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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7358, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795750

RESUMO

The lack of a non-invasive test for malignant thyroid nodules makes the diagnosis of thyroid cancer (TC) challenging. Human galectin-3 (hGal3) has emerged as a promising target for medical TC imaging and diagnosis because of its exclusive overexpression in malignant thyroid tissues. We previously developed a human-chimeric αhGal3 Fab fragment derived from the rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) M3/38 with optimized clearance characteristics using PASylation technology. Here, we describe the elucidation of the hGal3 epitope recognized by mAb M3/38, X-ray crystallographic analysis of its complex with the chimeric Fab and, based on the three-dimensional structure, the rational humanization of the Fab by CDR grafting. Four CDR-grafted versions were designed using structurally most closely related fully human immunoglobulin VH/VL regions of which one-employing the acceptor framework regions of the HIV-1 neutralizing human antibody m66-showed the highest antigen affinity. By introducing two additional back-mutations to the rodent donor sequence, an affinity toward hGal3 indistinguishable from the chimeric Fab was achieved (KD = 0.34 ± 0.02 nM in SPR). The PASylated humanized Fab was site-specifically labelled with the fluorescent dye Cy7 and applied for the immuno-histochemical staining of human tissue sections representative for different TCs. The same protein was conjugated with the metal chelator Dfo, followed by radiolabelling with 89Zr(IV). The resulting protein tracer allowed the highly sensitive and specific PET/CT imaging of orthotopic tumors in mice, which was confirmed by quantitative analysis of radiotracer accumulation. Thus, the PASylated humanized αhGal3 Fab offers clinical potential for the diagnostic imaging of TC.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6227, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737524

RESUMO

Evaluation of treatment response is among the major challenges in modern oncology. We herein used a monoclonal antibody targeting the EGF receptor (EGFR) labelled with the alpha emitter 213Bi (213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb). EJ28Luc (bladder) and LN18 (glioma) cancer cells, both overexpressing EGFR, were incubated for 3 h with the radioimmunoconjugate. To assess the responses in the core carbon metabolism upon this treatment, these cancer cell lines were subsequently cultivated for 18 h in the presence of [U-13C6]glucose. 13C-enrichment and isotopologue profiles of key amino acids were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in order to monitor the impacts of the radionuclide-treatment upon glucose metabolism. In comparison to untreated controls, treatment of EJ28Luc cells with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb resulted in a significantly decreased incorporation of 13C from [U-13C6]glucose into alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, proline and serine. In sharp contrast, the same amino acids did not display less 13C-enrichments during treatment of the LN18 cells. The data indicate early treatment response of the bladder cancer cells, but not of the glioma cells though cell lines were killed following 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb treatment. The pilot study shows that the 13C-labelling approach is a valid tool to assess the responsiveness of cancer cells upon radionuclide-treatment in considerable metabolic detail.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1191, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441943

RESUMO

The in vivo assessment of tissue metabolism represents a novel strategy for the evaluation of oncologic disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a high-prevalence, high-mortality tumor entity often discovered at a late stage. Recent evidence indicates that survival differences depend on metabolic alterations in tumor tissue, with particular focus on glucose metabolism and lactate production. Here, we present an in vivo imaging technique for metabolic tumor phenotyping in rat models of HCC. Endogenous HCC was induced in Wistar rats by oral diethyl-nitrosamine administration. Peak lactate-to-alanine signal ratios (L/A) were assessed with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (HPMRSI) after [1-13C]pyruvate injection. Cell lines were derived from a subset of primary tumors, re-implanted in nude rats, and assessed in vivo with dynamic hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPMRS) after [1-13C]pyruvate injection and kinetic modelling of pyruvate metabolism, taking into account systemic lactate production and recirculation. For ex vivo validation, enzyme activity and metabolite concentrations were spectroscopically quantified in cell and tumor tissue extracts. Mean peak L/A was higher in endogenous HCC compared to non-tumorous tissue. Dynamic HPMRS revealed higher pyruvate-to-lactate conversion rates (kpl) and lactate signal in subcutaneous tumors derived from high L/A tumor cells, consistent with ex vivo measurements of higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in these cells. In conclusion, HPMRS and HPMRSI reveal distinct tumor phenotypes corresponding to differences in glycolytic metabolism in HCC tumor tissue.

