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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131566, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293557

RESUMO

It is well documented that fine particles matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. However, most epidemiologic studies have focused on understanding their additive effects, despite that individuals are exposed to multiple air pollutants simultaneously that are likely correlated with each other. Therefore, we applied a novel method - Bayesian Kernel machine regression (BKMR) and conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the individual and joint effect of air pollutant mixtures (PM2.5, O3, and NO2) on all-cause mortality among the Medicare population in 15 cities with 656 different ZIP codes in the southeastern US. The results suggest a strong association between pollutant mixture and all-cause mortality, mainly driven by PM2.5. The positive association of PM2.5 with mortality appears stronger at lower percentiles of other pollutants. An interquartile range change in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a significant increase in mortality of 1.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 2.9), 1.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7) and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.6) standard deviations (SD) when O3 and NO2 were set at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, respectively. BKMR analysis did not identify statistically significant interactions among PM2.5, O3, and NO2. However, since the small sub-population might weaken the study power, additional studies (in larger sample size and other regions in the US) are in need to reinforce the current finding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6754, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799599

RESUMO

Air pollution may increase risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) in the U.S., but the extent of this relationship is unclear. Here, we constructed two national U.S. population-based cohorts of those aged ≥65 from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Warehouse (2000-2018), combined with high-resolution air pollution datasets, to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) with dementia and AD incidence, respectively. We identified ~2.0 million incident dementia cases (N = 12,233,371; dementia cohort) and ~0.8 million incident AD cases (N = 12,456,447; AD cohort). Per interquartile range (IQR) increase in the 5-year average PM2.5 (3.2 µg/m3), NO2 (11.6 ppb), and warm-season O3 (5.3 ppb) over the past 5 years prior to diagnosis, the hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.060 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.054, 1.066), 1.019 (95% CI: 1.012, 1.026), and 0.990 (95% CI: 0.987, 0.993) for incident dementias, and 1.078 (95% CI: 1.070, 1.086), 1.031 (95% CI: 1.023, 1.039), and 0.982 (95%CI: 0.977, 0.986) for incident AD, respectively, for the three pollutants. For both outcomes, concentration-response relationships for PM2.5 and NO2 were approximately linear. Our study suggests that exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 are associated with incidence of dementia and AD.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6555, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772927

RESUMO

We quantified the impacts of wildfire-related PM2.5 on 2 million hospital admissions records due to cardiorespiratory diseases in Brazil between 2008 and 2018. The national analysis shows that wildfire waves are associated with an increase of 23% (95%CI: 12%-33%) in respiratory hospital admissions and an increase of 21% (95%CI: 8%-35%) in circulatory hospital admissions. In the North (where most of the Amazon region is located), we estimate an increase of 38% (95%CI: 30%-47%) in respiratory hospital admissions and 27% (95%CI: 15%-39%) in circulatory hospital admissions. Here we report epidemiological evidence that air pollution emitted by wildfires is significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiorespiratory hospital admissions.

4.
Nat Aging ; 1(5): 430-437, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841262

RESUMO

Air pollution, especially the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), may impair cognitive performance1-3, but its short-term impact remains poorly understood. We investigated the short-term associations of PM2.5 with the cognitive performances of 954 white males measured as the global cognitive function (GCF) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, and further explored whether taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could modify their relationships. Higher short-term exposure to PM2.5 demonstrated non-linear negative associations with cognitive function. Compared with the lowest quartile of the 28-day average PM2.5 concentration, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles were associated with 0.378-, 0.376-, and 0.499-unit decreases in GCF score, 0.484-, 0.315-, and 0.414-unit decreases in MMSE score, and 69%, 45%, and 63% greater odds of low MMSE scores (≤25), respectively. Such adverse effects were attenuated among NSAIDs users compared to non-users. This study elucidates the short-term impacts of air pollution on cognition and warrants further investigations on the modifying effects of NSAIDs.

