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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 3, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposures to air pollution has been reported to be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the changes in the blood metabolome and thus the metabolic pathways associated with long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and ambient temperature. METHODS: We quantified metabolites using mass-spectrometry based global untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma samples among men from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). We estimated the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, O3, and temperature (annual average of central site monitors) with metabolites and their associated metabolic pathways. We used multivariable linear mixed-effect regression models (LMEM) while simultaneously adjusting for the four exposures and potential confounding and correcting for multiple testing. As a reduction method for the intercorrelated metabolites (outcome), we further used an independent component analysis (ICA) and conducted LMEM with the same exposures. RESULTS: Men (N = 456) provided 648 blood samples between 2000 and 2016 in which 1158 metabolites were quantified. On average, men were 75.0 years and had an average body mass index of 27.7 kg/m2. Almost all men (97%) were not current smokers. The adjusted analysis showed statistically significant associations with several metabolites (58 metabolites with PM2.5, 15 metabolites with NO2, and 6 metabolites with temperature) while no metabolites were associated with O3. One out of five ICA factors (factor 2) was significantly associated with PM2.5. We identified eight perturbed metabolic pathways with long-term exposure to PM2.5 and temperature: glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, glutathione, beta-alanine, propanoate, and purine metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. These pathways are related to inflammation, oxidative stress, immunity, and nucleic acid damage and repair. CONCLUSIONS: Using a global untargeted metabolomic approach, we identified several significant metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2 and temperature. This study is the largest metabolomics study of long-term air pollution, to date, the first study to report a metabolomic signature of long-term temperature exposure, and the first to use ICA in the analysis of both.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e016935, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372530

RESUMO

Background Both elemental metals and particulate air pollution have been reported to influence adult blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study is to examine which elemental components of particle mass with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) are responsible for previously reported associations between PM2.5 and neonatal BP. Methods and Results We studied 1131 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area prebirth cohort. We measured systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) at a mean age of 30 hours. We calculated average exposures during the 2 to 7 days before birth for the PM2.5 components-aluminum, arsenic, bromine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, vanadium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, silicon, sodium, chlorine, calcium, and lead-measured at the Harvard supersite. Adjusting for covariates and PM2.5, we applied regression models to examine associations between PM2.5 components and median SBP and DBP, and used variable selection methods to select which components were more strongly associated with each BP outcome. We found consistent results with higher nickel associated with significantly higher SBP and DBP, and higher zinc associated with lower SBP and DBP. For an interquartile range increase in the log Z score (1.4) of nickel, we found a 1.78 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.72-2.84) increase in SBP and a 1.30 (95% CI, 0.54-2.06) increase in DBP. Increased zinc (interquartile range log Z score 1.2) was associated with decreased SBP (-1.29 mm Hg; 95% CI, -2.09 to -0.50) and DBP (-0.85 mm Hg; 95% CI: -1.42 to -0.29). Conclusions Our findings suggest that prenatal exposures to particulate matter components, and particularly nickel, may increase newborn BP.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142524, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although long-term exposure to particulate matter<2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been linked to chronic debilitating brain disorders (CDBD), the role of short-term exposure in health care demand, and increased susceptibility for PM2.5-related health conditions, among Medicare enrollees with CDBD has received little attention. We used a causal modeling approach to assess the effect of short-term high PM2.5 exposure on all-cause admissions, and prevalent cause-specific admissions among Medicare enrollees with CDBD (Parkinson's disease-PD, Alzheimer's disease-AD and other dementia). METHODS: We constructed daily zipcode counts of hospital admissions of Medicare beneficiaries older than 65 across the United-States (2000-2014). We obtained daily PM2.5 estimates from a satellite-based model. A propensity score matching approach was applied to match high-pollution (PM2.5 > 17.4 µg/m3) to low-pollution zip code-days with similar background characteristics. Then, we estimated the percent change in admissions attributable to high pollution. We repeated the models restricting the analysis to zipcode-days with PM2.5 below of 35 µg/m3. RESULTS: We observed significant increases in all-cause hospital admissions (2.53% in PD and 2.49% in AD/dementia) attributable to high PM2.5 exposure. The largest observed effect for common causes was for pneumonia and urinary tract infection. All the effects were larger in CDBD compared to the general Medicare population, and similarly strong at levels of exposure considered safe by the EPA. CONCLUSION: We found Medicare beneficiaries with CDBD to be at higher risk of being admitted to the hospital following acute exposure to PM2.5 levels well below the National Ambient Air Quality Standard defined as safe by the EPA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Encefalopatias , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260804