4.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 6(1): 4, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The radiohybrid (rh) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted ligand [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7 has previously been clinically assessed and demonstrated promising results for PET-imaging of prostate cancer. The ligand is present as a mixture of four stereoisomers ([18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7.1, - 7.2, - 7.3 and - 7.4) and after a preclinical isomer selection process, [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7.3 has entered formal clinical trials. Here we report on the establishment of a fully automated production process for large-scale production of [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7/ -7.3 under GMP conditions (EudraLex). METHODS: [18F]Fluoride in highly enriched [18O]H2O was retained on a strong anion exchange cartridge, rinsed with anhydrous acetonitrile and subsequently eluted with a solution of [K+ ⊂ 2.2.2]OH- in anhydrous acetonitrile into a reactor containing Ga-rhPSMA ligand and oxalic acid in DMSO. 18F-for-19F isotopic exchange at the Silicon-Fluoride Acceptor (SiFA) was performed at room temperature, followed by dilution with buffer and cartridge-based purification. Optimum process parameters were determined on the laboratory scale and thereafter implemented into an automated synthesis. Data for radiochemical yield (RCY), purity and quality control were analyzed for 243 clinical productions (160 for [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7; 83 for [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7.3). RESULTS: The automated production of [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7 and the single isomer [18F]Ga-rhPSMA-7.3 is completed in approx. 16 min with an average RCY of 49.2 ± 8.6% and an excellent reliability of 98.8%. Based on the different starting activities (range: 31-130 GBq, 89 ± 14 GBq) an average molar activity of 291 ± 62 GBq/µmol (range: 50-450 GBq/µmol) was reached for labeling of 150 nmol (231 µg) precursor. Radiochemical purity, as measured by radio-high performance liquid chromatography and radio-thin layer chromatography, was 99.9 ± 0.2% and 97.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This investigation demonstrates that 18F-for-19F isotopic exchange is well suited for the fast, efficient and reliable automated routine production of 18F-labeled PSMA-targeted ligands. Due to its simplicity, speed and robustness the development of further SiFA-based radiopharmaceuticals is highly promising and can be of far-reaching importance for future theranostic concepts.

5.
Theranostics ; 11(4): 1864-1876, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408786

RESUMO

Rationale: The high expression of Galectin-3 (Gal3) in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques suggests its participation in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and raises the possibility to use it as a target to image disease severity in vivo. Here, we explored the feasibility of tracking atherosclerosis by targeting Gal3 expression in plaques of apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mice via PET imaging. Methods: Targeting of Gal3 in M0-, M1- and M2 (M2a/M2c)-polarized macrophages was assessed in vitro using a Gal3-F(ab')2 mAb labeled with AlexaFluor®488 and 89Zr- desferrioxamine-thioureyl-phenyl-isothiocyanate (DFO). To visualize plaques in vivo, ApoE-KO mice were injected i.v. with 89Zr-DFO-Gal3-F(ab')2 mAb and imaged via PET/CT 48 h post injection. Whole length aortas harvested from euthanized mice were processed for Sudan-IV staining, autoradiography, and immunostaining for Gal3, CD68 and α-SMA expression. To confirm accumulation of the tracer in plaques, ApoE-KO mice were injected i.v. with Cy5.5-Gal3-F(ab')2 mAb, euthanized 48 h post injection, followed by cryosections of the body and acquisition of fluorescent images. To explore the clinical potential of this imaging modality, immunostaining for Gal3, CD68 and α-SMA expression were carried out in human plaques. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) analyses were performed to measure LGALS3 (i.e. a synonym for Gal3) gene expression in each macrophage of several subtypes present in murine or human plaques. Results: Preferential binding to M2 macrophages was observed with both AlexaFluor®488-Gal3-F(ab')2 and 89Zr-DFO-Gal3-F(ab')2 mAbs. Focal and specific 89Zr-DFO-Gal3-F(ab')2 mAb uptake was detected in plaques of ApoE-KO mice by PET/CT. Autoradiography and immunohistochemical analyses of aortas confirmed the expression of Gal3 within plaques mainly in macrophages. Moreover, a specific fluorescent signal was visualized within the lesions of vascular structures burdened by plaques in mice. Gal3 expression in human plaques showed similar Gal3 expression patterns when compared to their murine counterparts. Conclusions: Our data reveal that 89Zr-DFO-Gal3-F(ab')2 mAb PET/CT is a potentially novel tool to image atherosclerotic plaques at different stages of development, allowing knowledge-based tailored individual intervention in clinically significant disease.

