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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646272

RESUMO

Importance: Telestroke is increasingly used in hospital emergency departments, but there has been limited research on its impact on treatment and outcomes. Objective: To describe differences in care patterns and outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke who present to hospitals with and without telestroke capacity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients with acute ischemic stroke who first presented to hospitals with telestroke capacity were matched with patients who presented to control hospitals without telestroke capacity. All traditional Medicare beneficiaries with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (approximately 2.5 million) who presented to a hospital between January 2008 and June 2017 were considered. Matching was based on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, hospital characteristics, and month and year of admission. Hospitals included short-term acute care and critical access hospitals in the US without local stroke expertise. In 643 hospitals with telestroke capacity, there were 76 636 patients with stroke who were matched 1:1 to patients at similar hospitals without telestroke capacity. Data were analyzed in July 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of reperfusion treatment through thrombolysis with alteplase or thrombectomy, mortality at 30 days from admission, spending through 90 days from admission, and functional status as measured by days spent living in the community after discharge. Results: In the final sample of 153 272 patients, 88 386 (57.7%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 78.8 (10.4) years. Patients cared for at telestroke hospitals had higher rates of reperfusion treatment compared with those cared for at control hospitals (6.8% vs 6.0%; difference, 0.78 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.54-1.03; P < .001) and lower 30-day mortality (13.1% vs 13.6%; difference, 0.50 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83, P = .003). There were no differences in days spent living in the community following discharge or in spending. Increases in reperfusion treatment were largest in the lowest-volume hospitals, among rural residents, and among patients 85 years and older. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with ischemic stroke treated at hospitals with telestroke capacity were more likely to receive reperfusion treatment and have lower 30-day mortality.

2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 487-495, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646862

RESUMO

Telehealth services that allow remote communication between the patient and the clinical team are an emerging part of care delivery. Given language barriers, patients with limited English proficiency present a unique set of challenges in integrating telehealth and ensuring equity. Using data from 84,419 respondents in the 2015-18 California Health Interview Survey, we assessed the association between limited English proficiency and telehealth use (telephone and video visits) and evaluated the impact of telehealth use on health care access and use. We found that patients with limited English proficiency had lower rates of telehealth use (4.8 percent versus 12.3 percent) compared with proficient English speakers. In weighted multivariable logistic regression, patients with limited English proficiency still had about half the odds of using telehealth. Telehealth use was associated with increased emergency department use for all patients. This study suggests that policy makers and clinicians must focus on limited English proficiency as an important dimension to promote telehealth equity and decrease digital divides.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617814

RESUMO

We characterized monitor utilization in stroke survivors and assessed associations with underlying clinical atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke 10/2018-6/2019 without prevalent AF and assessed the six-month incidence of monitor utilization (Holter/ECG, event/patch, implantable loop recorder [ILR]) using Fine-Gray models accounting for the competing risk of death. We assessed for predictors of monitor utilization using cause-specific hazards regression adjusted for the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF (CHARGE-AF) score, stroke subtype, and discharge disposition. Of 493 individuals with acute ischemic stroke (age 65±16; 47% women), the six-month incidence of monitor utilization was 36.5% (95% CI 31.7, 41.3), and six-month mortality was 13.6% (10.4, 16.8). Monitoring was performed with Holter/event (n=107; 72.3%), ILR (n=34; 23.0%) or both (n=7; 4.7%). Monitoring was more likely after cryptogenic (hazard ratio [HR] 4.53 [3.22, 6.39]; six-month monitor incidence 70.6%) and cardioembolic (HR 2.43 [1.28, 4.62]; incidence 47.7%) stroke, versus other/undocumented (incidence 22.7%). Among individuals with cryptogenic stroke, the six-month incidence of ILR was 27.5% [18.5, 36.5]. Monitoring was more likely after discharge home (HR 1.80 [1.29, 2.52]; incidence 46.1%) versus facility (incidence 24.9%). Monitoring was not associated with CHARGE-AF score (HR 1.08 per 1-SD increase [0.91, 1.27]), even though CHARGE-AF was associated with incident AF (HR 1.56 [1.03, 2.35]). In conclusion, rhythm monitors are utilized after one-third of ischemic strokes. Monitoring is more frequent after cryptogenic strokes, though ILR use is low. Monitor utilization is not associated with AF risk.