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth has health implications both in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight is partially determined by prenatal environmental exposures. We aim to identify important predictors of birthweight out of a set of environmental, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment variables during pregnancy (i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5), temperature, greenness, walkability, noise, and economic indices). We included all singleton live births of mothers who resided in urban census block-groups and delivered in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2011 (n = 640,659). We used an elastic-net model to select important predictors of birthweight and constructed a multivariate model including the selected predictors, with adjustment for confounders. We additionally used a weighted quantile sum regression to assess the contribution of each exposure to differences in birthweight. All exposures were selected as important predictors of birthweight. In the multivariate model, lower birthweight was significantly associated with lower greenness and with higher temperature, walkability, noise, and segregation of the "high income" group. Treating the exposures individually, nighttime noise had the highest weight in its contribution to lower birthweight. In conclusion, after accounting for individual confounders, maternal environmental exposures, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment during pregnancy were important predictors of birthweight, emphasizing the role of these exposures in fetal growth and development.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103151, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may play a role in age-related outcomes. It is not yet known which DNAm-based biomarkers of age acceleration (BoAA) has the strongest association with age-related endpoints. METHODS: We collected the blood samples from two independent cohorts: the Normative Ageing Study, and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg cohort. We measured epigenome-wide DNAm level, and generated five DNAm BoAA at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards model to analyze the relationships between BoAA and all-cause death. We applied the Fine and Gray competing risk model to estimate the risk of BoAA on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer, accounting for death of other reasons as the competing risks. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool the individual results, with adjustment for multiple testing. FINDINGS: The mean chronological ages in the two cohorts were 74, and 61, respectively. Baseline GrimAgeAccel, and DNAm-related mortality risk score (DNAmRS) both had strong associations with all-cause death, MI, and stroke, independent from chronological age. For example, a one standard deviation (SD) increment in GrimAgeAccel was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15, 3.50], higher risk of MI (HR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.79), and elevated risk of stroke (HR: 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.91). There were no associations between any BoAA and cancer. INTERPRETATION: From the public health perspective, GrimAgeAccel is the most useful tool for identifying at-risk elderly, and evaluating the efficacy of anti-aging interventions. FUNDING: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of U.S., Harvard Chan-NIEHS Center for Environmental Health, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the State of Bavaria in Germany.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143027, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129521

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence demonstrates that children at schools who are exposed to increased concentrations of air pollutants may have a higher risk for several health problems, including cognitive deficits. In this paper we estimate the exposure to air pollution sources at 186,080 schools in Brazil. Specifically, we accounted for the exposure to three proxies of air pollution source emissions, including distance to roadways, the extent of roadways within a buffer around each school, and the number of wildfire occurrences within a buffer around each school. About 25% of the Brazilian schools evaluated in our study are located within a distance ≤250 m of a major roadway, have ≥2 km of roadway within a buffer of 1 km, and have ≥7 wildfires records within a buffer of 10 km. Our results indicate significant prevalence ratio of these schools exposed to air pollution sources when we stratified the analyses by socioeconomic factors, including geographic (public schools had an increased likelihood of being exposed), economic (low-income areas had an increased likelihood of being exposed), health (overall, areas with low public health status had an increased likelihood of being exposed), and educational conditions (overall, areas with low educational indicator had an increased likelihood of being exposed). For example, we estimated that private schools were 15% (95% CI: 13-17%) less likely to be located within 250 m of a major roadway compared with public schools; schools in areas with low child mortality were 35% (95% CI: 34-37%) less likely to be within 250 m of a major roadway; and schools in regions with low expected years of schooling were 25% (95% CI: 22-28%) more likely to be located within 250 m of a major roadway. The analysis of the spatial patterns shows that a substantial number of schools (36-54%, depending on the air pollution source) has a positive autocorrelation, suggesting that exposure level at these schools are similar to their neighbors. Estimating children's exposure to air pollutants at school is crucial for future public policies to develop effective environmental, transportation, educational, and urban planning interventions that may protect students from exposure to environmental hazards and improve their safety, health, and learning performance.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5002, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051463

