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2.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

3.
Cancer Med ; 9(23): 9168-9177, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159501

RESUMO

African American cancer survivors disproportionately experience financial difficulties after cancer. Decreased work participation (going from being employed full time to part time or from employed to not employed) can contribute to financial hardship after cancer but employment outcomes among African American cancer survivors have not been well described. This study estimates the prevalence of work changes and identifies factors associated with decreased work participation among African American cancer survivors. We analyzed data from 916 African American breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer survivors who participated in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) cohort and were employed before their cancer diagnosis. Modified Poisson models estimated prevalence ratios of decreased work participation and work changes, including changes to hours, duties, or schedules, between diagnosis and ROCS enrollment controlling for sociodemographic and cancer-related factors. Nearly half of employed survivors made changes to their schedules, duties, or hours worked due to cancer and 34.6% took at least one month off of work, including 18% who took at least one month of unpaid time off. More survivors employed full time (vs. part time) at diagnosis were on disability at ROCS enrollment (18.7% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), while fewer were unemployed (5.9% vs. 15.7%, P < 0.001). Nearly half (47.5%) of employed survivors decreased work participation. Taking paid time off was not associated with decreased work participation; however, taking unpaid time off and making work changes were associated with prevalence ratios of decreased work participation of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.62) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.75), respectively. Employment disruptions are common after a cancer diagnosis. Survivors who take unpaid time off and make other work changes may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing decreased work participation.

5.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social needs may affect cancer survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) above and beyond sociodemographic and cancer-related factors. The purpose of this study was to estimate associations between social needs and HRQOL. METHODS: Results included data from 1754 participants in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors cohort, a population-based study of African American survivors of breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer. Social needs included items related to food insecurity, utility shutoffs, housing instability, not getting health care because of cost or a lack of transportation, and perceptions of neighborhood safety. HRQOL was measured with the validated Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Linear regression models controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and cancer-related factors. RESULTS: More than one-third of the survivors (36.3%) reported social needs including 17.1% of survivors reported 2 or more. The prevalence of social needs ranged from 14.8% for food insecurity to 8.9% for utility shutoffs. FACT-G score differences associated with social needs were -12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] to -15.2 to -9.3) for not getting care because of a lack of transportation, -11.3 (95% CI, -14.2 to -8.4) for housing instability, -10.1 (95% CI, -12.7 to -7.4) for food insecurity, -9.8 (95% CI, -12.7 to -6.9) for feeling unsafe in the neighborhood, -8.6 (95% CI, -11.7 to -5.4) for utility shutoffs, and -6.7 (95% CI, -9.2 to -4.1) for not getting care because of cost. CONCLUSIONS: Social needs were common in this cohort of African American cancer survivors and were associated with clinically significant differences in HRQOL. Clinical oncology care and survivorship care planning may present opportunities to screen for and address social needs to mitigate their impact on survivors' HRQOL.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2369-2375, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African-American women have high rates of breast cancer associated with hereditary features. However, no studies have reported the prevalence of inherited variation across all genes known to be breast cancer risk factors among African-American patients with breast cancer not selected for high-risk characteristics. METHODS: We evaluated 182 African-American women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit via targeted capture and multiplex sequencing of 13 well-established breast cancer risk genes and five suggested breast cancer risk genes. RESULTS: We identified 24 pathogenic variants in 23 women [12.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 8.2%-18.4%] and five genes (BRCA2, BRCA1, ATM, RAD50, CDH1). BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounted for 58.3% of all pathogenic variants. An additional six pathogenic variants were found in suggested breast cancer risk genes (MSH6, MUTYH, NF1, BRIP1). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants is relatively high among African-American patients with breast cancer unselected for high-risk characteristics across a broad spectrum of genes. IMPACT: This study helps to define the genomic landscape of breast cancer susceptibility in African-American women who could benefit from enhanced surveillance and screening.

7.
Cancer Med ; 9(20): 7763-7771, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822118

RESUMO

Tobacco cessation among those recently diagnosed with cancer is important to improve their prognosis, yet, many cancer survivors continue to smoke. The epidemiology of tobacco use differs by race and ethnicity, and limited cessation research has been conducted in African American (AA) populations. Here, we assess demographic and clinical variables associated with continued smoking in AAs after a cancer diagnosis. The Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors study is a cohort comprised of AA cancer survivors with breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors data were utilized from survivors who completed their baseline survey within 18 months of cancer diagnosis (n = 1145); 18% (n = 356) reported smoking at the time of cancer diagnosis, and 57% of these (n = 203) continued to smoke after their diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with continued smoking. Living with a smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64, 4.70), higher cumulative years of smoking (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05, for each year), and a prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 7.35, 95% CI: 3.89, 13.89) were all associated with increased odds of continued smoking. Survivors with higher social well-being scores (measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, a quality of life assessment) were more likely to quit smoking after diagnosis (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00). These findings highlight the continued need for personalized cessation strategies to be incorporated into treatment plans for cancer survivors.

