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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 290: 59-65, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with cardiovascular disease, considerable residual risk remains despite evidence-based secondary prevention measures. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been suggested as a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. We sought to determine whether cardiovascular risk reduction by the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitor apabetalone is associated with the concomitant lowering of serum ALP. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of 795 patients with established coronary heart disease and statin treatment, who participated in phase 2 placebo-controlled trials of apabetalone, we determined the effect of assigned treatment for up to 24 weeks on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and serum ALP. RESULTS: Baseline ALP (median 72 U/L) predicted MACE (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes), independent of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), sex, age, race, study, cardiovascular risk factors, chronic kidney disease (CKD), liver function markers and treatment allocation (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] 1.6, 95% CI 1.19-2.16, p = 0.002). Mean placebo-corrected decreases in ALP from baseline were 9.2% (p < 0.001) after 12-14 weeks and 7.7% (p < 0.001) after 24-26 weeks of apabetalone treatment. In the apabetalone group, a 1-SD reduction in ALP was associated with a HR for MACE of 0.64 (95% CI 0.46-0.90, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Serum ALP predicts residual cardiovascular risk, independent of hsCRP, established cardiovascular risk factors and CKD, in patients with cardiovascular disease on statin treatment. Apabetalone lowers serum ALP, which was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Whether the beneficial cardiovascular effects of apabetalone are causally related to ALP reduction remains undetermined.

2.
Am Heart J ; 217: 72-83, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520897

RESUMO

After an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), patients with diabetes remain at high risk for additional cardiovascular events despite use of current therapies. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic modulators of inflammation, thrombogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism implicated in atherothrombosis. The BETonMACE trial tests the hypothesis that treatment with apabetalone, a selective BET protein inhibitor, will improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes after an ACS. DESIGN: Patients (n = 2425) with ACS in the preceding 7 to 90 days, with type 2 diabetes and low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl for men, ≤45 mg/dl for women), receiving intensive or maximum-tolerated therapy with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin, were assigned in double-blind fashion to receive apabetalone 100 mg orally twice daily or matching placebo. Baseline characteristics include female sex (25%), myocardial infarction as index ACS event (74%), coronary revascularization for index ACS (80%), treatment with dual anti-platelet therapy (87%) and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (91%), median LDL cholesterol 65 mg per deciliter, and median HbA1c 7.3%. The primary efficacy measure is time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or stroke. Assumptions include a primary event rate of 7% per annum in the placebo group and median follow-up of 1.5 years. Patients will be followed until at least 250 primary endpoint events have occurred, providing 80% power to detect a 30% reduction in the primary endpoint with apabetalone. SUMMARY: BETonMACE will determine whether the addition of the selective BET protein inhibitor apabetalone to contemporary standard of care for ACS reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results are expected in 2019.

