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2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are best treated with therapies targeting EGFR, i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Radiolabeled EGFR-TKI and PET have been investigated to study EGFR-TKI kinetics and its potential role as biomarker of response in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations (EGFRm). In this study we aimed to compare the biodistribution and kinetics of three different EGFR-TKI, i.e., 11C-erlotinib, 18F-afatinib and 11C-osimertinib. METHODS: Data of three prospective studies and 1 ongoing study were re-analysed; data from thirteen patients (EGFRm) were included for 11C-erlotinib, seven patients for 18F-afatinib (EGFRm and EGFR wild type) and four patients for 11C-osimertinib (EGFRm). From dynamic and static scans, SUV and tumor-to-blood (TBR) values were derived for tumor, lung, spleen, liver, vertebra and, if possible, brain tissue. AUC values were calculated using dynamic time-activity-curves. Parent fraction, plasma-to-blood ratio and SUV values were derived from arterial blood data. Tumor-to-lung contrast was calculated, as well as (background) noise to assess image quality. RESULTS: 11C-osimertinib showed the highest SUV and TBR (AUC) values in nearly all tissues. Spleen uptake was notably high for 11C-osimertinib and to a lesser extent for 18F-afatinib. For EGFRm, 11C-erlotinib and 18F-afatinib demonstrated the highest tumor-to-lung contrast, compared to an inverse contrast observed for 11C-osimertinib. Tumor-to-lung contrast and spleen uptake of the three TKI ranked accordingly to the expected lysosomal sequestration. CONCLUSION: Comparison of biodistribution and tracer kinetics showed that 11C-erlotinib and 18F-afatinib demonstrated the highest tumor-to-background contrast in EGFRm positive tumors. Image quality, based on contrast and noise analysis, was superior for 11C-erlotinib and 18F-afatinib (EGFRm) scans compared to 11C-osimertinib and 18F-afatinib (EGFR wild type) scans.

3.
Orthop Res Rev ; 14: 113-120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480068

RESUMO

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), sometimes known as myositis ossificans progressiva, is an ultra-rare disease in which bone is formed in muscular tissue, tendons and ligaments. This is known as heterotopic ossification (HO). FOP is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the highly conserved ACVR1/ALK2 gene which affects about 1 in 1.5-2 million individuals. At birth, patients with the predominant R206H mutation only exhibit a bilateral hallux valgus. During childhood, heterotopic bone formation develops in a typical pattern, affecting the axial muscles first before appendicular body parts are involved. HO can start spontaneously but is often elicited by soft tissue trauma or medical procedures. After soft tissue injury, an inflammatory process called a flare-up can start, followed by the formation of HO. HO leads to a limited range of motion, culminating in complete ankylosis of nearly all joints. As a result of HO surrounding the thorax, patients often suffer from thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS). TIS is the most common cause of a limited life expectancy for FOP patients, with a median life expectancy of 56 years. Management is focused on preventing soft-tissue injury that can provoke flare-ups. This includes prevention of iatrogenic damage by biopsies, intramuscular injections and surgery. Anti-inflammatory medication is often started when a flare-up occurs but has a poor basis of evidence. Several forms of potential treatment for FOP are being researched in clinical trials. Progression of the disease is monitored using CT and 18F-NaF PET/CT combined with functional assessments. Patients are regularly evaluated for frequently occurring complications such as restrictive lung disease. Here, we review the current management, monitoring and treatment of FOP.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 155: 156-162, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring common (exon19del, L858R) and uncommon (e.g. G719X, L861Q) activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are best treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as the first-generation EGFR TKI erlotinib, second-generation afatinib or third-generation osimertinib. However, identifying these patients through biopsy is not always possible. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate whether 18F-afatinib PET/CT could identify patients with common and uncommon EGFR mutations. Furthermore, we evaluated the relation between tumor 18F-afatinib uptake and response to afatinib therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18F-afatinib PET/CT was performed in 12 patients: 6 EGFR wild type (WT), 3 EGFR common and 3 EGFR uncommon mutations. Tumor uptake of 18F-afatinib was quantified using TBR_WB60-90 (tumor-to-whole blood activity ratio 60-90 min post-injection) for each tumor. Response was quantified per lesion using percentage of change (PC): [(response measurement (RM)-baseline measurement (BM))/BM]×100. Statistical analyses were performed using t-tests, correlation plots and sensitivity/specificity analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one tumors were identified. Injected dose was 348 ± 31 MBq. Group differences were significant between WT versus EGFR (common and uncommon) activating mutations (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference between EGFR common versus uncommon mutations (p = 0.94). A TBR_WB60-90 cut-off value of 6 showed the best relationship with response with a sensitivity of 70 %, a specificity of 100 % and a positive predictive value of 100 %. CONCLUSION: 18F-afatinib uptake was higher in tumors with EGFR mutations (common and uncommon) compared to WT. Furthermore, a TBR_WB60-90 cut-off of 6 was found to best predict response to therapy. 18F-afatinib PET/CT could provide a means to identify EGFR mutation positive patients who benefit from afatinib therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Afatinib , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 46: 137-140, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906029