4.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is common after stroke and is often treated with antidepressant medications (AD). ADs have also been hypothesised to improve stroke recovery, although recent randomised trials were neutral. We investigated the patterns of in-hospital AD initiation after ischaemic stroke and association with clinical and readmission outcomes. METHODS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older hospitalised for ischaemic stroke in participating Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals between April and December 2014 were eligible for this analysis. Outcome measures included days alive and not in a healthcare institution (home time), all-cause mortality and readmission within 1-year postdischarge. Propensity score (PS)-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between AD use and each outcome measure. We also compared outcomes in patients prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) AD versus those prescribed non-SSRI ADs. RESULTS: Of 21 805 AD naïve patients included in this analysis, 1835 (8.4%) were started on an AD at discharge. Patients started on an AD had higher rates of depression and prior ischaemic stroke, presented with higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and were less likely to be discharged home. Similarly, patients started on an SSRI had lower rates of discharge to home. Adjusting for stroke severity, patients started on an AD had worse all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, major adverse cardiac events, readmission for depression and decreased home-time. However, AD use was also associated with an increased risk for the sepsis, a falsification endpoint, suggesting the presence of residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ischaemic stroke initiated on AD therapy are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes and readmission even after PS adjustment, suggesting that poststroke depression requiring medication is a poor prognostic sign. Further research is needed to explore the reasons why depression is associated with worse outcome, and whether AD treatment modifies this risk or not.

5.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120031300, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patient care-seeking has likely changed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In stroke, delayed or avoided care may translate to substantial morbidity. We sought to determine the effect of the pandemic on patterns of stroke patient presentation and quality of care. METHODS: We analyzed data from 25 New England hospitals: one urban, academic comprehensive stroke center and telestroke hub, and 24 spoke hospitals in the telestroke network. We included all telestroke consultations from the 24 spokes, and all stroke admissions to the comprehensive stroke center hub from November 1, 2019 through April 30, 2020. We compared rates of presentation, timeliness presentation, and quality of care pre- versus post-March 1, 2020. We examined trends in patient demographics, stroke severity, timeliness, diagnoses including large vessel occlusion, alteplase use, and endovascular thrombectomy among eligible subjects. We compared proportions and bivariate comparisons to examine for changes pre- versus post-March 1, 2020 and used linear regression to examine trends over time. RESULTS: Among 1248 patient presentations (844 telestroke consultations, 404 comprehensive stroke center admissions), telestroke consultations and ischemic stroke patient admissions decreased among the spokes and hub. Age and stroke severity were unchanged over the study period. We found no change in alteplase administration at telestroke spoke hospitals but did note a decrease in both alteplase use and thrombectomy at our comprehensive stroke center. Time metrics for patient presentation and care delivery were unchanged; however, rates of adherence for the quality measures dysphagia screening, early antithrombotic initiation, and early venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were reduced during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In this regional analysis, we found decreasing telestroke consultations and ischemic stroke admissions, and reduced performance on stroke quality of care measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Contrary to prior reports, we did not find an increase in thrombectomy nor decrease in clinical severity that might be expected if patients with milder symptoms avoided hospitalization.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037438, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591368