3.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468659

RESUMO

AIMS: The AleCardio trial aimed to characterize the efficacy and safety of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-αγ agonist aleglitazar in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome. The trial terminated early because of futility and safety signals. We evaluated whether the safety signals could be attributed to increased exposure to aleglitazar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AleCardio trial enrolled 7226 patients to receive aleglitazar 150 µg or matching placebo on top of standard care. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted in a pharmacokinetic substudy to identify covariates that explained interindividual variability in exposure. Subsequently, the effect of these covariates on surrogate and clinical outcomes was assessed in the full patient population. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of clopidogrel was identified as a covariate that influenced the apparent clearance of aleglitazar. Patients using clopidogrel had a mean predicted area under the plasma-concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 ) of 174.7 ng h/mL (SD: ±112.9 ng h/mL) versus 142.2 ng h/mL (SD: ±92.6 ng h/mL) in patients without clopidogrel. The effect of aleglitazar compared with placebo on HbA1c, haemoglobin, serum creatinine and adiponectin was modified by concomitant clopidogrel use (P for interaction 0.007, 0.002, <0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of clopidogrel was identified as a covariate that explained interindividual variability in exposure to aleglitazar. Patients using clopidogrel showed an additional lowering of HbA1c, at the expense of an additional decrease in haemoglobin, and an increase in serum creatinine and adiponectin. Clopidogrel is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C8. Because aleglitazar is metabolized by CYP2C8, a pharmacokinetic interaction could explain differences in exposure and response to aleglitazar.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 618-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes conveys an excess risk of ischaemic cardiovascular events. A reduction in mean LDL cholesterol to 1·4-1·8 mmol/L with ezetimibe or statins reduces cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and diabetes. However, the efficacy and safety of further reduction in LDL cholesterol with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) after acute coronary syndrome is unknown. We aimed to explore this issue in a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab, assessing its effects on cardiovascular outcomes by baseline glycaemic status, while also assessing its effects on glycaemic measures including risk of new-onset diabetes. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 1315 sites in 57 countries, that compared alirocumab with placebo in patients who had been admitted to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) 1-12 months before randomisation and who had raised concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins despite use of high-intensity statins. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo every 2 weeks; randomisation was stratified by country and was done centrally with an interactive voice-response or web-response system. Alirocumab was titrated to target LDL cholesterol concentrations of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular events by glycaemic status at baseline (diabetes, prediabetes, or normoglycaemia)-defined on the basis of patient history, review of medical records, or baseline HbA1c or fasting serum glucose-and risk of new-onset diabetes among those without diabetes at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospital admission. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01663402. FINDINGS: At study baseline, 5444 patients (28·8%) had diabetes, 8246 (43·6%) had prediabetes, and 5234 (27·7%) had normoglycaemia. There were no significant differences across glycaemic categories in median LDL cholesterol at baseline (2·20-2·28 mmol/L), after 4 months' treatment with alirocumab (0·80 mmol/L), or after 4 months' treatment with placebo (2·25-2·28 mmol/L). In the placebo group, the incidence of the primary endpoint over a median of 2·8 years was greater in patients with diabetes (16·4%) than in those with prediabetes (9·2%) or normoglycaemia (8·5%); hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes versus normoglycaemia 2·09 (95% CI 1·78-2·46, p<0·0001) and for diabetes versus prediabetes 1·90 (1·65-2·17, p<0·0001). Alirocumab resulted in similar relative reductions in the incidence of the primary endpoint in each glycaemic category, but a greater absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint in patients with diabetes (2·3%, 95% CI 0·4 to 4·2) than in those with prediabetes (1·2%, 0·0 to 2·4) or normoglycaemia (1·2%, -0·3 to 2·7; absolute risk reduction pinteraction=0·0019). Among patients without diabetes at baseline, 676 (10·1%) developed diabetes in the placebo group, compared with 648 (9·6%) in the alirocumab group; alirocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). HRs were 0·97 (95% CI 0·87-1·09) for patients with prediabetes and 1·30 (95% CI 0·93-1·81) for those with normoglycaemia (pinteraction=0·11). INTERPRETATION: After a recent acute coronary syndrome, alirocumab treatment targeting an LDL cholesterol concentration of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L produced about twice the absolute reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes as in those without diabetes. Alirocumab treatment did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3115-3117, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221260
8.
Circulation ; 140(2): 103-112, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitors demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, but not death. We assessed the effects of alirocumab on death after index acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was a double-blind, randomized comparison of alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients who had an ACS 1 to 12 months previously and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy. Alirocumab dose was blindly titrated to target achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between 25 and 50 mg/dL. We examined the effects of treatment on all-cause death and its components, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death, with log-rank testing. Joint semiparametric models tested associations between nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Death occurred in 334 (3.5%) and 392 (4.1%) patients, respectively, in the alirocumab and placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P=0.03, nominal P value). This resulted from nonsignificantly fewer cardiovascular (240 [2.5%] vs 271 [2.9%]; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.15) and noncardiovascular (94 [1.0%] vs 121 [1.3%]; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P=0.06) deaths with alirocumab. In a prespecified analysis of 8242 patients eligible for ≥3 years follow-up, alirocumab reduced death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients with nonfatal cardiovascular events were at increased risk for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths ( P<0.0001 for the associations). Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events ( P<0.001) and thereby may have attenuated the number of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths. A post hoc analysis found that, compared to patients with lower LDL-C, patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) had a greater absolute risk of death and a larger mortality benefit from alirocumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; Pinteraction=0.007). In the alirocumab group, all-cause death declined with achieved LDL-C at 4 months of treatment, to a level of approximately 30 mg/dL (adjusted P=0.017 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy has the potential to reduce death after acute coronary syndrome, particularly if treatment is maintained for ≥3 years, if baseline LDL-C is ≥100 mg/dL, or if achieved LDL-C is low. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 40(33): 2801-2809, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121022