6.
J Nucl Med ; 61(Suppl 2): 110S-111S, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293431
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased angiogenesis after myocardial infarction is considered an important favorable prognostic parameter. The αvß3 integrin is a key mediator of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and an important molecular target for imaging of neovasculature and repair processes after MI. Thus, imaging of αvß3 expression might provide a novel biomarker for assessment of myocardial angiogenesis as a prognostic marker of left ventricular remodeling after MI. Currently, there is limited data available regarding the association of myocardial blood flow and αvß3 integrin expression after myocardial infarction in humans. METHODS: Twelve patients were examined 31 ± 14 days after MI with PET/CT using [18F]Galacto-RGD and [13N]NH3 and with cardiac MRI including late enhancement on the same day. Normal myocardium (remote) and areas of infarction (lesion) were identified on the [18F]Galacto-RGD PET/CT images by correlation with [13N]NH3 PET and cardiac MRI. Lesion/liver-, lesion/blood-, and lesion/remote ratios were calculated. Blood flow and [18F]Galacto-RGD uptake were quantified and correlated for each myocardial segment (AHA 17-segment model). RESULTS: In 5 patients, increased [18F]Galacto-RGD uptake was notable within or adjacent to the infarction areas with a lesion/remote ratio of 46% (26-83%; lesion/blood 1.15 ± 0.06; lesion/liver 0.61 ± 0.18). [18F]Galacto-RGD uptake correlated significantly with infarct size (R = 0.73; p = 0.016). Moreover, it correlated significantly with restricted blood flow for all myocardial segments (R = - 0.39; p < 0.0001) and even stronger in severely hypoperfused areas (R = - 0.75; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: [18F]Galacto-RGD PET/CT allows the visualization and quantification of myocardial αvß3 expression as a key player in angiogenesis in a subset of patients after MI. αvß3 expression was more pronounced in patients with larger infarcts and was generally more intense but not restricted to areas with more impaired blood flow, proving that tracer uptake was largely independent of unspecific perfusion effects. Based on these promising results, larger prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the potential of αvß3 imaging for assessment of myocardial angiogenesis and prediction of ventricular remodeling.

8.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859709

RESUMO

Rationale: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are a rare tumor entity originating from adreno-medullary chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla or in sympathetic, paravertebral ganglia outside the medulla. Especially small lesions are difficult to detect by conventional CT or MR imaging and even by SPECT imaging with currently available radiotracers (e.g. MIBG). The novel PET-radiotracer F-18-flubrobenguane could change the diagnostic paradigm in suspected pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas due to its homology to MIBG and the general advantages of PET-imaging. Aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate F-18-flubrobenguane in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and to investigate the biodistribution in patients. Methods: 24 Patients with suspected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma underwent PET/CT or PET/MRI at 63±24 min p.i. after injection of 256±33 MBq F-18-flubrobenguane. SUVmean and SUVmax values of organs were measured with spherical volume-of-interests. Threshold segmented volume-of-interests were used to measure SUVmean/max of the tumor lesions. One reader evaluated all cross-sectional imaging datasets (CT or MRI) separately as well as the PET hybrid datasets and reported lesion number and size. A three point-scale indicating the diagnostic certainty for a positive lesion was assigned. Results: F-18-flubrobenguane showed a reproducible, stable biodistribution with highest values of SUVmax/mean in the thyroid gland (30.3±2.2/22.5±1.6), pancreas (12.2±0.8/9.5±0.7), tumor lesions (16.8±1.7/10.1±1.1) and the lowest SUVmax/mean values in muscle (1.1±0.06/0.7±0.04) and lung (2.5±0.17/1.85±0.13). In a subgroup analysis both pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma lesions showed a significantly higher average SUVmean compared to healthy adrenal glands (11.9±2.0 vs 9.9±1.5 vs 3.7±0.2). In total 47 lesions were detected. The reader reported more and smaller lesions with higher certainty in PET hybrid imaging compared to conventional imaging, however, statistical significance was not reached. 61% (14/23) of the 23 (23/47, 49%) lesions smaller than 1 cm were found on hybrid imaging only. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest F-18-flubrobenguane PET as a new effective staging tool in patients with suspected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Major advantages are the fast acquisition and high spatial resolution of PET imaging and intense uptake in tumor lesions facilitating lesion detection. Further studies are warranted to define its role particularly in comparison to standard diagnostic procedures such as MRI or I-123-MIBG SPECT/CT.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(18): 8264-8280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724470