RESUMO

In helicopter emergency medical services, HEMS, coagulopathy presents both in trauma (e.g. consumption of coagulation factors) and non-trauma cases (e.g. anticoagulant use). Therefore, in HEMS coagulation measurements appear promising and Prothrombin Time (PT) and derived INR are attractive variables herein. We tested the feasibility of prehospital PT/INR coagulation measurements in HEMS. This study was performed at the Dutch HEMS, using a portable blood analyzer (i-Stat®1, Abbott). PT/INR measurements were performed on (hemodiluted) author's blood, and both trauma- and non-trauma HEMS patients. Device-related benefits of the i-Stat PT/INR system were portability, speed and ease of handling. Limitations included a rather narrow operational temperature range (16-30 °C). PT/INR measurements (n = 15) were performed on hemodiluted blood, and both trauma and non-trauma patients. The PT/INR results confirmed effects of hemodilution and anticoagulation, however, most measurement results were in the normal INR-range (0.9-1.2). We conclude that prehospital PT/INR measurements, although with limitations, are feasible in HEMS operations.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Testes Imediatos , Aeronaves , Humanos , Países Baixos
7.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 703-711, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has disrupted global and local medical supply chains. To combat the spread of the virus and prevent an uncontrolled outbreak with limited resources, national lockdown protocols have taken effect in the Netherlands since March 13th, 2020. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, type and characteristics of HEMS and HEMS-ambulance 'Lifeliner 1' dispatches during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same period one year prior. METHODS: A retrospective review of all HEMS and HEMS-ambulance 'Lifeliner 1' dispatches was performed from the start of Dutch nationwide lockdown orders from March 13th until May 13th, 2020 and the corresponding period one year prior. Dispatch-, operational-, patient-, injury-, and on-site treatment characteristics were extracted for analysis. In addition, the rate of COVID-19 positively tested HEMS personnel and the time physicians were unable to take call was described. RESULTS: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the HEMS and HEMS-ambulance was requested in 528 cases. One year prior, a total of 620 requests were received. The HEMS (helicopter and ambulance) was cancelled after deployment in 56.4% of the COVID-19 cohort and 50.7% of the historical cohort (P = 0.05). Incident location type did not differ between the two cohorts, specifically, there was no significant difference in the number of injuries that occurred at home in pandemic versus non-pandemic circumstances. Besides a decrease in the number of falls, the distribution of mechanisms of injury remained similar during the COVID-19 study period. There was no difference in self-inflicted injuries observed. Prehospital interventions remained similar during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to one year prior. Specifically, prehospital intubation did not differ between the two cohorts. The rate of COVID-19 positively tested HEMS personnel was 23.1%. Physicians who tested positive were unable to take call for a mean of 25 days (range 8-53). CONCLUSION: A decrease in the number of deployments and increase in the number of cancelled missions was observed during the COVID-19 study period. No major differences in operational- and injury characteristics were found for HEMS and HEMS-ambulance dispatches between the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands and the same period one year prior. These findings highlight the importance of continued operability of the HEMS, even during pandemic circumstances. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective comparative study.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , COVID-19 , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Resgate Aéreo/organização & administração , Resgate Aéreo/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Emergências/epidemiologia , Operador de Emergência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/provisão & distribuição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
8.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(5): 644-655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A thorough understanding of the epidemiology, patient characteristics, trauma mechanisms, and current outcomes among patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important as it may inform potential strategies to improve prehospital emergency care. The aim of this study is to describe the prehospital epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of (suspected) severe TBI in the Netherlands. METHODS: The BRAIN-PROTECT study is a prospective observational study on prehospital management of patients with severe TBI in the Netherlands. The study population comprised all consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of TBI and a prehospital GCS score ≤ 8, who were managed by one of the 4 Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). Patients were followed-up in 9 trauma centers until 1 year after injury. Planned sub-analyses were performed for patients with "confirmed" and "isolated" TBI. RESULTS: Data from 2,589 patients, of whom 2,117 (81.8%) were transferred to a participating trauma center, were analyzed. The incidence rate of prehospitally suspected and confirmed severe TBI were 3.2 (95% CI: 3.1;3.4) and 2.7 (95% CI: 2.5;2.8) per 100,000 inhabitants per year, respectively. Median patient age was 46 years, 58.4% were involved in traffic crashes, of which 37.4% were bicycle related. 