RESUMO

AIMS : The third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) Task Force classified MIs into five types: Type 1, spontaneous; Type 2, related to oxygen supply/demand imbalance; Type 3, fatal without ascertainment of cardiac biomarkers; Type 4, related to percutaneous coronary intervention; and Type 5, related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduces risk of MI, but less is known about effects on types of MI. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C (≥1.8 mmol/L) despite intensive statin therapy. In a pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effects of alirocumab on types of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS : Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Myocardial infarction types were prospectively adjudicated and classified. Of 1860 total MIs, 1223 (65.8%) were adjudicated as Type 1, 386 (20.8%) as Type 2, and 244 (13.1%) as Type 4. Few events were Type 3 (n = 2) or Type 5 (n = 5). Alirocumab reduced first MIs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003], with reductions in both Type 1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.032) and Type 2 (0.77, 0.61-0.97; P = 0.025), but not Type 4 MI. CONCLUSION : After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(4): 314-320, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840024

RESUMO

Importance: Higher baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The usefulness of serial hsCRP measurements for risk stratifying patients after ACS is not well characterized. Objective: To assess whether longitudinal increases in hsCRP measurements during the 16 weeks after ACS are independently associated with a greater risk of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE), all-cause death, and cardiovascular death. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of the double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical Vascular Inflammation Suppression to Treat Acute Coronary Syndromes for 16 Weeks (VISTA-16) trial conducted between June 1, 2010, and March 7, 2012 (study termination on March 9, 2012), which included 5145 patients from 362 academic and community hospitals in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, and North America assigned to receive varespladib or placebo on a background of atorvastatin treatment beginning within 96 hours of presentation with an ACS. The present study evaluated data from patients with available baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels measured at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 after randomization to treatment or placebo. Statistical analysis was performed from June 15, 2018, through September 15, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were MACE (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or unstable angina with documented ischemia requiring hospitalization), cardiovascular death, and all-cause death after adjustment for baseline clinical, treatment, and laboratory characteristics, including baseline hsCRP levels. Results: Among 4257 patients in this study, 3141 (73.8%) were men and the mean age was 60.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53.5-67.8 years). The median 16-week low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 64.9 mg/dL (IQR, 50.3-82.3 mg/dL), and the median hsCRP level was 2.4 mg/L (IQR, 1.1-5.2 mg/L). On multivariable analysis, higher baseline hsCRP level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63]; P = .001) and higher longitudinal hsCRP level (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]; P < .001) were independently associated with MACE. Similar significant and independent associations were shown between baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels and cardiovascular death (baseline: HR, 1.61 per SD [95% CI, 1.07-2.41], P = .02; longitudinal: HR, 1.26 per SD [95% CI, 1.19-1.34], P < .001) and between baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels and all-cause death (baseline: HR, 1.58 per SD [95% CI, 1.07-2.35], P = .02; longitudinal: HR, 1.25 per SD [95% CI, 1.18-1.32], P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Initial and subsequent increases in hsCRP levels during 16 weeks after ACS were associated with a greater risk of the combined MACE end point, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death despite established background therapies. Serial measurements of hsCRP during clinical follow-up after ACS may help to identify patients at higher risk for mortality and morbidity.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1167-1176, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and concomitant noncoronary atherosclerosis have a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death. The impact of lipid lowering by proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition in such patients is undetermined. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) determined whether polyvascular disease influenced risks of MACEs and death and their modification by alirocumab in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized to alirocumab or placebo 1 to 12 months after ACS. The primary MACEs endpoint was the composite of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Of 18,924 patients, 17,370 had monovascular (coronary) disease, 1,405 had polyvascular disease in 2 beds (coronary and peripheral artery or cerebrovascular), and 149 had polyvascular disease in 3 beds (coronary, peripheral artery, cerebrovascular). With placebo, the incidence of MACEs by respective vascular categories was 10.0%, 22.2%, and 39.7%. With alirocumab, the corresponding absolute risk reduction was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6% to 2.3%), 1.9% (95% CI: -2.4% to 6.2%), and 13.0% (95% CI: -2.0% to 28.0%). With placebo, the incidence of death by respective vascular categories was 3.5%, 10.0%, and 21.8%; the absolute risk reduction with alirocumab was 0.4% (95% CI: -0.1% to 1.0%), 1.3% (95% CI: -1.8% to 4.3%), and 16.2% (95% CI: 5.5% to 26.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy, polyvascular disease is associated with high risks of MACEs and death. The large absolute reductions in those risks with alirocumab are a potential benefit for these patients. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]: NCT01663402).