RESUMO

Non-invasive PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in cancer and inflammation as well as CXCR4-targeted radioligand therapy (RLT) have recently found their way into clinical research by the development of the theranostic agents [68Ga]PentixaFor (cyclo(D-Tyr1-D-[NMe]Orn2(AMBS-[68Ga]DOTA)-Arg3-Nal4-Gly5) = [68Ga]DOTA-AMBS-CPCR4) and [177Lu/90Y]PentixaTher (cyclo(D-3-iodo-Tyr1-D-[NMe]Orn2(AMBS-[177Lu/90Y]DOTA)-Arg3-Nal4-Gly5) = [177Lu/90Y]DOTA-AMBS-iodoCPCR4). Although convincing clinical results have already been obtained with both agents, this study was designed to further investigate the required structural elements for improved ligand-receptor interaction for both peptide cores (CPCR4 and iodoCPCR4). To this aim, a series of DOTA-conjugated CPCR4- and iodoCPCR4-based ligands with new linker structures, replacing the AMBA-linker in PentixaFor and PentixaTher, were synthesized and evaluated. Methods: The in vitro investigation of the novel compounds alongside with the reference peptides PentixaFor and PentixaTher encompassed the determination of hCXCR4 and mCXCR4 affinity (IC50) of the respective natGa-, natLu-, natY- and natBi-complexes in Jurkat and Eµ-myc 1080 cells using [125I]FC-131 and [125I]CPCR4.3 as radioligands, respectively, as well as the evaluation of the internalization and externalization kinetics of selected 68Ga- and 177Lu-labeled compounds in hCXCR4-transfected Chem-1 cells. Comparative small animal PET imaging studies (1h p.i.) as well as in vivo biodistribution studies (1, 6 and 48h p.i.) were performed in Daudi (human B cell lymphoma) xenograft bearing CB17 SCID mice. Results: Based on the affinity data and cellular uptake studies, [68Ga/177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-CPCR4 and [68Ga/177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-iodoCPCR4 (with r-a-ABA = D-Arg-D-Ala-4-aminobenzoyl-) were selected for further evaluation. Both analogs show app. 10-fold enhanced hCXCR4 affinity compared to the respective references [68Ga]PentixaFor and [177Lu]PentixaTher, four times higher cellular uptake in hCXCR4 expressing cells and improved cellular retention. Unfortunately, the improved in vitro binding and uptake characteristics of [68Ga]DOTA-r-a-ABA-CPCR4 and -iodoCPCR4 could not be recapitulated in initial PET imaging studies; both compounds showed similar uptake in the Daudi xenografts as [68Ga]PentixaFor, alongside with higher background accumulation, especially in the kidneys. However, the subsequent biodistribution studies performed for the corresponding 177Lu-labeled analogs revealed a clear superiority of [177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-CPCR4 and [177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-iodoCPCR4 over [177Lu]PentixaTher with respect to tumor uptake (18.3±3.7 and 17.2±2.0 %iD/g, respectively, at 1h p.i. vs 12.4±3.7%iD/g for [177Lu]PentixaTher) as well as activity retention in tumor up to 48h. Especially for [177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-CPCR4 with its low background accumulation, tumor/organ ratios at 48h were 2- to 4-fold higher than those obtained for [177Lu]PentixaTher (except for kidney). Conclusions: The in-depth evaluation of a series of novel CPCR4- and iodoCPCR4 analogs with modified linker structure has yielded reliable structure-activity relationships. It was generally observed that a) AMBA-by-ABA-substitution leads to enhanced ligand internalization, b) the extension of the ABA-linker by two additional amino acids (DOTA-Xaa2-Xaa1-ABA-) provides sufficient linker length to minimize the interaction of the [M3+]DOTA-chelate with the receptor, and that c) introduction of a cationic side chain (Xaa2) greatly enhances receptor affinity of the constructs, obliterating the necessity for Tyr1-iodination of the pentapeptide core to maintain high receptor affinity (such as in [177Lu]PentixaTher). As a result, [177Lu]DOTA-r-a-ABA-CPCR4 has emerged from this study as a powerful second-generation therapeutic CXCR4 ligand with greatly improved targeting efficiency and tumor retention and will be further evaluated in preclinical and clinical CXCR4-targeted dosimetry and RLT studies.