5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(10): e689-e697, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been linked with an increase in risk of mortality. Whether existing US Environmental Protection Agency standards are sufficient to protect health is unclear. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to lower concentrations of air pollution and the risk of mortality. METHODS: Our nationwide cohort study investigated the effect of annual average exposure to air pollutants on all-cause mortality among Medicare enrolees from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2016. Patients entered the cohort in the month of January following enrolment and were followed up until the end of the study period in 2016 or death. We restricted our analyses to participants who had only been exposed to lower concentrations of pollutants over the study period, specifically particulate matter less than 2·5 µg/m3 in diameter (PM2·5) at a concentration of up to 12 µg/m3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a concentration of up to 53 parts per billion (ppb), and summer ozone (O3) at concentrations of up to 50 ppb. We adjusted for two types of covariates, which were individual level and postal code-level variables. We used a doubly-robust additive model to estimate the change in risk. We further looked at effect-measure modification by stratification on the basis of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. FINDINGS: We found an increased risk of mortality with all three pollutants. Each 1 µg/m3 increase in annual PM2·5 concentrations increased the absolute annual risk of death by 0·073% (95% CI 0·071-0·076). Each 1 ppb increase in annual NO2 concentrations increased the annual risk of death by 0·003% (0·003-0·004), and each 1 ppb increase in summer O3 concentrations increased the annual risk of death by 0·081% (0·080-0·083). This increase translated to approximately 11 540 attributable deaths (95% CI 11 087-11 992) for PM2·5, 1176 attributable deaths (998-1353) for NO2, and 15 115 attributable deaths (14 896-15 333) for O3 per year for each unit increase in pollution concentrations. The effects were higher in certain subgroups, including individuals living in areas of low socioeconomic status. Long-term exposure to permissible concentrations of air pollutants increases the risk of mortality. FUNDING: The US Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute of Environmental Health Services, and Health Effects Institute.

6.
Environ Res ; : 112271, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710436

RESUMO

While associations between short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk of hospitalization are well documented and evidence suggests that such associations change over time, it is unclear whether these temporal changes exist in understudied less-urban areas or differ by sub-population. We analyzed daily time-series data of 968 continental U.S. counties for 2000-2016, with cause-specific hospitalization from Medicare claims and population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations originally estimated at 1km × 1 km from a hybrid model. Circulatory and respiratory hospitalizations were categorized based on primary diagnosis codes at discharge. Using modified Bayesian hierarchical modelling, we evaluated the temporal trend in association between PM2.5 and hospitalizations and whether disparities in this trend exist across individual-level characteristics (e.g., sex, age, race, and Medicaid eligibility as a proxy for socio-economic status) and urbanicity. Urbanicity was categorized into three levels by county-specific percentage of urban population based on urban rural delineation from the U.S. Census. In this cohort with understudied less-urban areas without regulatory monitors, we still found positive association between circulatory and respiratory hospitalization and short-term exposure to PM2.5, with higher effect estimates towards the end of study period. Consistent with current literature, we identified significant disparity in associations by race, socioeconomic status and urbanicity. We found that the percentage change in circulatory hospitalization rate per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was higher in the 2008-2016 time period compared to the 2000-2007 period by 0.33% (95% posterior credible interval 0.22, 0.44%), 0.52% (0.33, 0.69%), and 0.67% (0.53, 0.83%) for low, medium and high tertiles of urban areas, respectively. We also observed significant differences in temporal trends of associations across socioeconomic status, sex, and age, indicating a possible widening in disparity of PM2.5-related health burden. This study raises the importance of considering environmental justice issues in PM2.5-related health impacts with respect to how associations may change over time.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e021006, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713707

RESUMO

Background Since solar activity and related geomagnetic disturbances modulate autonomic nervous system activity, we hypothesized that these events would be associated with blood pressure (BP). Methods and Results We studied 675 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study (Boston, MA) with 1949 BP measurements between 2000 and 2017. Mixed-effects regression models were used to investigate the association of average 1-day (ie, day of BP measurement) to 28-day interplanetary magnetic field intensity, sunspot number, and a dichotomized measure of global geomagnetic activity (Kp index) in 4-day increments with diastolic and systolic BP. We adjusted for meteorological conditions and other covariates associated with BP, and in additional models adjusted for ambient air pollutants (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm, black carbon, and particle number) and ambient particle radioactivity. There were positive associations between interplanetary magnetic field, sunspot number, and Kp index and BP that were greatest with these exposures averaged over 16 through 28 days before BP measurement. An interquartile range increase of 16-day interplanetary magnetic field and sunspot number and higher Kp index were associated with a 2.5 (95% CI, 1.7‒3.2), 2.8 (95% CI, 2.1‒3.4), and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8‒2.5) mm Hg increase, respectively, for diastolic BP as well as a 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7‒3.6), 2.7 (95% CI, 1.5‒4.0), and 0.4 (95% CI, -1.2 to 2.1) mm Hg increase, respectively, for systolic BP. Associations remained after adjustment for ambient air pollutants and ambient particle radioactivity. Conclusions Solar activity and solar-driven geomagnetic disturbances were positively associated with BP, suggesting that these natural phenomena influence BP in elderly men.