47.6% presented with an initial GCS of 3. The median time from HEMS dispatch to hospital arrival was 54 minutes. The overall 30-day mortality was 39.0% (95% CI: 36.8;41.2). CONCLUSION: This article summarizes the prehospital epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of severe TBI in the Netherlands, and highlights areas in which primary prevention and prehospital care can be improved.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Encéfalo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(3): 661-662, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Objective of this case report is to draw attention to a less known thrombotic complication associated with COVID-19, i.e., thrombosis of both radial arteries, with possible (long-term) consequences. THE CASE: In our COVID-19 ICU a 49-year-old male patient was admitted, with past medical history of obesity, smoking and diabetes, but no reported atherosclerotic complications. The patient had been admitted with severe hypoxemia and multiple pulmonary emboli were CT-confirmed. ICU-treatment included mechanical ventilation and therapeutic anticoagulation. Preparing the insertion of a new radial artery catheter for invasive blood pressure measurement and blood sampling, we detected that both radial arteries were non-pulsating and occluded: (a) Sonography showed the typical anatomical localization of both radial and ulnar arteries. However, Doppler-derived flow-signals could only be obtained from the ulnar arteries. (b) To test collateral arterial supply of the hand, a pulse-oximeter was placed on the index finger. Thereafter, the ulnar artery at the wrist was compressed. This compression caused an immediate loss of the finger's pulse-oximetry perfusion signal. The effect was reversible upon release of the ulnar artery. (c) To test for collateral perfusion undetectable by pulse-oximetry, we measured regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) of the thenar muscle by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Confirming our findings above, ulnar arterial compression demonstrated that thenar rSO2 was dependent on ulnar artery flow. The described development of bilateral radial artery occlusion in a relatively young and therapeutically anticoagulated patient with no history of atherosclerosis was unexpected. CONCLUSIONS: Since COVID-19 patients are at increased risk for arterial occlusion, it appears advisable to meticulously check for adequacy of collateral (hand-) perfusion, avoiding the harm of hand ischemia if interventions (e.g., catheterizations) at the radial or ulnar artery are intended.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Artéria Radial , SARS-CoV-2 , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Mãos/irrigação sanguínea , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Países Baixos , Oximetria , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pandemias , Artéria Radial/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Radial/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Artéria Ulnar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler
10.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(3): 376-380, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purpose of this report is to describe the feasibility of lingual pulse oximetry and lingual near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a COVID-19 patient to assess lingual tissue viability after several days of mechanical ventilation in the prone position. MATERIALS & METHODS: In a COVID-19 ICU-patient, the tongue became grotesquely swollen, hardened and protruding from the oral cavity after 20 h of mechanical ventilation uninterrupted in the prone position. To assess the doubtful viability of the tongue, pulse-oximetric hemoglobin O2-saturation (SpO2; Nellcor, OxiMax MAX-NI, Covidien, MA, USA) and NIRS-based, regional tissue O2-saturation measurements (rSO2; SenSmart, Nonin, MN, USA) were performed at the tongue. RESULTS: At the tongue, regular pulse-oximetric waveforms with a pulse-oximetric hemoglobin O2-saturation (SpO2) of 88% were recorded, i.e. only slightly lower than the SpO2 reading at the extremities at that time (90%). Lingual NIRS-based rSO2 measurements yielded stable tissue rSO2-values of 76-78%, i.e. values expected also in other adequately perfused and oxygenated (muscle-) tissues. CONCLUSION: Despite the alarming, clinical finding of a grotesquely swollen, rubber-hard tongue and clinical concerns on the adequacy of the tongue perfusion and oxygenation, our measurements of both arterial pulsatility (SpO2) and NIRS-based tissue oxygenation (rSO2) suggested adequate perfusion and oxygenation of the tongue, rendering non-vitality of the tongue, e.g. by lingual venous thrombosis, unlikely. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of lingual rSO2 measurement.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Oximetria , Fluxo Pulsátil , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Doenças da Língua/fisiopatologia , Língua/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/diagnóstico , Edema/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Posicionamento do Paciente , Decúbito Ventral , SARS-CoV-2 , Língua/metabolismo , Doenças da Língua/metabolismo , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
11.
J Nucl Med ; 62(7): 934-940, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127619