RESUMO

Unconventional oil and natural gas development (UOGD) expanded extensively in the United States from the early 2000s. However, the influence of UOGD on the radioactivity of ambient particulate is not well understood. We collected the ambient particle radioactivity (PR) measurements of RadNet, a nationwide environmental radiation monitoring network. We obtained the information of over 1.5 million wells from the Enverus database. We investigated the association between the upwind UOGD well count and the downwind gross-beta radiation with adjustment for environmental factors governing the natural emission and transport of radioactivity. Our statistical analysis found that an additional 100 upwind UOGD wells within 20 km is associated with an increase of 0.024 mBq/m3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.020, 0.028 mBq/m3) in the gross-beta particle radiation downwind. Based on the published health analysis of PR, the widespread UOGD could induce adverse health effects to residents living close to UOGD by elevating PR.

8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110201, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937174

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution increases pregnancy loss; however, most previous studies have focused on case identification from medical records, which may underrepresent early pregnancy losses. Our objective was to investigate the association between acute and chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and time to pregnancy loss among women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) who are closely followed throughout early pregnancy. We included 275 women (345 human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-confirmed pregnancies) undergoing ART at a New England academic fertility center. We estimated daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) exposures using validated spatiotemporal models estimated from first positive hCG test until day of failure or live birth. Air pollution exposures were averaged over the past week and the whole pregnancy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for pregnancy loss for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant exposure. We tested for violation of proportional hazards by considering an interaction between time (in days) since positive hCG (<30 days vs. ≥30 days) and air pollution. The incidence of pregnancy loss was 29 per 100 confirmed pregnancies (n = 99). Among pregnancies not resulting in live birth, the median (IQR) time to loss was 21 (11, 30) days following positive hCG. Average past week exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with time to pregnancy loss. Exposure throughout pregnancy to NO2 was not associated with pregnancy loss; however, there was a statistically significant interaction with time (p-for-interaction<0.001). Specifically, an IQR increase in exposure to NO2 was positively associated with pregnancy loss after 30 days (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.58), but not in the first 30 days after positive hCG (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.20). Overall pregnancy exposure to O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with pregnancy loss regardless of timing. Models evaluating joint effects of all pollutants yielded similar findings. In conclusion, acute and chronic exposure to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with risk of pregnancy loss; however, higher exposure to NO2 throughout pregnancy was associated with increased risk of loss 30 days after positive hCG. In this cohort, later pregnancy losses appeared more susceptible to the detrimental effects of air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , New England , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
9.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1289-1298, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816598