8.
Cancer ; 126(21): 4744-4752, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history (FH) remains one of the strongest risk factors for many common cancers and is used to determine cancer genetic counseling (CGC) eligibility, but the understanding of familial cancer patterns in African Americans is limited. METHODS: This study evaluated cancer FH among African Americans with invasive breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, or colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) cohort. Associations between participant cancer type, site-specific FH, and meeting national guidelines for CGC were evaluated via logistic regression. Cancer FH patterns were evaluating via hierarchical clustering. RESULTS: Among 1500 ROCS participants, 71% reported at least 1 first-degree relative or grandparent with cancer. FHs of breast cancer, CRC, lung cancer, and prostate cancer were most common among participants with the same diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] for breast cancer, 1.14; P < .001; OR for CRC, 1.08; P = .003; OR for lung cancer, 1.09; P = .008; OR for prostate cancer, 1.14; P < .001). Nearly half of the participants (47%) met national CGC guidelines, and 24.4% of these participants met CGC criteria on the basis of their cancer FH alone. FH was particularly important in determining CGC eligibility for participants with prostate cancer versus breast cancer (OR for FH vs personal history alone, 2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-4.35; P < .001). In clustering analyses, breast and prostate cancer FH-defined clusters were common across all participants. Clustering of CRC and breast cancer FHs was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: ROCS participants reported high rates of cancer FH. The high rate of eligibility for CGC among ROCS participants supports the need for interventions to increase referrals and uptake of CGC among African Americans.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(1): 123-129, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies that have examined the association between cardiovascular comorbidities and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have yielded inconsistent results. It remains unknown whether cardiometabolic disease is associated with EOC in African American (AA) women, who have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and lower risk of EOC than White women. Here, we estimate the effect of cardiovascular comorbid conditions and EOC risk among AA women. METHODS: Data were available from 593 ovarian carcinoma patients and 752 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). Participants were asked to self-report a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes and any current medication use. The relationship between hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and medications taken for these conditions was determined using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Hypertension was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.73), whereas diabetes and hyperlipidemia were associated with a decreased risk (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.91 and aOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.47, 0.80, respectively) of EOC. Use of anti-diabetic medication was inversely associated with EOC risk, as was use of lipid lowering medications (in the overall study population), which were predominantly statins. Among women with hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications was inversely associated with EOC risk, with associations that were most pronounced for diuretics, ARBs and ACE inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was associated with an increased EOC risk in this patient population, whereas an inverse association was observed for diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The decreased risk of EOC identified with use of anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetes or lipid-lowering medications could have implications for risk reduction strategies.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Black/African American (AA) women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to whites, an aggressive breast cancer subtype associated with poor prognosis. There are no routinely used targeted clinical therapies for TNBC; thus there is a clear need to identify prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: We evaluated expression of 27,016 genes in 155 treatment-naïve TN tumors from AA women in Detroit. Associations with survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for stage and age at diagnosis, and p-values were corrected using a false discovery rate. Our validation sample consisted of 494 TN tumors using four publically available data sets. Meta-analyses were performed using summary statistics from the four validation results. RESULTS: In the Detroit AA cohort, CLCA2 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.86, nominal p = 5.1x10-7, FDR p = 0.014], SPIC [HR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.26-1.73, nominal p = 1.8x10-6, FDR p = 0.022], and MIR4311 [HR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.92, nominal p = 2.5x10-5, FDR p = 0.022] expression were associated with overall survival. Further adjustment for treatment and breast cancer specific survival analysis did not substantially alter effect estimates. CLCA2 was also associated with increased risk of death in the validation cohorts [HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.24, p = 0.038, p-heterogeneity = 0.88]. CONCLUSIONS: We identified CLCA2 as a potential prognostic marker for TNBC in AA women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(1): 145-154, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American women (AAW) die more frequently from estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than European American women (EAW). We investigated the relationship between race, percent ER staining, treatment, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Percent ER staining (weakly ER+: 1-10%, moderately ER+: 11-50%, strongly ER+: > 50%) was abstracted from pathology reports for 1573 women with ER+/HER2- invasive breast cancer treated at a single cancer center in Detroit, MI from 2010 to 2017. Clinical outcomes and tumor characteristics were obtained from the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. Associations of ER levels with demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression. Overall and breast cancer-specific (BCS) survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: AAW were more likely to have tumors with lower ER staining levels than EAW (weakly ER+: Odds ratio (OR) 2.19, p = 0.019; moderately ER+: OR 2.80, p = 0.005). Women with weakly compared to strongly ER+ tumors were less likely to receive endocrine therapy (ET) regardless of race (OR 0.79, p < 0.001). Mortality was predicted by both AA race (Overall hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, p < 0.001; BCS HR 1.45, p = 0.08) and low (1-50%) ER (Overall HR 1.57, p = 0.083; BCS HR 2.11, p = 0.017) adjusting for clinic-pathologic characteristics. ET was associated with improved BCS survival in all women (1-50%: HR 0.11, p < 0.001; > 50%: HR 0.24, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The biology of ER+/HER2- tumors varies by race, although this does not appear to account for racial differences in survival. Although ET substantially reduces mortality among women with weakly ER+ tumors, these women are less likely to be treated with ET and have poorer outcomes.