RESUMO

Sorafenib leads to clinical benefit in a subgroup of patients, whereas all are exposed to potential toxicity. Currently, no predictive biomarkers are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 11C-sorafenib and 15O-H2O PET have potential to predict treatment efficacy. Methods: In this prospective exploratory study, 8 patients with advanced solid malignancies and an indication for sorafenib treatment were included. Microdose 11C-sorafenib and perfusion 15O-H2O dynamic PET scans were performed before and after 2 wk of sorafenib therapy. The main objective was to assess whether tumor 11C-sorafenib uptake predicts sorafenib concentrations during therapy in corresponding tumor biopsy samples measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Secondary objectives included determining the association of 11C-sorafenib PET findings, perfusion 15O-H2O PET findings, and sorafenib concentrations after therapeutic dosing with response. Results: 11C-sorafenib PET findings did not predict sorafenib concentrations in tumor biopsy samples during therapy. In addition, sorafenib plasma and tumor concentrations were not associated with clinical outcome in this exploratory study. Higher 11C-sorafenib accumulation in tumors at baseline and day 14 of treatment showed an association with poorer prognosis and correlated with tumor perfusion (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.671, P = 0.020). Interestingly, a decrease in tumor perfusion measured with 15O-H2O PET after only 14 d of therapy showed an association with response, with a decrease in tumor perfusion of 56% ± 23% (mean ± SD) versus 18% ± 32% in patients with stable and progressive disease, respectively. Conclusion: Microdose 11C-sorafenib PET did not predict intratumoral sorafenib concentrations after therapeutic dosing, but the association between a decrease in tumor perfusion and clinical benefit warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida , Compostos de Fenilureia , Sorafenibe
12.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 36(3): E134-E138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) is used for objective assessment of functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In situations where face-to-face contact is not feasible, telephonic assessment of the GOS-E might be desirable. The aim of this study is to assess the level of agreement between face-to-face and telephonic assessment of the GOS-E. SETTING: Multicenter study in 2 Dutch University Medical Centers. Inclusion was performed in the outpatient clinic (face-to-face assessment, by experienced neurologist), followed by assessment via telephone of the GOS-E after ±2 weeks (by trained researcher). PARTICIPANTS: Patients ±6 months after TBI. DESIGN: Prospective validation study. MAIN MEASURES: Interrater agreement of the GOS-E was assessed with Cohen's weighted κ. RESULTS: From May 2014 until March 2018, 50 patients were enrolled; 54% were male (mean age 49.1 years). Median time between trauma and in-person GOS-E examination was 158 days and median time between face-to-face and telephonic GOS-E was 15 days. The quadratic weighted κ was 0.79. Sensitivity analysis revealed a quadratic weighted κ of 0.77, 0.78, and 0.70 for moderate-severe, complicated mild, and uncomplicated mild TBI, respectively. CONCLUSION: No disagreements of more than 1 point on the GOS-E were observed, with the κ value representing good or substantial agreement. Assessment of the GOS-E via telephone is a valid alternative to the face-to-face interview when in-person contact is not feasible.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Telefone
13.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(3): 338-345, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284310