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution, specifically particulate matter of diameter <2.5 µm, is reportedly associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, evidence linking particulate matter of diameter <2.5 µm and blood pressure (BP) is largely from cross-sectional studies and from settings with lower concentrations of particulate matter of diameter <2.5 µm, with exposures not accounting for myriad time-varying and other factors such as built environment. This study aimed to study the association between long- and short-term ambient particulate matter of diameter <2.5 µm exposure from a hybrid spatiotemporal model at 1-km×1-km spatial resolution with longitudinally measured systolic and diastolic BP and incident hypertension in 5342 participants from urban Delhi, India, within an ongoing representative urban adult cohort study. Median annual and monthly exposure at baseline was 92.1 µg/m3 (interquartile range, 87.6-95.7) and 82.4 µg/m3 (interquartile range, 68.4-107.0), respectively. We observed higher average systolic BP (1.77 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.97-2.56] and 3.33 mm Hg [95% CI, 1.12-5.52]) per interquartile range differences in monthly and annual exposures, respectively, after adjusting for covariates. Additionally, interquartile range differences in long-term exposures of 1, 1.5, and 2 years increased the risk of incident hypertension by 1.53× (95% CI, 1.19-1.96), 1.59× (95% CI, 1.31-1.92), and 1.16× (95% CI, 0.95-1.43), respectively. Observed effects were larger in individuals with higher waist-hip ratios. Our data strongly support a temporal association between high levels of ambient air pollution, higher systolic BP, and incident hypertension. Given that high BP is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease, reducing ambient air pollution is likely to have meaningful clinical and public health benefits.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16539-16554, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747609

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent diagnosis in older individuals and contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Given the link between lung disease and aging, we need to understand how molecular indicators of aging relate to lung function and disease. Using data from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys, we associated baseline epigenetic (DNA methylation) age acceleration with incident COPD and lung function. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, height, weight, and baseline lung disease as appropriate. Associations were replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Of 770 KORA participants, 131 developed incident COPD over 7 years. Baseline accelerated epigenetic aging was significantly associated with incident COPD. The change in age acceleration (follow-up - baseline) was more strongly associated with COPD than baseline aging alone. The association between the change in age acceleration between baseline and follow-up and incident COPD replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Associations with spirometric lung function parameters were weaker than those with COPD, but a meta-analysis of both cohorts provide suggestive evidence of associations. Accelerated epigenetic aging, both baseline measures and changes over time, may be a risk factor for COPD and reduced lung function.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified an inequitable distribution of exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) by race. We investigated the association of PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality considering both the decedents' race and neighborhood racial composition as potential modifiers. METHODS: We obtained geocoded cardiovascular mortality records of all black and white decedents from urban block-groups in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2011 (n = 130,863). We examined the association between PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality, and assessed effect modification by three types of racial modifiers: decedents' race, census block-group percent black and white, and two novel measures of racial segregation. The Racial Residential Segregation (RRS) quantifies the concentration of non-Hispanic blacks and whites in each block-group. The Index of Racial Dissimilarity measures dissimilarity in non-Hispanic black and white racial distribution between the smaller census block-group and larger tract. RESULTS: We found a 2.35%(95%CI: 0.92%;3.79%) increase in mortality for each 10µg/m3 increase in two-day average exposure to PM2.5. The effect was modified by the block-group racial composition, with higher risks in block-groups with the highest percentage of black residents (interaction p-value = 0.04), and in block-groups with the lowest RRS (i.e. higher black to white resident ratio, interaction p-value = 0.072). Racial dissimilarity did not modify the associations. CONCLUSION: Current levels of PM2.5 are associated with increased cardiovascular deaths in Massachusetts, with different risks between areas with different racial composition and segregation. This suggests that pollution reductions in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic blacks would be most beneficial in reducing cardiovascular mortality and disparities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/química , Segregação Social , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , População Urbana
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1316-1323, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558888