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment, after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18,924 patients. Alirocumab reduced the first occurrence of the primary composite endpoint and was associated with fewer all-cause deaths. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis determined the extent to which alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS: Hazard functions for total nonfatal cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure) and death were jointly estimated, linked by a shared frailty accounting for patient risk heterogeneity and correlated within-patient nonfatal events. An association parameter also quantified the strength of the linkage between risk of nonfatal events and death. The model provides accurate relative estimates of nonfatal event risk if nonfatal events are associated with increased risk for death. RESULTS: With 3,064 first and 5,425 total events, 190 fewer first and 385 fewer total nonfatal cardiovascular events or deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo. Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93) and death (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.97) in the presence of a strong association between nonfatal and fatal event risk. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, the total number of nonfatal cardiovascular events and deaths prevented with alirocumab was twice the number of first events prevented. Consequently, total event reduction is a more comprehensive metric to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after ACS.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2097-2107, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome are at high risk for recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether alirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), would improve cardiovascular outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome in patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 18,924 patients who had an acute coronary syndrome 1 to 12 months earlier, had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of at least 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter), a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of at least 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter), or an apolipoprotein B level of at least 80 mg per deciliter, and were receiving statin therapy at a high-intensity dose or at the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomly assigned to receive alirocumab subcutaneously at a dose of 75 mg (9462 patients) or matching placebo (9462 patients) every 2 weeks. The dose of alirocumab was adjusted under blinded conditions to target an LDL cholesterol level of 25 to 50 mg per deciliter (0.6 to 1.3 mmol per liter). The primary end point was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 2.8 years. A composite primary end-point event occurred in 903 patients (9.5%) in the alirocumab group and in 1052 patients (11.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.93; P<0.001). A total of 334 patients (3.5%) in the alirocumab group and 392 patients (4.1%) in the placebo group died (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98). The absolute benefit of alirocumab with respect to the composite primary end point was greater among patients who had a baseline LDL cholesterol level of 100 mg or more per deciliter than among patients who had a lower baseline level. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups, with the exception of local injection-site reactions (3.8% in the alirocumab group vs. 2.1% in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who had a previous acute coronary syndrome and who were receiving high-intensity statin therapy, the risk of recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events was lower among those who received alirocumab than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ODYSSEY OUTCOMES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01663402 .).

15.
Lancet ; 392(10155): 1311-1320, 2018 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease in general population studies. However, its contribution to risk for cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease or on statin therapy is uncertain. METHODS: Patient-level data from seven randomised, placebo-controlled, statin outcomes trials were collated and harmonised to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events, defined as fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, or revascularisation procedures. HRs for cardiovascular events were estimated within each trial across predefined lipoprotein(a) groups (15 to <30 mg/dL, 30 to <50 mg/dL, and ≥50 mg/dL, vs <15 mg/dL), before pooling estimates using multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 29 069 patients with repeat lipoprotein(a) measurements (mean age 62 years [SD 8]; 8064 [28%] women; 5751 events during 95 576 person-years at risk). Initiation of statin therapy reduced LDL cholesterol (mean change -39% [95% CI -43 to -35]) without a significant change in lipoprotein(a). Associations of baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk were approximately linear, with increased risk at lipoprotein(a) values of 30 mg/dL or greater for baseline lipoprotein(a) and 50 mg/dL or greater for on-statin lipoprotein(a). For baseline lipoprotein(a), HRs adjusted for age and sex (vs <15 mg/dL) were 1·04 (95% CI 0·91-1·18) for 15 mg/dL to less than 30 mg/dL, 1·11 (1·00-1·22) for 30 mg/dL to less than 50 mg/dL, and 1·31 (1·08-1·58) for 50 mg/dL or higher; respective HRs for on-statin lipoprotein(a) were 0·94 (0·81-1·10), 1·06 (0·94-1·21), and 1·43 (1·15-1·76). HRs were almost identical after further adjustment for previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The association of on-statin lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk was stronger than for on-placebo lipoprotein(a) (interaction p=0·010) and was more pronounced at younger ages (interaction p=0·008) without effect-modification by any other patient-level or study-level characteristics. INTERPRETATION: In this individual-patient data meta-analysis of statin-treated patients, elevated baseline and on-statin lipoprotein(a) showed an independent approximately linear relation with cardiovascular disease risk. This study provides a rationale for testing the lipoprotein(a) lowering hypothesis in cardiovascular disease outcomes trials. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma AG.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Endovasc Ther ; 25(5): 624-631, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101624

