are widely distributed, but their biological roles in regulating plant growth and development are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a UDP-glycosyltransferase CsUGT85A53 from Camellia sinensis, whose expression is strongly induced by various abiotic stress factors and its protein product distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Ectopically over-expression of CsUGT85A53 in Arabidopsis resulted in an early flowering phenotype under both long-day and short-day conditions. The transcript accumulation of the flowering repressor genes FLC and ABI5, an activator of FLC in ABA-regulated flowering signaling, are all significantly repressed in transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. The decreased expression level of FLC gene might be associated with its increased DNA methylation level in CsUGT85A53-OE plants. Biochemical analyses show that CsUGT85A53 could glucosylate ABA to form inactive ABA-glycoside in vitro and in planta. Over-expression of CsUGT85A53 in Arabidopsis resulted in a decreased level of free ABA and increased level of ABA-glucoside. The early flowering phenotype in the CsUGT85A53-OE transgenic lines were restored due to ABA application. Further, CsUGT85A53 overexpressed plants displayed ABA-insensitive phenotype with higher germination rates compared with control in the presence of lower concentrations of exogenous ABA. Our findings revealed the first UGT in tea plants catalyzing ABA glucosylation and enhancing flowering transition as a positive regulator.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10815-10821, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840106

RESUMO

ß-Ionone is a carotenoid-derived flavor and fragrance compound with a complex fruity and woody scent, known for its violet aroma. Due to the low odor threshold, ß-ionone dramatically affects the aroma and quality of tea. Previous studies have shown that ß-ionone increases during tea withering; however, its formation and regulation during the withering process are far from being understood. As dehydration is the most important stress during the withering of the tea leaves, we isolated a dehydration-induced gene belonging to the subfamily of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases called carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1a (CsCCD1a) from Camellia sinensis and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein could generate volatile ß-ionone and pseudoionone from carotenoids. CsCCD1a was induced by dehydration stress, and its expression was related to the ß-ionone accumulation during tea withering. Overall, this study elucidated that CsCCD1a catalyzes the formation of ß-ionone in C. sinensis and enhanced the understanding of the ß-ionone formation under multiple stresses during the processing of tea.

6.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Geraniol, a fragrance of great importance in the consumer goods industry, can be glucosylated by the UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase VvGT14a from Vitis vinifera, yielding more stable geranyl glucoside. Escherichia coli expressing VvGT14a is a convenient whole-cell biocatalyst for this biotransformation due to its intrinsic capability for UDP-glucose regeneration. The low water solubility and high cytotoxicity of geraniol can be overcome in a biphasic system where the non-aqueous phase functions as an in situ substrate reservoir. However, the effect of different process variables on the biphasic whole-cell biotransformation is unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify potential bottlenecks during biotransformation with in situ geraniol supply via isopropyl myristate as second non-aqueous phase. RESULTS: First, insufficient UDP-glucose supply could be ruled out by measurement of intracellular UDP-glucose concentrations. Instead, oxygen supply was determined as a bottleneck. Moreover, the formation of the byproduct geranyl acetate by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) was identified as a constraint for high product yields. The use of a CAT-deficient whole-cell biocatalyst prevented the formation of geranyl acetate, and geranyl glucoside could be obtained with 100% selectivity during a biotransformation on L-scale. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to closely analyze the whole-cell biotransformation of geraniol with Escherichia coli expressing an UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase and can be used as an optimal starting point for the design of other glycosylation processes.

7.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713005

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles play important ecological roles in defense against stresses. However, if and which volatile(s) are involved in the plant-plant communication in response to herbivorous insects in tea plants remains unknown. Here, plant-plant communication experiments confirm that volatiles emitted from insects-attacked tea plants can trigger plant resistance and reduce the risk of herbivore damage by inducing jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation in neighboring plants. The emission of six compounds was significantly induced by geometrid Ectropis obliqua, one of the most common pests of the tea plant in China. Among them, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) could induce the accumulation of JA and thus promotes the resistance of neighboring intact plants to herbivorous insects. CsCYP82D47 was identified for the first time as a P450 enzyme, which catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of DMNT from (E)-nerolidol. Down-regulation of CsCYP82D47 in tea plants resulted in a reduced accumulation of DMNT and significantly reduced the release of DMNT in response to the feeding of herbivorous insects. The first evidence for plant-plant communication in response to herbivores in tea plants will help to understand how plants respond to volatile cues in response to herbivores and provide new insight into the role(s) of DMNT in tea plants.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708651

