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2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 1-9, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter edge-to-edge (TEER) mitral repair may be complicated by residual or recurrent mitral regurgitation. An increasing need for surgical reintervention has been reported, but operative outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated national outcomes of mitral surgery after TEER. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify 524 adults who underwent mitral surgery after TEER between July 2014 and June 2020. Emergencies (5.0%; n = 26), previous mitral surgery (5.3%; n = 28), or open implantation of transcatheter prostheses (1.5%; n = 8) were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the study cohort of 463 patients, the median age was 76 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years), median left ventricular ejection fraction was 57% (IQR: 48% to 62%), and 177 (38.2%) patients had degenerative disease. Major concomitant cardiac surgery was performed in 137 (29.4%) patients: in patients undergoing isolated mitral surgery, the median STS-predicted mortality was 6.5% (IQR: 3.9% to 10.5%), the observed mortality was 10.2% (n = 23 of 225), and the ratio of observed to expected mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8 to 1.9). Predictors of mortality included urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6), nondegenerative/unknown etiology (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5), creatinine of >2.0 mg/dl (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 to 7.9) and age of >80 years (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.4). In a volume outcomes analysis in an expanded cohort of 591 patients at 227 hospitals, operative mortality was 2.6% (n = 2 of 76) in 4 centers that performed >10 cases versus 12.4% (n = 64 of 515) in centers performing fewer (p = 0.01). The surgical repair rate after failed TEER was 4.8% (n = 22) and was 6.8% (n = 12) in degenerative disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that mitral repair is infrequently achieved after failed TEER, which may have implications for treatment choice in lower-risk and younger patients with degenerative disease. These findings should inform patient consent for TEER, clinical trial design, and clinical performance measures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(6): 1770-1780, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794156

RESUMO

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database is the most mature and comprehensive cardiac surgery database. It has been the foundation for quality measurement and improvement activities in cardiac surgery, facilitated the generation of accurate risk adjusted performance benchmarks and serves as a platform for novel research. Recent enhancements have added to the database's functionality, ease of use, and value to multiple stakeholders. This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports that provide updated volumes, outcomes, database-related developments, quality improvement initiatives, and research summaries using the Adult Cardiac Surgery Database in the past year.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cirurgia Torácica , Idoso , Pesquisa Biomédica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(4): e016283, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559474