10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a prodromal stage of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG reveals metabolic perturbations, which are scored by spatial covariance analysis. However, the resultant pattern scores do not capture the spatially heterogeneous trajectories of metabolic changes between individual brain regions. Assuming metabolic progression occurs as a continuum from the healthy control (HC) condition to iRBD and then PD, we investigated spatial dynamics of progressively perturbed glucose metabolism in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: 19 iRBD patients, 38 PD patients and 19 HC subjects underwent 18F-FDG PET. The images were spatially normalized, scaled to the global mean uptake, and automatically parcellated. We contrasted regional metabolism by group, and allocated the inferred progression to one of several possible trajectories. We further investigated the correlations between 18F-FDG uptake and the disease duration in the iRBD and PD groups, respectively. We also explored relationships between 18F-FDG uptake and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor (UPDRS III) scores in the PD group. RESULTS: PD patients exhibited more extensive relative hyper- and hypo-metabolism than iRBD patients. We identified three dynamic metabolic trajectories, cross-sectional hypo- or hypermetabolism, cross-sectionally unchanged hypo- or hypermetabolism, cross-sectionally late hypo- or hypermetabolism, appearing only in the contrast of PD with iRBD. No correlation was found between relative 18F-FDG metabolism and disease duration in the iRBD group. Regional hyper- and hypo-metabolism in the PD patients correlated with disease duration or clinical UPDRS III scores. CONCLUSION: Cerebral metabolism changes heterogeneously in a continuum extending from HC to iRBD and PD groups in this preliminary study. The distinctive metabolic trajectories point towards a potential neuroimaging biomarker for conversion of iRBD to frank PD, which should be amenable to advanced pattern recognition analysis in future longitudinal studies.

11.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 54(2): 114-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377263

RESUMO

Purpose: PASylation® offers the ability to systematically tune and optimize the pharmacokinetics of protein tracers for molecular imaging. Here we report the first clinical translation of a PASylated Fab fragment (89Zr∙Df-HER2-Fab-PAS200) for the molecular imaging of tumor-related HER2 expression. Methods: A patient with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received 37 MBq of 89Zr∙Df-HER2-Fab-PAS200 at a total mass dose of 70 µg. PET/CT was carried out 6, 24, and 45 h after injection, followed by image analysis of biodistribution, normal organ uptake, and lesion targeting. Results: Images show a biodistribution typical for protein tracers, characterized by a prominent blood pool 6 h p.i., which decreased over time. Lesions were detectable as early as 24 h p.i. 89Zr∙Df-HER2-Fab-PAS200 was tolerated well. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a PASylated Fab tracer shows appropriate blood clearance to allow sensitive visualization of small tumor lesions in a clinical setting.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443442