RESUMO

Monolignols are the building blocks for lignin polymerization in the apoplastic domain. Monolignol biosynthesis, transport, storage, glycosylation, and deglycosylation are the main biological processes partaking in their homeostasis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, members of the uridine diphosphate-dependent glucosyltransferases UGT72E and UGT72B subfamilies have been demonstrated to glycosylate monolignols. Here, the poplar UGT72 family, which is clustered into four groups, was characterized: Group 1 UGT72AZ1 and UGT72AZ2, homologs of Arabidopsis UGT72E1-3, as well as group 4 UGT72B37 and UGT72B39, homologs of Arabidopsis UGT72B1-3, glycosylate monolignols. In addition, promoter-GUS analyses indicated that poplar UGT72 members are expressed within vascular tissues. At the subcellular level, poplar UGT72s belonging to group 1 and group 4 were found to be associated with the nucleus and the endoplasmic reticulum. However, UGT72A2, belonging to group 2, was localized in bodies associated with chloroplasts, as well as possibly in chloroplasts. These results show a partial conservation of substrate recognition between Arabidopsis and poplar homologs, as well as divergent functions between different groups of the UGT72 family, for which the substrates remain unknown.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9144, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499528

RESUMO

A rising proportion of the world population suffers from food-related allergies, including incompatibilities to apples. Although several allergenic proteins have been found in apples, the most important proteins that cause allergic reactions to apples in Central-Northern Europe, and North America are the Mal d 1 proteins, which are homologues of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. As the demand for hypoallergenic fruits is constantly increasing, we selected apple genotypes with a low total content of Mal d 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis from segregating populations and tested the tolerability of these fruits through a human provocation study. This tiered approach, which exploited the natural diversity of apples, led to the identification of fruits, which were tolerated by allergic patients. In addition, we found a significant correlation (coefficient >0.76) between the total Mal d 1 content and flavan-3-ol amount and show that the isoform composition of the Mal d 1 proteins, which was determined by LC-MS/MS has a decisive effect on the tolerability of apple genotypes. The approach presented can be applied to other types of fruit and to other allergenic proteins. Therefore, the strategy can be used to reduce the allergen content of other plant foods, thereby improving food safety for allergy subjects.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(25): 6927-6939, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469530

RESUMO

Flavonoids are products from specialized metabolism that contribute to fruit sensorial (color) and nutritional (antioxidant properties) quality. Here, using a pseudo full-sibling F1 progeny previously studied for fruit sensorial quality of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we explored over two successive years the genetic architecture of flavonoid-related traits using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (13 compounds including anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols) and colorimetric assays (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity)). Network correlation analysis highlighted the high connectivity of flavonoid compounds within each chemical class and low correlation with colorimetric traits except for anthocyanins. Mapping onto the female and male linkage maps of 152 flavonoid metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) and of 26 colorimetric QTLs indicated colocalization on few linkage groups of major flavonoid- and taste-related QTLs previously uncovered. These results pave the way for the discovery of genetic variations underlying flavonoid mQTLs and for marker-assisted selection of strawberry varieties with improved sensorial and nutritional quality.

12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326012

RESUMO

Reference standards for Alternaria mycotoxins are rarely available, especially the modified mycotoxins alternariol-3-glucoside (AOH-3-G), alternariol-9-glucoside (AOH-9-G), and alternariol monomethylether-3-glucoside (AME-3-G). To obtain these three glucosides as analytical standards for method development and method validation, alternariol and alternariol monomethylether were enzymatically glycosylated in a whole-cell biotransformation system using a glycosyltransferase from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), namely UGT71A44, expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The formed glucosides were isolated, purified, and structurally characterized. The exact amount of the isolated compounds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection (HPLC-UV) and quantitative nuclear resonance spectroscopy (qNMR). This method has proved to be highly effective with biotransformation rates of 58% for AOH-3-G, 5% for AOH-9-G, and 24% for AME-3-G.

13.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 62(10): 1461-1468, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275096

RESUMO

Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to overcome their sessile nature. However, if and how volatiles from cold-stressed plants can trigger interplant communication is still unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence for interplant communication via inducible volatiles in cold stress. The volatiles, including nerolidol, geraniol, linalool, and methyl salicylate, emitted from cold-stressed tea plants play key role(s) in priming cold tolerance of their neighbors via a C-repeat-binding factors-dependent pathway. The knowledge will help us to understand how plants respond to volatile cues in cold stress and agricultural ecosystems.