RESUMO

Importance: Although the use of factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors has increased substantially over the past decade, there are limited data on characteristics and outcomes of FXa inhibitor-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Objective: To investigate the association between prior oral anticoagulant use (FXa inhibitors, warfarin, or none) and in-hospital outcomes among patients with nontraumatic ICH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cohort study of 219 701 patients with nontraumatic ICH admitted to 1870 hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry between October 2013 and May 2018. Data analysis was performed in December 2019. Exposures: Anticoagulation therapy before ICH. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were a composite measure of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice, discharge home, independent ambulation, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge. Results: Of 219 701 patients (mean [SD] age, 68.2 [15.3] years; 104 940 women [47.8%]), 9202 (4.2%) were taking FXa inhibitors, 21 430 (9.8%) were taking warfarin, and 189 069 (86.0%) were not taking any oral anticoagulant before ICH. Patients taking FXa inhibitors or warfarin were older and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with those not taking an oral anticoagulant (42 660 of 189 069 patients [22.6%]), the in-hospital mortality risk was higher for both FXa inhibitors (2487 of 9202 patients [27.0%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.34; P < .001) and warfarin (7032 of 21 430 patients [32.8%]; aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.60-1.74; P < .001). Both FXa inhibitors (3478 of 9202 patients [37.8%]; aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.26; P < .001) and warfarin (9151 of 21 430 patients [42.7%]; aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.44-1.56; P < .001) were associated with higher odds of death or discharge to hospice compared with not taking oral anticoagulation (58 022 of 189 069 patients [30.7%]). Although the rates of discharge home, independent ambulation, mRS scores of 0 or 1, and mRS scores of 0 to 2 were numerically lower among patients taking FXa inhibitors, these differences were not significant compared with patients not taking oral anticoagulants. In contrast, patients taking FXa inhibitors were less likely to die (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81; P < .001) or to experience death or discharge to hospice (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84; P < .001), more likely to be discharged home (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26; P < .001), and had better mRS scores at discharge (eg, mRS scores of 0-1: aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.40; P < .001) than those treated with warfarin. Concomitant warfarin and antiplatelet therapy (either single or dual) was associated with worse outcomes compared with taking warfarin alone (eg, in-hospital mortality for dual-antiplatelet agents: aOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.72-2.50; P < .001). However, such incremental risk was not significant in patients taking FXa inhibitors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, FXa inhibitor-associated ICH was associated with higher risk of mortality or death or discharge to hospice than not taking an oral anticoagulant, but patients taking FXa inhibitors had better outcomes than those with warfarin-related ICH.

7.
Stroke ; 52(1): 351-355, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349024

RESUMO

The year 2020 has undoubtedly made Digital Health a necessity and no longer an exception. Many technological advances that seemed futuristic became a reality in a few months due to the pandemic's needs. Stroke was one of the diseases that most benefited from the digital health revolution. Due to the need for immediate care and a shortage of neurologists worldwide, telestroke has revolutionized the acute care of cerebrovascular diseases in many areas based on strong scientific evidence. In this brief article, we have tried to summarize all we have experienced in 2020, the year which irreversibly transformed the practice of medicine.


Assuntos
Neurologia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data are available on outcomes following non-cardioembolic minor ischemic stroke (IS) or high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in the United States (US). We examined outcomes and Medicare payments following any severity IS or TIA as well as the subgroup with minor IS or high-risk TIA. METHODS: Medicare beneficiaries >65 years were identified using US nationwide Get with the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke Registry linked to Medicare claims data. The cohort consisted of patients enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service plan, hospitalized with non-cardioembolic IS or TIA between 2011 and 2014, segmenting a subgroup with minor IS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤5) or high-risk TIA (ABCD2-score ≥6) compatible with the THALES clinical trial population. Outcomes included functional status at discharge, clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, individually and as a composite), hospitalizations, and population average inpatient Medicare payments following non-cardioembolic IS or TIA. RESULTS: The THALES-compatible cohort included 62,518 patients from 1471 hospitals. At discharge, 37.0% were unable to ambulate without assistance, and 96.2% were prescribed antiplatelet therapy. Cumulative incidences at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year for the composite outcome were 3.7%, 7.6%, and 17.2% and 2.4%, 4.0%, and 7.3% for subsequent stroke. The mean Medicare payment for the index hospitalization was $7951. The cumulative all-cause inpatient Medicare spending per patient (with or without any subsequent admission) at 30 days and 1 year from discharge was $1451 and $8105, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of illness for minor IS/high-risk TIA patients indicates an important unmet need. Improved therapeutic options may offer a significant impact on both patient outcomes and Medicare spending.