RESUMO

The evolving dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the increasing infection numbers require diagnostic tools to identify patients at high risk for a severe disease course. Here we evaluate clinical and imaging parameters for estimating the need of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. We collected clinical, laboratory and imaging data from 65 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Two radiologists evaluated the severity of findings in computed tomography (CT) images on a scale from 1 (no characteristic signs of COVID-19) to 5 (confluent ground glass opacities in over 50% of the lung parenchyma). The volume of affected lung was quantified using commercially available software. Machine learning modelling was performed to estimate the risk for ICU treatment. Patients with a severe course of COVID-19 had significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts and significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. The radiological severity grading was significantly increased in ICU patients. Multivariate random forest modelling showed a mean ± standard deviation sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.72 ± 0.1, 0.86 ± 0.16 and 0.80 ± 0.1 and a receiver operating characteristic-area under curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.79 ± 0.1. The need for ICU treatment is independently associated with affected lung volume, radiological severity score, CRP, and IL-6.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413079

RESUMO

Previous unimodal PET and fMRI studies in humans revealed a reproducible vestibular brain activation pattern, but with variations in its weighting and expansiveness. Hybrid studies minimizing methodological variations at baseline conditions are rare and still lacking for task-based designs. Thus, we applied for the first time hybrid 3T PET-MRI scanning (Siemens mMR) in healthy volunteers using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in healthy volunteers in order to directly compare H215O-PET and BOLD MRI responses. List mode PET acquisition started with the injection of 750 MBq H215O simultaneously to MRI EPI sequences. Group-level statistical parametric maps were generated for GVS vs. rest contrasts of PET, MR-onset (event-related), and MR-block. All contrasts showed a similar bilateral vestibular activation pattern with remarkable proximity of activation foci. Both BOLD contrasts gave more bilateral wide-spread activation clusters than PET; no area showed contradictory signal responses. PET still confirmed the right-hemispheric lateralization of the vestibular system, whereas BOLD-onset revealed only a tendency. The reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction concept was confirmed by PET signal decreases in primary and secondary visual cortices, and BOLD-block decreases in secondary visual areas. In conclusion, MRI activation maps contained a mixture of CBF measured using H215O-PET and additional non-CBF effects, and the activation-deactivation pattern of the BOLD-block appears to be more similar to the H215O-PET than the BOLD-onset.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Percepção/fisiologia
14.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(13): 3074-3083, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate myocardial viability assessment with hybrid 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ([18F]FDG-PET/MR) in predicting left ventricular (LV) wall motion recovery after percutaneous revascularisation of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine patients with CTO and corresponding wall motion abnormality (WMA) underwent [18F]FDG-PET/MR imaging for viability assessment prior to percutaneous revascularisation. After 3-6 months, 23 patients underwent follow-up MR to evaluate wall motion recovery. In total, 124 segments were assigned to the CTO territories, while 80 segments displayed impaired wall motion. Of these, 68% (54) were concordantly viable in PET and MR; conversely, only 2 segments (2%) were assessed non-viable by both modalities. However, 30% showed a discordant viability pattern, either PET non-viable/MR viable (3 segments, 4%) or PET viable/MR non-viable (21 segments, 26%), and the latter revealed a significant wall motion improvement at follow-up (p = 0.033). Combined imaging by [18F]FDG-PET/MR showed a fair accuracy in predicting myocardial recovery after CTO revascularisation (PET/MR area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.72, p = 0.002), which was superior to LGE-MR (AUC = 0.66) and [18F]FDG-PET (AUC = 0.58) alone. CONCLUSION: Hybrid PET/MR imaging prior to CTO revascularisation predicts more accurately the recovery of dysfunctional myocardium than PET or MR alone. Its complementary information may identify regions of viable myocardium with increased potential for functional recovery.

15.
J Nucl Med ; 61(12): 1765-1771, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332145

RESUMO

C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a transmembrane chemokine receptor involved in growth, survival, and dissemination of cancer, including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. MRI is the standard imaging technology for central nervous system (CNS) involvement of B-cell lymphoma and provides high sensitivity but moderate specificity. Therefore, novel molecular and functional imaging strategies are urgently required. Methods: In this proof-of-concept study, 11 patients with lymphoma of the CNS (8 primary and 3 secondary involvement) were imaged with the CXCR4-directed PET tracer 68Ga-pentixafor. To evaluate the predictive value of this imaging modality, treatment response, as determined by MRI, was correlated with quantification of CXCR4 expression by 68Ga-pentixafor PET in vivo before initiation of treatment in 7 of 11 patients. Results: 68Ga-pentixafor PET showed excellent contrast with the surrounding brain parenchyma in all patients with active disease. Furthermore, initial CXCR4 uptake determined by PET correlated with subsequent treatment response as assessed by MRI. Conclusion: 68Ga-pentixafor PET represents a novel diagnostic tool for CNS lymphoma with potential implications for theranostic approaches as well as response and risk assessment.