14.
Hortic Res ; 7: 25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140234

RESUMO

4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) is an important odorant in some fruits, and is proposed to play a crucial role in the caramel-like notes of some teas. However, its biosynthesis and metabolism in tea plants are still unknown. Here, HDMF glucoside was unambiguously identified as a native metabolite in tea plants. A novel glucosyltransferase UGT74AF3a and its allelic protein UGT74AF3b specifically catalyzed the glucosylation of HDMF and the commercially important structural homologues 2 (or 5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5 (or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (EHMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HMF) to their corresponding ß-D-glucosides. Site-directed mutagenesis of UGT74AF3b to introduce a single A456V mutation resulted in improved HDMF and EHMF glucosylation activity and affected the sugar donor preference compared with that of the wild-type control enzyme. The accumulation of HDMF glucoside was consistent with the transcript levels of UGT74AF3 in different tea cultivars. In addition, transient UGT74AF3a overexpression in tobacco significantly increased the HDMF glucoside contents, and downregulation of UGT74AF3 transcripts in tea leaves significantly reduced the concentration of HDMF glucoside compared with the levels in the controls. The identification of HDMF glucoside in the tea plant and the discovery of a novel-specific UDP-glucose:HDMF glucosyltransferase in tea plants provide the foundation for improvement of tea flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF glucoside.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210023

RESUMO

The ability of glycosyltransferases (GTs) to reduce volatility, increase solubility, and thus alter the bioavailability of small molecules through glycosylation has attracted immense attention in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical industries. The lack of GTs known and the scarcity of high-throughput (HTP) available methods, hinders the extrapolation of further novel applications. In this study, the applicability of new GT-assays suitable for HTP screening was tested and compared with regard to harmlessness, robustness, cost-effectiveness and reproducibility. The UDP-Glo GT-assay, Phosphate GT Activity assay, pH-sensitive GT-assay, and UDP2-TR-FRET assay were applied and tailored to plant UDP GTs (UGTs). Vitis vinifera (UGT72B27) GT was subjected to glycosylation reaction with various phenolics. Substrate screening and kinetic parameters were evaluated. The pH-sensitive assay and the UDP2-TR-FRET assay were incomparable and unsuitable for HTP plant GT-1 family UGT screening. Furthermore, the UDP-Glo GT-assay and the Phosphate GT Activity assay yielded closely similar and reproducible KM, vmax, and kcat values. Therefore, with the easy experimental set-up and rapid readout, the two assays are suitable for HTP screening and quantitative kinetic analysis of plant UGTs. This research sheds light on new and emerging HTP assays, which will allow for analysis of novel family-1 plant GTs and will uncover further applications.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1684-1690, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957431

RESUMO

The carotenoid-derived volatile ß-ionone plays an important role in the formation of green and black tea flavors due to its low odor threshold, but its formation and the gene(s) involved in its biosynthesis during the tea withering process is(are) still unknown. In this study, we found that the content of ß-ionone increased during the tea withering process catalyzed by an unknown enzyme(s). Correlation analysis of expression patterns of Camellia sinensis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes (CsCCDs) and the ß-ionone content during the withering period revealed CsCCD4 as the most promising candidate. The full-length CsCCD4 gene was amplified from C. sinensis, and the biochemical function of the recombinant CsCCD4 protein was studied after coexpression in Escherichia coli strains engineered to accumulate ß-carotene. The recombinant protein was able to cleave a variety of carotenoids at the 9-10 and 9'-10' double bonds. Volatile ß-ionone was detected as the main product by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of ß-ionone was consistent with the expression levels of CsCCD4 in different tissues and during the withering process. The CsCCD4 expression was induced by low temperature and mechanical damage stress but not by dehydration stress. The results demonstrate that CsCCD4 catalyzes the production of ß-ionone in the tea plant and provide insight into its formation mechanism during the withering process.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/enzimologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Norisoprenoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biocatálise , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/enzimologia , Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 2880-2890, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603670