9.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 10(5): 396-405, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299667

RESUMO

Background: Nationwide data on patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) are lacking. We evaluated patient and hospital characteristics, in-hospital treatments, and discharge outcomes among patients with CS compared with other subtypes in the Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke registry. Methods: We identified patients with ischemic stroke (IS) admitted to GWTG-Stroke participating hospitals between January 1, 2016, and September 30, 2017, with documented National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scale and stroke etiology (cardioembolic [CE], large artery atherosclerosis [LAA], small vessel occlusion [SVO], other determined etiology [OTH], or CS). Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared hospital treatments and discharge outcomes by subtype, adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Results: Among 316,623 patients from 1,687 hospitals, there were 63,301 (20.0%) patients with CS. In multivariable analysis, patients with CS received IV thrombolysis more often than other subtypes and had lower mortality than CE, LAA, and OTH but higher mortality than SVO. They were more likely to be discharged home than all other subtypes and be independent at discharge than LAA, OTH, or SVO. Conclusions: In a large contemporary nationwide registry, CS accounted for 20% of ISs among patients with a documented stroke etiology. Patients with CS had a distinct profile of treatments and outcomes relative to other subtypes. Improved subtype documentation and further research into CS are warranted to improve care and outcomes for patients with stroke.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007150, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302714

RESUMO

Background The benefit of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. To assist hospitals in providing faster thrombolytic treatment, the American Heart Association launched target: stroke quality initiative in January 2010 which disseminated feasible strategies to shorten door-to-needle times for thrombolytic therapy. This study aimed to examine whether target: stroke was associated with improved door-to-needle times and 1-year outcomes. Methods We analyzed Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years receiving intravenous thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke at 1490 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals during January 2006 and December 2009 (preintervention, n=10 804) and January 2010 and December 2014 (postintervention, n=31 249). The median age was 80 years and 42.7% were male. Results The median door-to-needle times decreased from 80 minutes for the preintervention to 68 minutes for the postintervention (P<0.001). The proportion of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis with door-to-needle times 45 minutes and 60 minutes increased from 9.6% and 24.8% for preintervention to 17.1% and 40.6% for postintervention, respectively (P<0.001). The annual rate of increase in the door-to-needle times of 60 minutes or less accelerated from 0.20% (95% CI, -0.43% to 0.83%) per each 4 quarters for preintervention to 5.68% (95% CI, 5.23%-6.13%) for postintervention (P<0.001) which was further confirmed in piecewise multivariable generalized estimating analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.19-1.35]). Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics and within-hospital clustering, showed that target: stroke was associated with lower all-cause readmission (40.4% versus 44.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.88-0.95]), cardiovascular readmission (19.7% versus 22.9%; hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.89]), and composite of all-cause mortality or readmission (56.0% versus 58.4%; hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-1.00]). The risk decline in all-cause mortality dissipated after risk adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.02]). Conclusions Target: stroke quality initiative was associated with faster thrombolytic treatment times for acute ischemic stroke and modestly lower 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular readmissions.

11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients' language preference is associated with differences in time from symptom discovery to hospital arrival, activation of emergency medical services, door-to-imaging time (DTI), and door-to-needle (DTN) time. METHODS: We identified consecutive AIS patients presenting to a single urban, tertiary, academic center between 01/2003-05/2014 for whom language preference was available. Data were abstracted from the institution's Research Patient Data Registry and Get with the Guidelines-Stroke Registry. Bivariate and regression models evaluated the relationship between language preference and: 1) time from symptom onset to hospital arrival, 2) use of EMS, 3) DTI, and 4) DTN time. RESULTS: Of 3190 AIS patients, 300 (9.4%) were non-English preferring (NEP). Comparing NEP to English preferring (EP) patients in unadjusted or adjusted analyses, time from symptom discovery to arrival and rate of EMS utilization were not significantly different (overall median time 157 min, IQR 55-420; EMS utilization: 65% vs. 61.3% p = 0.21). There was also no significant differences in DTI or in likelihood of guideline-recommended DTI ≤ 25 min (overall median 59 min, IQR 29-127; DTI ≤ 25 min 24.3% vs. 21.3% p = 0.29) or DTN time or in likelihood of guideline-recommended DTN ≤ 60 min (overall median 53 min, IQR 36-73; DTN ≤ 60 min 62.5% vs. 58.2% p = 0.60). CONCLUSION: Consistent with prior reports examining disparities in care, a systems-based approach to acute stroke prevents differences in hospital-based metrics. Reassuringly, NEP and EP patients also had similar speed of symptom recognition and EMS utilization.