16.
NMR Biomed ; 33(6): e4291, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154970

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to acquire the transient MRI signal of hyperpolarized tracers and their metabolites efficiently, for which specialized imaging sequences are required. In this work, a multi-echo balanced steady-state free precession (me-bSSFP) sequence with Iterative Decomposition with Echo Asymmetry and Least squares estimation (IDEAL) reconstruction was implemented on a clinical 3 T positron-emission tomography/MRI system for fast 2D and 3D metabolic imaging. Simulations were conducted to obtain signal-efficient sequence protocols for the metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized biomolecules. The sequence was applied in vitro and in vivo for probing the enzymatic exchange of hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate and [1-13 C]lactate. Chemical shift resolution was achieved using a least-square, iterative chemical species separation algorithm in the reconstruction. In vitro, metabolic conversion rate measurements from me-bSSFP were compared with NMR spectroscopy and free induction decay-chemical shift imaging (FID-CSI). In vivo, a rat MAT-B-III tumor model was imaged with me-bSSFP and FID-CSI. 2D metabolite maps of [1-13 C]pyruvate and [1-13 C]lactate acquired with me-bSSFP showed the same spatial distributions as FID-CSI. The pyruvate-lactate conversion kinetics measured with me-bSSFP and NMR corresponded well. Dynamic 2D metabolite mapping with me-bSSFP enabled the acquisition of up to 420 time frames (scan time: 180-350 ms/frame) before the hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate was relaxed below noise level. 3D metabolite mapping with a large field of view (180 × 180 × 48 mm3 ) and high spatial resolution (5.6 × 5.6 × 2 mm3 ) was conducted with me-bSSFP in a scan time of 8.2 seconds. It was concluded that Me-bSSFP improves the spatial and temporal resolution for metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate and [1-13 C]lactate compared with either of the FID-CSI or EPSI methods reported at 3 T, providing new possibilities for clinical and preclinical applications.

17.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(3): e146-e156, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135118

RESUMO

Radiotheranostics, injectable radiopharmaceuticals with antitumour effects, have seen rapid development over the past decade. Although some formulations are already approved for human use, more radiopharmaceuticals will enter clinical practice in the next 5 years, potentially introducing new therapeutic choices for patients. Despite these advances, several challenges remain, including logistics, supply chain, regulatory issues, and education and training. By highlighting active developments in the field, this Review aims to alert practitioners to the value of radiotheranostics and to outline a roadmap for future development. Multidisciplinary approaches in clinical trial design and therapeutic administration will become essential to the continued progress of this evolving therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/tendências , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/tendências , Animais , Difusão de Inovações , Previsões , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Thyroid ; 30(9): 1314-1326, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200708