12.
Cancer ; 126(9): 1987-1994, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of regular exercise in improving cancer outcomes is well established. The American Cancer Society (ACS) released a recommendation that cancer survivors should engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) per week; however, few report meeting this recommendation. This study examined the patterns and correlates of meeting ACS PA recommendations in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) cohort of African American cancer survivors. METHODS: Detroit ROCS participants completed baseline and yearly follow-up surveys to update their health and health behaviors, including PA. This study examined participation in PA by select characteristics and reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments. RESULTS: Among the first 1500 ROCS participants, 60% reported participating in regular PA, with 24% reporting ≥150 min/wk. Although there were no differences by sex, prostate cancer survivors were the most likely to report participating in regular PA, whereas lung cancer survivors were the least likely (P = .022). Survivors who reported participating in regular PA reported higher HRQOL (P < .001) and lower depression (P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Just 24% of African American cancer survivors reported meeting the ACS guidelines for PA at the baseline, but it was encouraging to see increases in activity over time. Because of the established benefits of regular exercise observed in this study and others, identifying and reducing barriers to regular PA among African American cancer survivors are critical for improving outcomes and minimizing disparities.

13.
Lung Cancer ; 141: 78-81, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States. COPD is associated with lung cancer independently of cigarette smoking, but remains understudied in women. Utilizing data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), this report investigates the association between COPD and development of lung cancer, with a focus on ethnicity and cancer subtype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The WHI-OS, part of the larger Women's Health Initiative (WHI), is comprised of postmenopausal women between ages 50 and 79 years old at enrollment. Self-administered questionnaires were utilized to gather baseline demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral information from participants. For this analysis, COPD status was determined at study entry (baseline) and on annual survey (incident). Information on the primary outcome of interest, diagnosis of lung cancer, was also collected annually. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 92,789 women examined, 1,536 developed lung cancer. Overall, women with COPD were 1.64 times more likely to develop lung cancer than those without COPD, after adjusting for smoking status and intensity, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and income (HR = 1.64, 95 % CI: 1.43, 1.89). The relationship between COPD and lung cancer was not found to be significantly different between ethnic groups (p-value = 0.697). The associations between COPD and lung cancer was similar across subtypes (HR range 1.31-2.16), after adjusting for smoking status and intensity. COPD increases risk of lung cancer in women, thus they may benefit from more intensive surveillance compared to similar women without COPD.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 747-756, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709530

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci contributing to lung cancer and COPD risk independently; however, inflammation-related pathways likely harbor additional lung cancer risk-associated variants in biologically relevant immune genes that differ dependent on COPD. We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) proximal to 2,069 genes within 48 immune pathways. We modeled the contribution of these variants to lung cancer risk in a discovery sample of 1,932 lung cancer cases and controls stratified by COPD status and validation sample of 953 cases and controls also stratified by COPD. There were 43 validated SNPs in those with COPD and 60 SNPs in those without COPD associated with lung cancer risk. Furthermore, 29 of 43 and 28 of 60 SNPs demonstrated a statistically significant interaction with COPD in the pooled sample. These variants demonstrated tissue-dependent effects on proximal gene expression, enhanced network connectivity and resided together in specific immune pathways. These results reveal that key inflammatory related genes and pathways, not found in prior GWAS, impact lung cancer risk in a COPD-dependent manner. Genetic variation identified in our study supplements prior lung cancer GWAS and serves as a foundation to further interrogate risk relationships in smoking and COPD populations.