12.
Lancet ; 396(10262): 1574-1584, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903. FINDINGS: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I2=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death. FUNDING: None.

13.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative data are frequently used in stroke research. Ensuring accurate identification of patients who had an ischaemic stroke, and those receiving thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is critical to ensure representativeness and generalisability. We examined differences in patient samples based on mode of identification, and propose a strategy for future patient and procedure identification in large administrative databases. METHODS: We used non-public administrative data from the state of California to identify all patients who had an ischaemic stroke discharged from an emergency department (ED) or inpatient hospitalisation from 2010 to 2017 based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) (2010-2015), ICD-10 (2015-2017) and Medicare Severity-Diagnosis-related Group (MS-DRG) discharge codes. We identified patients with interhospital transfers, patients receiving thrombolytics and patients treated with EVT based on ICD, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and MS-DRG codes. We determined what proportion of these transfers and procedures would have been identified with ICD versus MS-DRG discharge codes. RESULTS: Of 365 099 ischaemic stroke encounters, most (87.70%) had both a stroke-related ICD-9 or ICD-10 code and stroke-related MS-DRG code; 12.28% had only an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code and 0.02% had only an MS-DRG code. Nearly all transfers (99.99%) were identified using ICD codes. We identified 32 433 thrombolytic-treated patients (8.9% of total) using ICD, CPT and MS-DRG codes; the combination of ICD and CPT codes identified nearly all (98%). We identified 7691 patients treated with EVT (2.1% of total) using ICD and MS-DRG codes; both MS-DRG and ICD-9/ICD-10 codes were necessary because ICD codes alone missed 13.2% of EVTs. CPT codes only pertain to outpatient/ED patients and are not useful for EVT identification. CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnosis codes capture nearly all ischaemic stroke encounters and transfers, while the combination of ICD-9/ICD-10 and CPT codes are adequate for identifying thrombolytic treatment in administrative datasets. However, MS-DRG codes are necessary in addition to ICD codes for identifying EVT, likely due to favourable reimbursement for EVT-related MS-DRG codes incentivising accurate coding.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occult atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important contributor to cryptogenic stroke, yet remains difficult to unmask at presentation. This study investigated the predictive value of left atrial (LA) mechanics by strain echocardiography during stroke hospitalization for the presence of AF as detected on early 30-day monitoring and routine clinical follow-up. METHODS: Left atrial mechanics were studied by strain echocardiography in a retrospective cohort of 191 patients with cryptogenic stroke and 30-day mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry poststroke to diagnose AF. After this, AF was diagnosed via routine clinical follow-up. The independent and incremental value of measures of LA size and mechanics (i.e., strain and strain rate in the reservoir, conduit, and booster pump phase) to predict AF on top of clinical characteristics was assessed. RESULTS: Of 191 patients, 15% (n = 28) developed AF, of which 10 were observed during 30-day mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry and 18 were observed at a median follow-up of 25 (interquartile range, 10-43) months. Median time from embolic stroke to strain echocardiography was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2 days). Left atrial mechanics were significantly worse in AF (P < .05 for all), despite largely similar baseline cardiovascular risk profile. Booster pump strain rate was the strongest predictor for AF, independent of age, LA volume index, E/e', and reservoir strain (odds ratio = 2.88 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-6.41; P = .010). Adding LA strain reservoir strain and booster pump function significantly enhanced a multivariate model to predict AF. Freedom from AF was significantly lower in subjects with a booster pump strain rate (at stroke presentation) worse than -0.67 sec-1, as derived from receiver operator curve analysis (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial mechanics and particularly the LA booster pump function assessed early during hospitalization for cryptogenic stroke can identify patients at greater likelihood of future diagnosis of AF. These findings could in part relate to LA mechanical stunning after spontaneous cardioversion, which-when identified by early strain echocardiography-can inform further risk stratification and decision-making.