RESUMO

Importance: The development and expansion of intracranial hematoma are associated with adverse outcomes. Use of tranexamic acid might limit intracranial hematoma formation, but its association with outcomes of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unclear. Objective: To assess whether prehospital administration of tranexamic acid is associated with mortality and functional outcomes in a group of patients with severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study is an analysis of prospectively collected observational data from the Brain Injury: Prehospital Registry of Outcome, Treatments and Epidemiology of Cerebral Trauma (BRAIN-PROTECT) study in the Netherlands. Patients treated for suspected severe TBI by the Dutch Helicopter Emergency Medical Services between February 2012 and December 2017 were included. Patients were followed up for 1 year after inclusion. Data were analyzed from January 10, 2020, to September 10, 2020. Exposures: Administration of tranexamic acid during prehospital treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included mortality at 1 year, functional neurological recovery at discharge (measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale), and length of hospital stay. Data were also collected on demographic factors, preinjury medical condition, injury characteristics, operational characteristics, and prehospital vital parameters. Results: A total of 1827 patients were analyzed, of whom 1283 (70%) were male individuals and the median (interquartile range) age was 45 (23-65) years. In the unadjusted analysis, higher 30-day mortality was observed in patients who received prehospital tranexamic acid (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55; P < .001), compared with patients who did not receive prehospital tranexamic acid. After adjustment for confounders, no association between prehospital administration of tranexamic acid and mortality was found across the entire cohort of patients. However, a substantial increase in the odds of 30-day mortality persisted in patients with severe isolated TBI who received prehospital tranexamic acid (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 1.57-12.87; P = .005) and after multiple imputations (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.22-3.45; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that prehospital tranexamic acid administration was associated with increased mortality in patients with isolated severe TBI, suggesting the judicious use of the drug when no evidence for extracranial hemorrhage is present.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Anesthesiol Res Pract ; 2020: 7384394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281900

RESUMO

Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is characterized by a deterioration in cognitive performance after surgery and is increasingly addressed in research studies. However, a uniform definition of POCD seems to be lacking, which is a major threat to clinical research in this area. We performed a focused systematic review to determine the current degree of heterogeneity in how POCD is defined across studies and to identify those diagnostic criteria that are used most commonly. The search identified 173 records, of which 30 were included. Neurocognitive testing was most commonly performed shortly before surgery and at 7 days postoperatively. A variety of neurocognitive tests were used to test a range of cognitive domains, including complex attention, language, executive functioning, perceptual-motor function, and learning and memory. The tests that were used most commonly were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the digit span test, the trail making test part A, and the digit symbol substitution test, but consensus on which test result would be considered "positive" for POCD was sparse. The results of this systematic review suggest the lack of a consistent approach towards defining POCD. However, commonalities were identified which may serve as a common denominator for deriving consensus-based diagnostic guidelines for POCD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973683

RESUMO

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare disease in which heterotopic ossification (HO) is formed in muscles, tendons and ligaments. Traumatic events, including surgery, are discouraged as this is known to trigger a flare-up with risk of subsequent HO. Anesthetic management for patients with FOP is challenging. Cervical spine fusion, ankylosis of the temporomandibular joints, thoracic insufficiency syndrome, restrictive chest wall disease, and sensitivity to oral trauma complicate airway management and anesthesia and pose life-threatening risks. We report a patient with FOP suffering from life-threatening antibiotic resistant bacterial infected ulcers of the right lower leg and foot. The anesthetic, surgical and postoperative challenges and considerations are discussed. In addition, the literature on limb surgeries of FOP patients is systemically reviewed. The 44 year-old female patient was scheduled for a through-knee amputation. Airway and pulmonary evaluation elicited severe abnormalities, rendering standard general anesthesia a rather complication-prone approach in this patient. Thus, regional anesthesia, supplemented with intravenous analgosedation and N2O-inhalation were performed in this case. The surgery itself was securely planned to avoid any unnecessary tissue damage. Postoperatively the patient was closely monitored for FOP activity by ultrasound and [18F]PET/CT-scan. One year after surgery, a non-significant amount of HO had formed at the operated site. The systematic review revealed seventeen articles in which thirty-two limb surgeries in FOP patients were described. HO reoccurrence was described in 90% of the cases. Clinical improvement due to improved mobility of the operated joint was noted in 16% of the cases. It should be noted, though, that follow-up time was limited and no or inadequate imaging modalities were used to follow-up in the majority of these cases. To conclude, if medically urgent, limb surgery in FOP is possible even when general anesthesia is not preferred. The procedure should be well-planned, alternative techniques or procedures should be tested prior to surgery and special attention should be paid to the correct positioning of the patient. According to the literature recurrent HO should be expected after surgery of a limb, even though it was limited in the case described.