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine through meta-analysis whether administration of statins before carotid artery stenting (CAS) is associated with fewer periprocedural adverse events. METHODS: All randomized and observational English-language studies of periprocedural statin administration prior to CAS that reported the outcomes of interest (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and death at 30 days) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Meta-regression analysis was performed to determine whether an association of statin treatment with risk of outcome events was influenced by other trial-level baseline characteristics of statin-treated and untreated patients. RESULTS: Eleven studies comprising 4088 patients were included. Patients who received statins prior to CAS had a significantly lower risk of stroke (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.58, p<0.01; I2=0%) and death (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.96, p=0.042; I2=0%). Statin use was not associated with a reduced risk of transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction. In meta-regression analysis, other trial-level baseline characteristics had no significant influence on the association of statin treatment with death or stroke. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy prior to CAS is associated with decreased risk of perioperative stroke and death without any effect on the rates of transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction.

17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(9): 815-822, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046828

RESUMO

Importance: CER-001 is a negatively charged, engineered pre-ß high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetic containing apolipoprotein A-I and sphingomyelin. Preliminary studies demonstrated favorable effects of CER-001 on cholesterol efflux and vascular inflammation. A post hoc reanalysis of a previously completed study of intravenous infusion of CER-001, 3 mg/k, showed that the intravenous infusion in patients with a high coronary plaque burden promoted regression as assessed by intravascular ultrasonography. Objective: To determine the effect of infusing CER-001 on coronary atherosclerosis progression in statin-treated patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial evaluating the effect of 10 weekly intravenous infusions of CER-001, 3 mg/kg, (n = 135) or placebo (n = 137) in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and baseline percent atheroma volume (PAV) greater than 30% in the proximal segment of an epicardial artery by intravascular ultrasonography. The study included 34 academic and community hospitals in Australia, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the United States in patients with ACS presenting for coronary angiography. Patients were enrolled from August 15, 2015, to November 19, 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive weekly CER-001, 3 mg/kg, or placebo for 10 weeks in addition to statins. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy measure was the nominal change in PAV from baseline to day 78 measured by serial intravascular ultrasonography imaging. The secondary efficacy measures were nominal change in normalized total atheroma volume and percentage of patients demonstrating plaque regression. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Results: Among 293 patients (mean [SD] age, 59.8 [9.4] years; 217 men [79.8%] and 261 white race/ethnicity [96.0%]), 86 (29%) had statin prior use prior to the index ACS and 272 (92.8%) had evaluable imaging at follow-up. The placebo and CER-001 groups had similar posttreatment median levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (74 mg/dL vs 79 mg/dL; P = .15) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43 mg/dL vs 44 mg/dL; P = .66). The primary efficacy measure, PAV, decreased 0.41% with placebo (P = .005 compared with baseline), but not with CER-001 (-0.09%; P = .67 compared with baseline; between group differences, 0.32%; P = .15). Similar percentages of patients in the placebo and CER-001 groups demonstrated regression of PAV (57.7% vs 53.3%; P = .49). Infusions were well tolerated, with no differences in clinical and laboratory adverse events observed between treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Infusion of CER-001 did not promote regression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients with ACS and high plaque burden. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT2484378.