15.
Healthc (Amst) ; 8(4): 100493, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129176

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique challenges for the U.S. healthcare system due to the staggering mismatch between healthcare system capacity and patient demand. The healthcare industry has been a relatively slow adopter of digital innovation due to the conventional belief that humans need to be at the center of healthcare delivery tasks. However, in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, artificial intelligence (AI) may be used to carry out specific tasks such as pre-hospital triage and enable clinicians to deliver care at scale. Recognizing that the majority of COVID-19 cases are mild and do not require hospitalization, Partners HealthCare (now Mass General Brigham) implemented a digitally-automated pre-hospital triage solution to direct patients to the appropriate care setting before they showed up at the emergency department and clinics, which would otherwise consume resources, expose other patients and staff to potential viral transmission, and further exacerbate supply-and-demand mismatching. Although the use of AI has been well-established in other industries to optimize supply and demand matching, the introduction of AI to perform tasks remotely that were traditionally performed in-person by clinical staff represents a significant milestone in healthcare operations strategy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009718

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine indications for, duration of use, and rate of adverse drug events (ADE) attributable to anticonvulsant initiation, as adjudicated by expert review of electronic health records (EHR) of older adults. METHODS: We identified a cohort of community dwelling Medicare beneficiaries with linked EHR (aged 65+, continuously enrolled with a large health system/until death between 2012 and 2014, n = 20 945) and drew a stratified EHR review sample (n = 1534). An expert reviewed all records to adjudicate anticonvulsant use, years of use, indication for use, and evidence of ADEs attributable to anticonvulsant initiation. After excluding patients with insufficient EHR data (n = 37; 2%), we reconstructed the cohort using inverse probability weights to resemble the original cohort of eligible beneficiaries (n = 20 380). Among incident users of a single anticonvulsant, we estimated the rate of ADEs and described the type and severity of ADEs. RESULTS: Overall, 12% (n = 2469) of eligible beneficiaries used at least one anticonvulsant in the 2012 to 2014 period (4% [n = 757] incident users, 8% [n = 1712] prevalent users). Incident users were most frequently prescribed gabapentin (n = 461/757, 61%), benzodiazepines (n = 122/757, 16%), and levetiracetam (n = 74/757, 10%); the most common indication was pain relief (n = 214; 28%) followed by epilepsy (n = 53; 7%). Among incident users, the overall ADE rate was 10/100 person-years (95% CI 4-20/100 person-years), of which 29% (n = 28/97) were life threatening (eg, somnolence). Most ADEs among incident monotherapy users were nervous system related (68%, n = 66/97). CONCLUSION: Many older adult community dwelling traditional Medicare beneficiaries had clinically significant ADEs likely attributable to the initiation of anticonvulsant therapy, which was begun for a range of indications.

18.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955582

RESUMO

Importance: A significant proportion of acute ischemic strokes occur while patients are hospitalized. Limited contemporary data exist on the utilization rates of intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy for in-hospital stroke. Objective: To use a national registry to examine temporal trends in the use of intravenous and endovascular reperfusion therapies for treatment of in-hospital stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from 267 956 patients who underwent reperfusion therapy for stroke with in-hospital or out-of-hospital onset reported in the Get With the Guidelines-Stroke national registry from January 2008 to September 2018. Exposures: In-hospital onset vs out-of-hospital onset of stroke symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Temporal trends in the use of reperfusion therapy, process measures of quality, and the association between functional outcomes and key patient characteristics, comorbidities, and treatments. Results: Of 67 493 patients with in-hospital stroke onset, this study observed increased rates of vascular risk factors (standardized mean difference >10%) but no significant differences in age or sex in patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis only (mean [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 72 [80-62] y; 53.2% female) or those undergoing endovascular therapy (mean [IQR] age, 69 [59-79] y; 49.8% female). Of these patients, 10 481 (15.5%) received intravenous thrombolysis and 2494 (3.7%) underwent endovascular therapy. Compared with 2008, in 2018 the proportion of in-hospital stroke among all stroke hospital discharges was higher (3.5% vs 2.7%; P < .001), as was use of intravenous thrombolysis (19.1% vs 9.1%; P < .001) and endovascular therapy (6.4% vs 2.5%; P < .001) in patients with in-hospital stroke, with a significant increase in endovascular therapy in mid-2015 (P < .001). Compared with patients who received intravenous thrombolysis for out-of-hospital stroke onset, those with in-hospital onset were associated with longer median (IQR) times from stroke recognition to cranial imaging (33 [18-60] vs 16 [9-26] minutes; P < .001) and to thrombolysis bolus (81 [52-125] vs 60 [45-84] minutes; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, patients with in-hospital stroke onset who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis were less likely to ambulate independently at discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82; P < .001) and were more likely to die or to be discharged to hospice (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.29-1.50; P < .001) than patients with out-of-hospital onset who also received intravenous thrombolysis treatment. Comparisons among patients treated with endovascular therapy yielded similar findings. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, in-hospital stroke onset was increasingly reported and treated with reperfusion therapy. Compared with out-of-hospital stroke onset, in-hospital onset was associated with longer delays to reperfusion and worse functional outcomes, highlighting opportunities to further care for patients with in-hospital stroke onset.