RESUMO

Air pollution epidemiology studies have primarily investigated long- and short-term exposures separately, have used multiplicative models, and have been associational studies. Implementing a generalized propensity score adjustment approach with 3.8 billion person-days of follow-up, we simultaneously assessed causal associations of long-term (1-year moving average) and short-term (2-day moving average) exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ozone, and nitrogen dioxide with all-cause mortality on an additive scale among Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (2000-2012). We found that long- and short-term PM2.5, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide exposures were all associated with increased mortality risk. Specifically, per 10 million person-days, each 1-µg/m3 increase in long- and short-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with 35.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 33.4, 37.6) and 3.04 (95% CI: 2.17, 3.94) excess deaths, respectively; each 1-part per billion (ppb) increase in long- and short-term ozone exposure was associated with 2.35 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.61) and 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 2.91) excess deaths, respectively; and each 1-ppb increase in long- and short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure was associated with 3.24 (95% CI: 2.75, 3.77) and 5.60 (95% CI: 5.24, 5.98) excess deaths, respectively. Mortality associated with long-term PM2.5 and ozone exposure increased substantially at low levels. The findings suggested that air pollution was causally associated with mortality, even at levels below national standards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte/tendências , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Medicare , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139340, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Internal ionizing radiation from inhaled radioactive aerosol may contribute to the associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We used the Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records to study 1,061,937 pregnant women from 2001 to 2015 with a singleton pregnancy without pre-existing diabetes. Gross ß activity measured by seven monitors of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's RadNet monitoring network was utilized to represent ambient particle radioactivity (PR). We obtained GDM status from birth certificates and used logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographics, maternal comorbidities, PM2.5, temperature and relative humidity. We also examined effect modification by smoking habits. RESULTS: Ambient particle radioactivity exposure during first and second trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher odds of GDM (OR: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.22). Controlling for PM2.5 did not substantially change the effects of PR on GDM. In women that reported being former or current smokers, the association between PR and GDM was null. In the full cohort, the overall effect of PM2.5 on GDM without adjusting for PR was not significant. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study to examine the association between particle radioactivity and gestational diabetes mellitus - one of the most common pregnancy-related diseases with lifelong effects for the mother and the fetus. This finding has important public health policy implications because it enhances our understanding about the toxicity of PR, a modifiable risk factor, which to date, has been considered only as an indoor and occupational air quality risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Radioatividade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354151

RESUMO

Neighborhood demographic polarization, or the extent to which a privileged population group outnumbers a deprived group, can affect health by influencing social dynamics. While using birth records from 2001 to 2013 in Massachusetts (n = 629,675), we estimated the effect of two demographic indices, racial residential polarization (RRP) and economic residential polarization (ERP), on birth weight outcomes, which are established predictors of the newborn's future morbidity and mortality risk. Higher RRP and ERP was each associated with higher continuous birth weight and lower odds for low birth weight and small for gestational age, with evidence for effect modification by maternal race. On average, per interquartile range increase in RRP, the birth weight was 10.0 g (95% confidence interval: 8.0, 12.0) higher among babies born to white mothers versus 6.9 g (95% CI: 4.8, 9.0) higher among those born to black mothers. For ERP, it was 18.6 g (95% CI: 15.7, 21.5) higher among those that were born to white mothers versus 1.8 g (95% CI: -4.2, 7.8) higher among those born to black mothers. Racial and economic polarization towards more privileged groups was associated with healthier birth weight outcomes, with greater estimated effects in babies that were born to white mothers than those born to black mothers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Peso ao Nascer , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Características de Residência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(11): 6575-6583, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363859