RESUMO

As a result of the high variability of fruit properties in the European plum Prunus domestica, a histochemical analysis of fruits at different stages of development was performed to understand the ripening process in cv. 'Colora' (yellow-red skinned) and cv. 'Topfive' (purple skinned). Histological analysis showed that carotenoids in the fruit had two different origins. In the fruit flesh, they derived from chloroplasts that turned into chromoplasts, whereas carotenoids in the fruit skin derived probably from proplastids. Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins showed differential localization during ripening. They were visible in the vacuole in different fruit tissues or organized in tannosomes in the fruit flesh. Tanninoplasts were observed only in hypodermal cells of 'Colora'. Toward maturity, anthocyanins were detected in the epidermis and later in the hypodermis of both cultivars. The study forms a basis for the analysis of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in European plums and their biological effects.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Prunus domestica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloroplastos/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histologia , Plastídeos/química , Prunus domestica/química , Coloração e Rotulagem , Vacúolos/química
18.
New Phytol ; 226(2): 362-372, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828806

RESUMO

Plants produce and emit terpenes, including sesquiterpenes, during growth and development, which serve different functions in plants. The sesquiterpene nerolidol has health-promoting properties and adds a floral scent to plants. However, the glycosylation mechanism of nerolidol and its biological roles in plants remained unknown. Sesquiterpene UDP-glucosyltransferases were selected by using metabolites-genes correlation analysis, and its roles in response to cold stress were studied. We discovered the first plant UGT (UGT91Q2) in tea plant, whose expression is strongly induced by cold stress and which specifically catalyzes the glucosylation of nerolidol. The accumulation of nerolidol glucoside was consistent with the expression level of UGT91Q2 in response to cold stress, as well as in different tea cultivars. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity of nerolidol glucoside was significantly higher than that of free nerolidol. Down-regulation of UGT91Q2 resulted in reduced accumulation of nerolidol glucoside, ROS scavenging capacity and tea plant cold tolerance. Tea plants absorbed airborne nerolidol and converted it to its glucoside, subsequently enhancing tea plant cold stress tolerance. Nerolidol plays a role in response to cold stress as well as in triggering plant-plant communication in response to cold stress. Our findings reveal previously unidentified roles of volatiles in response to abiotic stress in plants.

19.
Plant J ; 100(6): 1237-1253, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454115

RESUMO

Fruit softening in Fragaria (strawberry) is proposed to be associated with the modification of cell wall components such as xyloglucan by the action of cell wall-modifying enzymes. This study focuses on the in vitro and in vivo characterization of two recombinant xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) from Fragaria vesca, FvXTH9 and FvXTH6. Mining of the publicly available F. vesca genome sequence yielded 28 putative XTH genes. FvXTH9 showed the highest expression level of all FvXTHs in a fruit transcriptome data set and was selected with the closely related FvXTH6 for further analysis. To investigate their role in fruit ripening in more detail, the coding sequences of FvXTH9 and FvXTH6 were cloned into the vector pYES2 and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FvXTH9 and FvXTH6 displayed xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity towards various acceptor substrates using xyloglucan as the donor substrate. Interestingly, FvXTH9 showed activity of mixed-linkage glucan:xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (MXE) and cellulose:xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (CXE). The optimum pH of both FvXTH9 and FvXTH6 was 6.5. The prediction of subcellular localization suggested localization to the secretory pathway, which was confirmed by localization studies in Nicotiana tabacum. Overexpression showed that Fragaria × ananassa fruits infiltrated with FvXTH9 and FvXTH6 ripened faster and showed decreased firmness compared with the empty vector control pBI121. Thus FvXTH9 and also FvXTH6 might promote strawberry fruit ripening by the modification of cell wall components.


Assuntos
Fragaria/enzimologia , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/classificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Xilanos/metabolismo
20.
Food Res Int ; 123: 125-134, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284960

RESUMO

Shaking is a critical process in the formation of oolong tea quality, although the metabolites and their changes in this sensitive process have not yet been determined. In this study, untargeted analysis based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was conducted to comprehensively profile metabolite changes in different cultivars. Theanine glucoside was identified for the first time in oolong tea. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that shaking caused major changes in metabolite levels in oolong tea. Seventy-one, 83 and 73 potential features showed significant differences between pre- and post-shaking samples for var. sinensiscv. "Zimudan", "Shuixian", and "Huangmeigui," respectively. Chemometrics analysis of the three cultivars led to the identification of 18 shared metabolites, including epigallocatechin gallate, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, and hydroxy-jasmonic acid, as potential markers. This study identified the metabolites that allow monitoring of tea quality formation during both processing and preservation, and it provides a novel strategy for data reduction in studies to discover key metabolites.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Chá/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutamatos/análise , Fenilalanina/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Prolina/análise , Triptofano/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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