RESUMO

Background: The lack of facile methods for the specific characterization of malignant thyroid nodules makes the diagnosis of thyroid cancer (TC) challenging. Due to its restricted expression in such nodules, the cell-associated lectin galectin-3 (Gal3) has emerged as a marker for TC with growing interest for in vivo imaging as well as targeted radionuclide therapy. To accelerate translation into clinical application, we have developed a cognate chimeric human antigen-binding fragment (Fab) derived from the rat anti-Gal3 monoclonal antibody M3/38. Methods: The variable immunoglobulin (Ig) light and heavy chain sequences were cloned from the hybridoma cell line, and the corresponding Fab carrying human IgG1/κ constant genes was functionally produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. To moderately prolong its plasma half-life and, thus, increase tumor uptake, the recombinant Fab was fused with a long disordered amino acid chain comprising in total 200 Pro, Ala, and Ser residues (PASylation). This novel tracer was subjected to in vitro characterization and in vivo validation by using two thyroid cancer orthotopic murine models. To this end, the αGal3-Fab-PAS200 was conjugated with deferoxamine (Dfo), labeled with 89Zr under mild conditions and tested for binding on TC cell lines. Athymic nude mice were inoculated either with FRO82-1 or with CAL62 tumor cells into the left thyroid lobe. After intravenous injection with ∼3.0 MBq of 89Zr-Dfo-PAS200-Fab, these mice were subjected to positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging followed by quantification of tumor accumulation and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The αGal3-Fab-PAS200 revealed high affinity toward the recombinant Gal3 antigen, with a dissociation constant ≤1 nM as measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and radioactive cell binding assay. The in vivo Gal3-targeting by the 89Zr(IV)-labeled protein tracer, as investigated by immuno-PET, demonstrated highly selective and fast accumulation in orthotopically implanted tumors, with strong contrast images achieved 24 hours postinjection, and no uptake in the tumor-free thyroid lobe, as also confirmed by biodistribution studies. Conclusions: The chimeric αGal3 89Zr-Dfo-PAS200-Fab tracer exhibits selective accumulation in the tumor-bearing thyroid lobe of xenograft mice. Thus, this novel radioactive probe offers potential to change TC management, in addition to current diagnostic procedures, and to reduce unnecessary thyroidectomies.

19.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 2172-2187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089738

RESUMO

Enhanced amino acid supply and dysregulated integrin signaling constitute two hallmarks of cancer and are pivotal for metastatic transformation of cells. In line with its function at the crossroads of both processes, overexpression of CD98hc is clinically observed in various cancer malignancies, thus rendering it a promising tumor target. Methods: We describe the development of Anticalin proteins based on the lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) scaffold against the human CD98hc ectodomain (hCD98hcED) using directed evolution and protein design. X-ray structural analysis was performed to identify the epitope recognized by the lead Anticalin candidate. The Anticalin - with a tuned plasma half-life using PASylation® technology - was labeled with 89Zr and investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) of CD98-positive tumor xenograft mice. Results: The Anticalin P3D11 binds CD98hc with picomolar affinity and recognizes a protruding loop structure surrounded by several glycosylation sites within the solvent exposed membrane-distal part of the hCD98hcED. In vitro studies revealed specific binding activity of the Anticalin towards various CD98hc-expressing human tumor cell lines, suggesting broader applicability in cancer research. PET/CT imaging of mice bearing human prostate carcinoma xenografts using the optimized and 89Zr-labeled Anticalin demonstrated strong and specific tracer accumulation (8.6 ± 1.1 %ID/g) as well as a favorable tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.8. Conclusion: Our findings provide a first proof of concept to exploit CD98hc for non-invasive biomedical imaging. The novel Anticalin-based αhCD98hc radiopharmaceutical constitutes a promising tool for preclinical and, potentially, clinical applications in oncology.

20.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test combined dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-derived parameters for prediction of histopathological grading in a rat Diethyl Nitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. METHODS: 15 male Wistar rats, aged 10 weeks were treated with oral DEN 0.01 % in drinking water and monitored until HCCs were detectable. DCE-MRI and PET were performed consecutively on small animal scanners. 38 tumors were identified and manually segmented based on HCC-specific contrast enhancement patterns. Grading (G2/3: 24 tumors, G1:14 tumors) alongside other histopathological parameters, tumor volume, contrast agent and 18F-FDG uptake metrics were noted. Class imbalance was addressed using SMOTE and collinearity was removed using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. A logistic regression model was fit separately to the individual parameter groups (DCE-MRI-derived, PET-derived, tumor volume) and the combined parameters. RESULTS: The combined model using all imaging-derived parameters achieved a mean ± STD sensitivity of 0.88 ± 0.16, specificity of 0.70 ± 0.20 and AUC of 0.90 ± 0.03. No correlation was found between tumor grading and tumor volume, morphology, necrosis, extracellular matrix, immune cell infiltration or underlying liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: A combination of DCE-MRI- and 18F-FDG-PET-derived parameters provides high accuracy for histopathological grading of hepatocellular carcinoma in a relevant translational model system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Tumoral
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