Assuntos
Amputação/métodos , Perna (Membro)/cirurgia , Miosite Ossificante/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 203, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Videolaryngoscopy is increasingly advocated as the standard intubation technique, while fibreoptic intubation is broadly regarded as the 'gold standard' for difficult airways. Traditionally, the training of these techniques is on patients, though manikins, simulators and cadavers are also used, with their respective limitations. In this study, we investigated whether the novel 'Fix for Life' (F4L) cadaver model is a suitable and realistic model for the teaching of these two intubation techniques to novices in airway management. METHODS: Forty consultant anaesthetists and senior trainees were instructed to perform tracheal intubation with videolaryngoscopy and fibreoptic tracheoscopy in four F4L cadaver models. The primary outcome measure was the verbal rating scores (scale 1-10, higher scores indicate a better rating) for suitability and for realism of the F4L cadavers as training model for these techniques. Secondary outcomes included success rates of the procedures and the time to successful completion of the procedures. RESULTS: The mean verbal rating scores for suitability and realism for videolaryngoscopy was 8.3 (95% CI, 7.9-8.6) and 7.2 (95% CI, 6.7-7.6), respectively. For fibreoptic tracheoscopy, suitability was 8.2 (95% CI, 7.9-8.5) and realism 7.5 (95% CI, 7.1-7.8). In videolaryngoscopy, 100% of the procedures were successful. The mean (SD) time until successful tracheal intubation was 34.8 (30.9) s. For fibreoptic tracheoscopy, the success rate was 96.3%, with a mean time of 89.4 (80.1) s. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the F4L cadaver model is a suitable and realistic model to train and teach tracheal intubation with videolaryngoscopy and fibreoptic tracheoscopy to novices in airway management training.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Anestesiologistas/educação , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/educação , Intubação Intratraqueal , Laringoscopia/educação , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/educação , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Cadáver , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/métodos
19.
Air Med J ; 39(2): 120-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In prehospital helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) settings, the medical team has limited monitoring options, usually restricted to systemic variables. Regional tissue oxygenation (rO2) can be assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), but clinical NIRS monitors are unpractical ("big boxes" and additional cables) in HEMS. As an alternative, we identified a wearable, athlete training NIRS device (Moxy; Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland) and hypothesized that it would be applicable in our HEMS setting. METHODS: This feasibility study was performed at the Dutch HEMS Lifeliner 1. The Moxy sensor was tested in-flight and on ground. We tested various anatomic measurement spots, and multiple conditions and interventions were imposed to track rO2. RESULTS: The rO2 measurements with the wearable Moxy NIRS device are both feasible and practical in an HEMS setting. Multiple conditions and interventions were tested successfully (eg, tourniquet placement [rO2↓], muscle compression [rO2↓], reperfusion [rO2↑], oxygen administration [rO2↑], hyperemia [rO2↑], and venous congestion [rO2↓]). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that rO2 measurements with the wearable Moxy NIRS device are both feasible and practical in HEMS, and Moxy allows the tracking of simulated pathophysiologic effects on rO2. Future studies will have to verify our preliminary data and elucidate if and how wearable NIRS monitoring may support treatment in HEMS and improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Oxigênio/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Hiperemia , Projetos Piloto , Torniquetes
20.
Transfus Med ; 30(2): 86-105, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this scoping review is to describe the current use of pre-hospital transfusion of red blood cells (PHTRBC) and to evaluate criteria used to initiate PHTRBC. The effects on patients' outcomes will be reviewed in Part 2. BACKGROUND: Haemorrhage is a preventable cause of death in trauma patients, and transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly used by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for damage control resuscitation. However, there are no guidelines and little consensus on when to initiate PHTRBC. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched through January 2019; 71 articles were included. RESULTS: Transfusion triggers vary widely and involve vital signs, clinical signs of poor tissue perfusion, point of care measurements and pre-hospital ultrasound imaging. In particular, hypotension (most often defined as systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg), tachycardia (most often defined as heart rate ≥ 120/min), clinical signs of poor perfusion (eg, prolonged capillary refill time or changes in mental status) and injury type (ie, penetrating wounds) are common pre-hospital transfusion triggers. CONCLUSIONS: PHTRBC is increasingly used by Emergency Medical Services, but guidelines on when to initiate transfusion are lacking. We identified the most commonly used transfusion criteria, and these findings may provide the basis for consensus-based pre-hospital transfusion protocols.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação , Humanos
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