RESUMO

Background The prognostic value of echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular (RV) function in patients undergoing left-sided valvular surgery has not been well described. The objective of this study is to determine the role of broad echocardiographic assessment of RV function in predicting short-term outcomes after valvular surgery. Methods and Results Preoperative echocardiographic data, perioperative adverse outcomes, and 30-day mortality were analyzed in patients who underwent left-sided valvular surgery from 2006 to 2014. Echocardiographic parameters used to evaluate RV function include RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, systolic movement of the RV lateral wall using tissue Doppler imaging (S'), RV myocardial performance index, and RV dP/dt. Subjects with at least 3 abnormal parameters out of the 5 aforementioned indices were defined as having significant RV dysfunction. The study included 269 patients with valvular surgery (average age: 67±15, 60.6% male, 148 aortic, and 121 mitral). RV dysfunction was found in 53 (19.7%) patients; 30-day mortality occurred in 20 patients (7.5%). Compared with normal RV function, patients with RV dysfunction had higher 30-day mortality (22.6% versus 3.8%; P=0.01) and were at risk for developing multisystem failure/shock (13.2% versus 3.2%; P=0.01). Multivariate analyses showed that preexisting RV dysfunction was the strongest predictor of increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio: 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.1; P<0.05). Conclusions Preoperative RV dysfunction identified by comprehensive echocardiographic assessment is a strong predictor of adverse outcomes following left-sided valvular surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Idoso , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/cirurgia
5.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(7): 1091-1099, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a known risk factor for complications after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the relevance of higher LVEF values has not been established. Currently, most risk stratification tools consider LVEF values above a certain point as normal. However, since this does not account for insufficient ventricular filling or increased adrenergic tone, higher values may have clinical significance. To improve our understanding of this situation, we investigated the relationship of preoperative LVEF values with short- and long-term outcomes after CABG using a strategy that allowed for the identification of nonlinear relationships. We hypothesised that both higher and lower values are independently associated with increased postoperative complications and death in this population. METHODS: We performed a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery. All patients had a preoperative measurement of their LVEF. Surgery involving mitral valve repair was excluded in order to eliminate the impact of mitral regurgitation. The primary outcome was long-term mortality; secondary outcomes included atrial fibrillation, operative mortality, and a composite outcome including any postoperative adverse event. Fractional polynomial equations were used to model the relationship between LVEF and outcomes so we could account for nonlinear relationships if present. Adjustments for confounders were made using multivariable logistic regression and Cox models. RESULTS: A total of 7,932 subjects were included in the study. After adjusting for patient and surgical characteristics, LVEF remained associated with the primary outcome as well as the composite outcome of any postoperative adverse event. Both these relationships were best described by a J-shaped curve given that higher LVEF values were associated with increased risk, albeit not as high has lower values. Regarding long-term mortality, individuals with a preoperative LVEF of 60% demonstrated the longest survival. A statistically significant relationship was not found between LVEF and operative mortality or atrial fibrillation after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher preoperative LVEF values may be associated with increased risk for patients undergoing CABG surgery. Future studies are needed to better characterise this phenotype.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(2): 600-606, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) coronary bypass grafting may improve long-term outcomes but is associated with increased deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs). We analyzed whether BITA skeletonization impacts DSWIs and operative mortality (OM) using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. METHODS: Primary, isolated, nonemergent/nonsalvage BITA patients (July 2017 to December 2018) in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database were divided into groups based on BITA harvesting technique: both skeletonized (ssBITA) and ≥1 nonskeletonized (Non-ssBITA). DSWI and OM observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios were compared using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Perioperative Risk Models. ssBITA versus Non-ssBITA DSWI and OM adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression and corroborated by propensity score matching. RESULTS: We analyzed 11,269 patients (42.8% ssBITA, 57.2% Non-ssBITA, 770 hospitals, 1448 surgeons). The ssBITA group had a higher incidence of comorbidities and off-pump surgery. Overall incidences of DSWIs and OM were 0.98% (O/E ratio, 5.1) and 1.72% (O/E ratio, 1.4), respectively, and were 28% (P = .129) and 23% (P = .096) lower in ssBITA. The DSWI O/E ratio was highest (5.9) in Non-ssBITA and lowest in ss-BITA (4.1). After multivariable adjustment, ssBITA was associated with a decreased risk of DSWIs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .05), with no difference in OM. These results were confirmed among 3884 propensity score-matched pairs. DSWIs increased sharply with increasing number of risk factors for DSWIs regardless of harvesting technique, with a trend for higher DSWIs among Non-ssBITA for all risk categories. CONCLUSIONS: The observed high O/E ratio indicates that BITA grafting is associated with increased risk of DSWIs. Risk-adjusted DSWI rate and a lower O/E ratio in ssBITA support the protective role of skeletonization.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Artéria Torácica Interna/cirurgia , Esterno/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urinary cell cycle arrest biomarkers (UBs) insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 provide early detection of kidney stress, and elevations may predict cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI). We sought to determine whether known clinical risk factors for CS-AKI correlated with increased UB values. METHODS: UBs were measured over a 12-month period the morning after on-pump cardiac surgery. Patients with a preoperative serum creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dL or patients undergoing dialysis were excluded. Known clinical AKI risk factors in patients with elevated UB (>0.3 (ng/mL)2/1000), that is known to correlate with kidney stress, were compared with patients with low scores (≤0.3 (ng/mL)2/1000) by using logistic regression; the analysis was repeated with UB as a continuous variable. RESULTS: A total of 412 patients met inclusion criteria. Unadjusted results demonstrated a clinically similar CS-AKI risk profile in patients with either elevated or low UB values. The Pearson correlation between preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate and UB was low (r = 0.16). Clinical risk factors for CS-AKI were not associated with elevated UB values in the logistic regression model, thus producing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.63. Linear regression analysis also found few associations between CS-AKI clinical risk factors and UB when measured as a continuous variable, (R2) = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional CS-AKI clinical risk factors do not differ between patients with normal or elevated UB values. This UB test may identify patients at increased risk for AKI who otherwise would appear to be at low risk by traditional metrics.