RESUMO

Particle radioactivity is a property of airborne particles caused by the presence of naturally occurring or anthropogenic radionuclides. Recent studies have found associations between particle radioactivity and adverse health outcomes, including changes in blood pressure and lung function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of particle radioactivity and factors influencing its variability have not been extensively studied. We address these knowledge gaps using measurements of gross beta activity, collected at seven Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) RadNet monitors located in and around Massachusetts. We apply back-trajectory analysis to identify prevailing air mass trajectories and find that these trajectories strongly influence seasonal trends in beta activity. We also evaluate the effects of different meteorological predictors on daily beta activity concentrations using a mixed-effect model. Important predictors of beta activity include air mass trajectories, temperature, and relative humidity. Finally, we create a series of random forest models to impute missing beta activity concentrations at each RadNet monitor for use in future health studies. This is the first study to analyze spatiotemporal trends in particle radioactivity using measurements from the EPA RadNet system.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Partículas beta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Massachusetts , Tamanho da Partícula , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137793, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that particulate matter (PM) attached radioactivity was associated with certain adverse health effects including increased blood pressure and lung dysfunction. However, there has been no investigation on the direct effect of PM radioactivity on mortality. METHODS: Exposures to ambient PM gamma activities were determined using U.S. EPA RadNet data. Data on daily deaths were obtained from individual state Departments of Public Health. We used a generalized additive quasi-Poisson model to estimate the associations between two-day average ambient PM gamma activities (gamma2 through gamma9) with all-cause non-accidental and cardiovascular daily deaths for each of 18 US cities, for each season, adjusting for two-day average PM2.5 exposure, temperature, relative humidity, day of week and long-term trends. Subsequently, we used random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect in the 18 cities for each season. RESULTS: We found that all-cause non-accidental daily mortality in spring season was positively associated with two-day average ambient PM gamma activities in spring, with significant results for gamma2, gamma5 and gamma6. Similarly, cardiovascular daily mortality was positively associated with two-day average ambient PM gamma activities, with significant results for gamma2, gamma4, gamma5, gamma6, gamma7 and gamma9. For the spring season, each interquartile range (IQR) increase of two-day averaged ambient PM gamma activity was associated with increase in all-cause daily deaths, ranging from 0.15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.36%, 0.65%) to 1.03 (95%CI: 0.18%, 1.89%). Each IQR was also associated with increase in cardiovascular daily deaths, ranging from 0.01% (95%CI: -0.89, 0.92) to 2.95% (95%CI: 1.33, 4.59). For other seasons overall we found statistically insignificant associations of PM radioactivity with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there are potential systemic toxic effects of inhalation of radionuclides attached to ambient air particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Radioatividade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015432

RESUMO

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) radioactivity is an important pathway of ionizing radiation exposure. We investigated the associations between short-term exposures to PM gamma radioactivity with oxidative stress in COPD patients. Urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of 81 COPD patients from Eastern Massachusetts were measured 1-4 times during 2012-2014. Daily ambient and indoor PM gamma activities (gamma-3 through gamma-9) were calculated based on EPA RadNet data and indoor-outdoor infiltration ratios. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the associations between biomarkers with PM gamma activities for moving averages from urine collection day to 7 days before. Our results indicate that ambient and indoor PM gamma activities were positively associated with 8-OHdG, with stronger effects for exposure windows closer to urine collection day. For per interquartile range increase in indoor PM gamma activities averaged over urine collection day and 1 day before, 8-OHdG increased from 3.41% (95% CI: -0.88, 7.88) to 8.87% (95% CI: 2.98, 15.1), adjusted for indoor black carbon. For MDA, the timing of greatest effects across the exposure week varied but was nearly all positive. These findings provide insight into the toxigenic properties associated with PM radioactivity and suggest that these exposures promote systemic oxidative stress.