15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(3): e221-e233, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Caregivers of cancer survivors may need to take time off work or make other employment changes to handle caregiving demands. Work impacts of caregiving, financial burden, and psychosocial outcomes of caregivers are not well understood. METHODS: Results include information from surveys completed by 202 employed caregivers of participants in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors cohort, a population-based cohort of African American survivors of breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. Relationships between work outcomes, financial burden, and anxiety and depression were assessed using logistic regression models controlling for demographic and cancer-related factors. RESULTS: Most (73.8%) caregivers made some employment change. Sixty percent changed their schedule, hours, duties, or employment status; 15.3% took at least 1 month off to provide care, and 38% reported difficulty balancing work and caregiving. Employment changes were strongly associated with difficulty balancing work and caregiving (odds ratio [OR], 5.83; 95% CI, 2.38 to 14.0) and financial burden (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 4.27). Difficulty balancing work and caregiving was associated with symptoms of anxiety (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.43) and depression (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16 to 4.96). High (v low) financial burden was associated with symptoms of anxiety (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.01 to 8.06). CONCLUSION: Difficulty balancing work and caregiving is common among caregivers of African American cancer survivors and is associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Supports for caregivers facing employment challenges may improve their psychosocial well-being.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 434-442, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer in the United States. In addition to environmental factors, lung cancer has genetic risk factors as well, though the genetic etiology is still not well understood. We have performed whole exome sequencing on 262 individuals from 28 extended families with a family history of lung cancer. METHODS: Parametric genetic linkage analysis was performed on these samples using two distinct analyses-the lung cancer only (LCO) analysis, where only patients with lung cancer were coded as affected, and the all aggregated cancers (AAC) analysis, where other cancers seen in the pedigree were coded as affected. RESULTS: The AAC analysis yielded a genome-wide significant result at rs61943670 in POLR3B at 12q23.3. POLR3B has been implicated somatically in lung cancer, but this germline finding is novel and is a significant expression quantitative trait locus in lung tissue. Interesting genome-wide suggestive haplotypes were also found within individual families, particularly near SSPO at 7p36.1 in one family and a large linked haplotype spanning 4q21.3-28.3 in a different family. The 4q haplotype contains potential causal rare variants in DSPP at 4q22.1 and PTPN13 at 4q21.3. CONCLUSIONS: Regions on 12q, 7p, and 4q are linked to increased cancer risk in highly aggregated lung cancer families, 12q across families and 7p and 4q within a single family. POLR3B, SSPO, DSPP, and PTPN13 are currently the best candidate genes. IMPACT: Functional work on these genes is planned for future studies and if confirmed would lead to potential biomarkers for risk in cancer.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

18.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4442-4451, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination and trust are known barriers to accessing health care. Despite well-documented racial disparities in the ovarian cancer care continuum, the role of these barriers has not been examined. This study evaluated the association of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged interval between symptom onset and ovarian cancer diagnosis (hereafter referred to as prolonged symptom duration). METHODS: Subjects included cases enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a multisite case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer among black women. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged symptom duration (1 or more symptoms lasting longer than the median symptom-specific duration), and it controlled for access-to-care covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the 486 cases in this analysis, 302 women had prolonged symptom duration. In the fully adjusted model, a 1-unit increase in the frequency of everyday discrimination increased the odds of prolonged symptom duration 74% (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49), but trust in physicians was not associated with prolonged symptom duration (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.66-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived everyday discrimination was associated with prolonged symptom duration, whereas more commonly evaluated determinants of access to care and trust in physicians were not. These results suggest that more research on the effects of interpersonal barriers affecting ovarian cancer care is warranted.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Racismo , Confiança , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1606-1616, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with ovarian carcinogenesis; yet, the impact of inflammatory-related exposures on outcomes has been understudied. OBJECTIVE: Given the poor survival of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, especially African-Americans, we examined whether diet-associated inflammation, a modifiable source of chronic systemic inflammation measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), was associated with all-cause mortality among African-American women with ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: Data were available from 490 ovarian carcinoma patients enrolled in a population-based case-control study of African-American women with ovarian cancer, the African-American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated based on prediagnostic dietary intake of foods alone or foods and supplements, which was self-reported using the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate risk of mortality overall and for the most common histotype, high-grade serous carcinoma. Additionally, we assessed interaction by age at diagnosis and smoking status. RESULTS: Women included in this study had a median age of 57 y, and the majority of women were obese (58%), had late-stage disease (Stage III or IV, 66%), and had high-grade serous carcinoma (64%). Greater E-DII scores including supplements (indicating greater inflammatory potential) were associated with an increased risk of mortality among women with high-grade serous carcinoma (HR1-unit change: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.17). Similar associations were observed for the E-DII excluding supplements, although not statistically significant (HR1-unit change: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17). There was an interaction by smoking status, where the positive association with mortality was present only among ever smokers (HRQuartile 4/Quartile 1: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.60) but not among never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Greater inflammatory potential of prediagnostic diet may adversely impact prognosis among African-American women with high-grade serous carcinoma, and specifically among ever smokers.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
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