19.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 46(9): 501-505, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In January 2018 The Joint Commission introduced its Thrombectomy-Capable Stroke Center (TSC) certification program to recognize hospitals capable of performing endovascular thrombectomy for patients with ischemic strokes due to large vessel occlusions, intended for hospitals not in close geographic proximity to Comprehensive Stroke Centers (CSCs). This study was conducted to determine (1) the travel times between current and potential TSCs and the nearest CSC and (2) the proportion of TSCs that were in areas of high need. METHODS: The locations of current and applicant TSCs (N = 44) were mapped and paired with the closest CSCs. Google Maps estimated travel times for each pair at 8:00 a.m., 12:00 a.m., and 5:00 p.m. on Wednesdays, providing the minimum, maximum, and midpoint for each period. The area served by each TSC was classified based on the number of time periods with drive times > 30 or > 60 minutes to the closest CSC ("very low need" [0 of 3], "low need" [1 of 3], "high need" [2 of 3], or "very high need" [3 of 3]). RESULTS: Using minimum drive times and the > 30 minute to the nearest CSC threshold, 68.2% of the 44 TSCs were in very low need areas, and 29.5% were in very high need areas. Using maximum drive times, 31.8% were in high need areas, and 31.8% were in very high need areas. With a 60-minute threshold, 25.0% were still in very high need areas. CONCLUSION: Many TSCs were in very low need areas using a 30-minute threshold. This methodology may help regional authorities determine how a TSC should be included in stroke systems of care prehospital destination protocols.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 321: 88-94, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine association of discharge antiplatelet therapy prescription with 1-year outcomes among patients with AF admitted with acute ischemic stroke and discharged without oral anticoagulation. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry, we identified all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years or older with AF or atrial flutter admitted with acute ischemic stroke and discharged without oral anticoagulation from April 2003 through December 2014, and we determined association of discharge antiplatelet therapy prescription with 1-year outcomes using Medicare claims data. Primary outcomes were 1-year mortality and composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular/neurologic/bleeding events (MACNBE). RESULTS: Of 64,228 subjects (median [interquartile range] age, 84 [78-89] years; 62.5% female), 54,621 (85.0%) were discharged with antiplatelet therapy, and 9607 (15.0%) were discharged with no antithrombotic therapy. The unadjusted rates of 1-year mortality were lower among patients receiving antiplatelet therapy (37.3%) than among those receiving no antithrombotic therapy (48.1%); unadjusted rates of MACNBE were lower for those receiving antiplatelet therapy (45.5%) compared with those receiving no antithrombotic therapy (55.2%). After adjusting for potential confounders, antiplatelet therapy prescription was associated with reduced 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.66, P < .001) and MACNBE (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.67-0.71, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among Medicare beneficiaries with AF admitted for acute ischemic stroke but not discharged on oral anticoagulant therapy, antiplatelet therapy, compared with no antithrombotic therapy, was associated with reduced 1-year mortality and MACNBE.

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