18.
Environ Res ; 180: 108868, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are a major component of morbidity in children and their symptoms may be spatially and temporally exacerbated by exposure gradients of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in large polluted urban areas, like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between satellite-derived and interpolated PM2.5 estimates with children's (≤9 years old) acute respiratory symptoms (ARS) in two probabilistic samples representing the MCMA. METHODS: We obtained ARS data from the 2006 and 2012 National Surveys for Health and Nutrition (ENSaNut). Two week average exposure to PM2.5 was assessed for each household with spatial estimates from a hybrid model with satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD-PM2.5) and also with interpolated PM2.5 measurements from ground stations, from the Mexico City monitoring network (MNW-PM2.5). We used survey-adjusted logistic regressions to analyze the association between PM2.5 estimates and ARS reported on children. RESULTS: A total of 1,005 and 1,233 children were surveyed in 2006 and 2012 representing 3.1 and 3.5 million children, respectively. For the same years and over the periods of study, the estimated prevalence of ARS decreased from 49.4% (95% CI: 44.9,53.9%) to 37.8% (95% CI: 34,41.7%). AOD-PM2.5 and MNW-PM2.5 estimates were associated with significantly higher reports of ARS in children 0-4 years old [OR2006 = 1.29 (95% (CI): 0.99,1.68) and OR2006 = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.08,1.42), respectively]. We observed positive non-significant associations in 2012 in both age groups and in 2006 for children 5-9 years old. No statistically significant differences in health effect estimates of PM2.5 were found comparing AOD-PM2.5 or MNW-PM2.5 for exposure assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PM2.5 is a risk factor for the prevalence of ARS in children and expand the growing evidence of the utility of new satellite AOD-based methods for estimating health effects from acute exposure to PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Doenças Respiratórias , Doença Aguda , Aerossóis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , México , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Res ; 180: 108841, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that particulate matter (PM) gamma activity (gamma radiation associated with PM) is associated with systemic effects. OBJECTIVE: Examine short-term relationships between ambient and indoor exposures to PM gamma activities with systemic inflammation and endothelial activation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: In 85 COPD patients from Eastern Massachusetts, USA from 2012 to 2014, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured seasonally up to four times. We used US EPA RadNet data measuring ambient gamma radiation attached to PM adjusted for background radiation, and estimated in-home gamma radiation exposures using the ratio of in-home-to-ambient sulfur in PM2.5. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to determine associations between moving averages of PM gamma activities through the week before phlebotomy with these biomarkers. We explored ambient and indoor PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and NO2 as confounders. RESULTS: Ambient and indoor PM gamma activities measured as energy spectra classes 3 through 9 were positively associated with CRP and IL-6. For example, averaged from phlebotomy day through previous 6 days, each IQR increase in indoor PM gamma activity for each spectra class, was associated with an CRP increase ranging from 7.45% (95%CI: 2.77, 12.4) to 13.4% (95%CI: 5.82, 21.4) and for ambient exposures were associated with an increase of 8.75% (95%CI: -0.57, 18.95) to 14.8% (95%CI: 4.5, 26.0). Indoor exposures were associated with IL-6 increase of 3.56% (95%CI: 0.31, 6.91) to 6.46% (95%CI:1.33, 11.85) and ambient exposures were associated with an increase of 0.03% (95%CI: -6.37, 6.87) to 3.50% (95%CI: -3.15, 10.61). There were no positive associations with sVCAM-1. Sensitivity analyses using two-pollutant models showed similar effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that short-term exposures to environmental PM gamma radiation activities were associated with systemic inflammation in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Raios gama , Material Particulado , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Inflamação , Massachusetts
20.
BMJ ; 367: l6258, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) for 214 mutually exclusive disease groups. DESIGN: Time stratified, case crossover analyses with conditional logistic regressions adjusted for non-linear confounding effects of meteorological variables. SETTING: Medicare inpatient hospital claims in the United States, 2000-12 (n=95 277 169). PARTICIPANTS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older admitted to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admission, number of admissions, days in hospital, inpatient and post-acute care costs, and value of statistical life (that is, the economic value used to measure the cost of avoiding a death) due to the lives lost at discharge for 214 disease groups. RESULTS: Positive associations between short term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of hospital admission were found for several prevalent but rarely studied diseases, such as septicemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and acute and unspecified renal failure. Positive associations were also found between risk of hospital admission and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, confirming previously published results. These associations remained consistent when restricted to days with a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO air quality guideline for the 24 hour average exposure to PM2.5. For the rarely studied diseases, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 2050 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval 1914 to 2187 admissions), 12 216 days in hospital (11 358 to 13 075), US$31m (£24m, €28m; $29m to $34m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $2.5bn ($2.0bn to $2.9bn) in value of statistical life. For diseases with a previously known association, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 3642 hospital admissions (3434 to 3851), 20 098 days in hospital (18 950 to 21 247), $69m ($65m to $73m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $4.1bn ($3.5bn to $4.7bn) in value of statistical life. CONCLUSIONS: New causes and previously identified causes of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to PM2.5 were found. These associations remained even at a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO 24 hour guideline. Substantial economic costs were linked to a small increase in short term PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/economia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
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