18.
Circulation ; 138(12): 1210-1220, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IRIS trial (Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke) demonstrated that pioglitazone reduced the risk for both cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus in insulin-resistant patients. However, concern remains that pioglitazone may increase the risk for heart failure (HF) in susceptible individuals. METHODS: In IRIS, patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes mellitus were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo (1:1) within 180 days of an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and followed for ≤5 years. To identify patients at higher HF risk with pioglitazone, we performed a secondary analysis of IRIS participants without HF history at entry. HF episodes were adjudicated by an external review, and treatment effects were analyzed using time-to-event methods. A baseline HF risk score was constructed from a Cox model estimated using stepwise selection. Baseline patient features (individually and summarized in risk score) and postrandomization events were examined as possible modifiers of the effect of pioglitazone. Net cardiovascular benefit was estimated for the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and hospitalized HF. RESULTS: Among 3851 patients, the mean age was 63 years, and 65% were male. The 5-year HF risk did not differ by treatment (4.1% pioglitazone, 4.2% placebo). Risk for hospitalized HF was low and not significantly greater in pioglitazone compared with placebo groups (2.9% versus 2.3%, P=0.36). Older age, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, obesity, edema, high C-reactive protein, and smoking were risk factors for HF. However, the effect of pioglitazone did not differ across levels of baseline HF risk (hazard ratio [95% CI] for pioglitazone versus placebo for patients at low, moderate, and high risk: 1.03 [0.61-1.73], 1.10 [0.56-2.15], and 1.08 [0.58-2.01]; interaction P value=0.98). HF risk was increased in patients with versus those without incident myocardial infarction in both groups (pioglitazone: 31.4% versus 2.7%; placebo: 25.7% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001). Edema, dyspnea, and weight gain in the trial did not predict HF hospitalization but led to more study drug dose reduction with a lower mean dose of pioglitazone versus placebo (29±17 mg versus 33±15 mg, P<0.0001). Pioglitazone reduced the composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or hospitalized HF (hazard ratio, 0.78; P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In IRIS, with surveillance and dose adjustments, pioglitazone did not increase the risk of HF and conferred net cardiovascular benefit in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of HF with pioglitazone was not modified by baseline HF risk. The IRIS experience may be instructive for maximizing the net benefit of this therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00091949.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 41(8): 1792-1800, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In observational cohorts, adiponectin is inversely associated and free fatty acids (FFAs) are directly associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Adiponectin tends to be reduced and FFAs elevated in type 2 diabetes. We investigated relationships of adiponectin and FFA and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes using data from the AleCardio (Effect of Aleglitazar on Cardiovascular Outcomes After Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) trial, which compared the PPAR-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using Cox regression adjusted for demographic, laboratory, and treatment variables, we determined associations of baseline adiponectin and FFAs, or the change in adiponectin and FFAs from baseline, with MACEs (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and death. RESULTS: A twofold higher baseline adiponectin (n = 6,998) was directly associated with risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.08-1.27]) and death (HR 1.53 [95% CI 1.35-1.73]). A doubling of adiponectin from baseline to month 3 (n = 6,325) was also associated with risk of death (HR 1.20 [95% CI 1.03-1.41]). Baseline FFAs (n = 7,038), but not change in FFAs from baseline (n = 6,365), were directly associated with greater risk of MACEs and death. There were no interactions with study treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior observational data for incident CHD, adiponectin is prospectively associated with MACEs and death in patients with type 2 diabetes and ACS, and an increase in adiponectin from baseline is directly related to death. These findings raise the possibility that adiponectin has different effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and ACS than in populations without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Consistent with prior data, FFAs are directly associated with adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adiponectina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Oxazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2522-2533, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659887

RESUMO

Objective: Insulin resistance has been linked to development and progression of atherosclerosis and is present in most patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether the degree of insulin resistance predicts adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is uncertain. Design: The Effect of Aleglitazar on Cardiovascular Outcomes after Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus trial compared the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent ACS. In participants not treated with insulin, we determined whether baseline homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; n = 4303) or the change in HOMA-IR on assigned study treatment (n = 3568) was related to the risk of death or major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in unadjusted and adjusted models. Because an inverse association of HOMA-IR with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been described, we specifically examined effects of adjustment for the latter. Results: In unadjusted analysis, twofold higher baseline HOMA-IR was associated with lower risk of death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91, P = 0.002]. Adjustment for 24 standard demographic and clinical variables had minimal effect on this association. However, after further adjustment for NT-proBNP, the association of HOMA-IR with death was no longer present (adjusted HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.19, P = 0.94). Baseline HOMA-IR was not associated with major adverse cardiovascular events, nor was the change in HOMA-IR on study treatment associated with death or major adverse cardiovascular events. Conclusions: After accounting for levels of NT-proBNP, insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR is not related to the risk of death or major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and ACS.

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