10.
Am Heart J ; 228: 91-97, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal role of radial artery grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine angiographic and clinical outcomes following CABG among patients who received a radial artery graft. METHODS: Patients in the angiographic cohort of the PREVENT-IV trial were stratified based upon having received a radial artery graft or not during CABG. Baseline characteristics and 1-year angiographic and 5-year clinical outcomes were compared between patients. RESULTS: Of 1,923 patients in the angiographic cohort of PREVENT-IV, 117 received a radial artery graft. These patients had longer surgical procedures (median 253 vs 228 minutes, P < .001) and had a greater number of grafts placed (P < .0001). Radial artery grafts had a graft-level failure rate of 23.0%, which was similar to vein grafts (25.2%) and higher than left internal mammary artery grafts (8.3%). The hazard of the composite clinical outcome of death, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization was similar for both cohorts (adjusted hazard ratio 0.896, 95% CI 0.609-1.319, P = .58). Radial graft failure rates were higher when used to bypass moderately stenotic lesions (<75% stenosis, 37% failure) compared with severely stenotic lesions (≥75% stenosis, 15% failure). CONCLUSIONS: Radial artery grafts had early failure rates comparable to saphenous vein and higher than left internal mammary artery grafts. Use of a radial graft was not associated with a different rate of death, myocardial infarction, or postoperative revascularization. Despite the significant potential for residual confounding associated with post hoc observational analyses of clinical trial data, these findings suggest that when clinical circumstances permit, the radial artery is an acceptable alternative to saphenous vein and should be used to bypass severely stenotic target vessels.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular , Artéria Radial/transplante , Reoperação , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
12.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): 1258-1264, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently, the definition of sepsis has changed from a physiologic derangement (Sepsis-1 and -2) to organ dysfunction (Sepsis-3) based. We sought to determine the concordance between the different sepsis phenotypes and how that affected mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter study. SETTING: Three academic medical centers. PATIENTS: 29,459 patients who had suspected infection, defined as obtaining blood cultures and receiving antibiotics: 18,183 (62%) had either Sepsis-2 or Sepsis-3. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Kappa was used to show agreement between phenotypes. Conditional logistic regression was used to create models of associations between factors and phenotypes and between factors and mortality. About 12,981 patients had Sepsis-2; 12,043 had Sepsis-3; and 6,841 patients had both Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3. Fifty-three percent of Sepsis-2 patients also had Sepsis-3, whereas 57% of Sepsis-3 patients also had Sepsis-2. Agreement between the two phenotypes was poor: kappa = 0.213 ± 0.006. Mortality was 6% in patients with only Sepsis-2, 10% with only Sepsis-3, and 18% in patients who had both phenotypes. Combining the variables in Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 improved the discrimination (C-statistic = 0.742 ± 0.005, p < 0.001) of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We found that Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3-based sepsis diagnoses represent separate phenotypes with poor agreement. Patients who have both phenotypes are at increased risk of mortality compared with having either phenotype alone. Inclusion of both systemic inflammatory response syndrome and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria in the same model improves the discrimination of mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Sepse/classificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hemocultura , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia
16.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(5): 1235-1246.e2, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is unreliable through the use of serum creatinine or urinary output alone. Cell cycle arrest urinary biomarkers insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP2) provide early detection of kidney stress and possibly AKI. We sought to determine whether therapeutic interventions driven by elevated urinary biomarkers (UB) reduces post-cardiac surgery stage 2/3 AKI. METHODS: A quality improvement initiative based on UB was undertaken in all adult on-pump cardiac surgical patients with a preoperative serum creatinine level ≤2.0 mg/dL. A UB score the morning after cardiac surgery that was considered positive for kidney stress (≥0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000) triggered activation of a multidisciplinary acute kidney response team (AKRT) with implementation of a predefined staged protocol, including targeted goal-directed fluid management, liberalized transfusion thresholds, continued invasive hemodynamic monitoring and its optimization in the intensive care unit, and avoidance of nephrotoxins. We compared the incidence of stage 2/3 AKI before (pre-UB) versus after (post-UB) implementation of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes quality improvement initiative. Standardized, protocolized, evidence-based care pathways were used pre-UB. RESULTS: The incidence of stage 2/3 AKI was compared in 435 pre-UB patients and 412 post-UB patients. Fifty-five percent of the post-UB patients had a moderate or high UB score (≥0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000). Ten patients (2.30%) had stage 2/3 AKI pre-UB, compared with 1 patient (0.24%) post-UB, a relative reduction of 89% (P = .01). The total and postoperative lengths of stay, cost, mortality, and readmissions were similar in the 2 groups. The negative predictive value for AKI of UB <0.3 [ng/mL]2/1000 was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The routine measurement of UB and subsequent activation of an AKRT are useful post-cardiac surgery therapeutic adjuncts. They are associated with early detection of kidney stress, allowing for targeted proactive intervention, and a significant decrease in postoperative stage 2/3 AKI without increases in cost or length of stay.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Biomarcadores/urina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(5): 1230-1231, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706552
19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(5): 926-934, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multi-arterial bypass grafting with bilateral internal thoracic (BITA-MABG) or radial (RA-MABG) arteries improves long-term survival, but its increased complexity raises perioperative safety concerns. We compared perioperative outcomes of RA-MABG and BITA-MABG using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (STS-ACSD). METHODS: We analysed the 2004-2015 BITA-MABG and RA-MABG experience in STS-ACSD. Primary end points were operative mortality (OM) and deep sternal wound infections (DSWI). Risk-adjusted odds ratios [AOR (95% confidence interval)] were derived via multivariable logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were done in patient sub-cohorts and based on institutional BITA-utilization rates (<5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and >40%). RESULTS: Eighty-five thousand nine hundred five RA-MABG (82.5% men; 61 years) and 61 336 BITA-MABG (85.1% men; 59 years) patients were analysed; 41.6% of BITA-MABG and 27.3% of RA-MABG cases came from institutions with low MABG utilization rates (<10%). Unadjusted OM was equivalent for both techniques (BITA-MABG versus RA-MABG: 1.3% vs 1.2%, P = 0.79), while DSWI was lower for RA-MABG (1.0% vs 0.6%, P < 0.001). RA-MABG was associated with lower adjusted OM [AOR = 0.80 (0.69-0.96)] and DSWI [AOR = 0.39 (0.32-0.46)]. Sensitivity analyses confirmed robustness of these findings. Equivalent outcomes were observed at high BITA-use institutions where BITA cases comprised >20% of all cases for OM and ≥40% for DSWI. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of the STS-ACSD showed that RA-MABG is a generally safer form of multi-arterial coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. However, this advantage is mitigated at institutions with substantial BITA experience.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Artéria Radial/transplante , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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