8.
Environ Int ; 158: 106898, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627014

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Previous studies have reported associations between in utero exposure to regional air pollution and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In utero exposure to components of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) has been linked to adverse neurodevelopment in animal models, but few studies have investigated NRAP association with ASD risk. OBJECTIVE: To identify ASD risk associated with in utero exposure to NRAP in a large, representative birth cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective pregnancy cohort study included 314,391 mother-child pairs of singletons born between 2001 and 2014 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals. Maternal and child data were extracted from KPSC electronic medical records. Children were followed until: clinical diagnosis of ASD, non-KPSC membership, death, or December 31, 2019, whichever came first. Exposure to the complex NRAP mixture during pregnancy was assessed using line-source dispersion models to estimate fresh vehicle emissions from freeway and non-freeway sources at maternal addresses during pregnancy. Vehicular traffic load exposure was characterized using advanced telematic models combining traditional traffic counts and travel-demand models with cell phone and vehicle GPS data. Cox proportional-hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HR) of ASD associated with near-roadway traffic load and dispersion-modeled NRAP during pregnancy, adjusted for covariates. Non-freeway NRAP was analyzed using quintile distribution due to nonlinear associations with ASD. EXPOSURES: Average NRAP and traffic load exposure during pregnancy at maternal residential addresses. MAIN OUTCOMES: Clinical diagnosis of ASD. RESULTS: A total of 6,291 children (5,114 boys, 1,177 girls) were diagnosed with ASD. The risk of ASD was associated with pregnancy-average exposure to total NRAP [HR(95% CI): 1.03(1.00,1.05) per 5 ppb increase in dispersion-modeled NOx] and to non-freeway NRAP [HR(95% CI) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile: 1.19(1.11, 1.27)]. Total NRAP had a stronger association in boys than in girls, but the association with non-freeway NRAP did not differ by sex. The association of freeway NRAP with ASD risk was not statistically significant. Non-freeway traffic load exposure demonstrated associations with ASD consistent with those of NRAP and ASD. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to near-roadway air pollution, particularly from non-freeway sources, may increase ASD risk in children.

9.
Environ Int ; 158: 106955, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) have been reported. However, EWAS of PM2.5 elements (PEs), reflecting different emission sources, are very limited. OBJECTIVES: We performed EWAS of short- and intermediate-term exposure to PM2.5 and 13 PEs. We hypothesized that significant changes in DNAm may vary by PM2.5 mass and its elements. METHODS: We repeatedly collected blood samples in the Normative Aging Study and measured leukocyte DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. We collected daily PM2.5 and 13 PEs at a fixed central site. To estimate the associations between each PE and DNAm at individual cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, we incorporated a distributed-lag (0-27 d) term in the setting of median regression with subject-specific intercept and examined cumulative lag associations. We also accounted for selection bias due to loss to follow-up and mortality prior to enrollment. Significantly differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were identified using Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We further conducted regional and pathway analyses to identify significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and pathways. RESULTS: We included 695 men with 1,266 visits between 1999 and 2013. The subjects had a mean age of 75 years. The significant DMPs, DMRs, and pathways varied by to PM2.5 total mass and PEs. For example, PM2.5 total mass was associated with 2,717 DMPs and 10,470 DMRs whereas Pb was associated with 3,173 DMPs and 637 DMRs. The identified pathways by PM2.5 mass were mostly involved in mood disorders, neuroplasticity, immunity, and inflammation, whereas the pathways associated with motor vehicles (BC, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were related with cardiovascular disease and cancer (e.g., "PPARs signaling"). CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 and PE were associated with methylation changes at multiple probes and along multiple pathways, in ways that varied by particle components.

10.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 490, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many factors can contribute to the exact makeup of the salivary microbiome. Differences in the oral microbiome occur with old age, which may be due to oral conditions and diseases associated with old age, such as edentulism, as well as other unknown causes. METHODS: The salivary microbiome was sampled in patients from a large urban clinic. For all subjects age, gender, periodontal status, caries status, presence of edentulism, medications, and tobacco usage were recorded. Multifactor analysis was used to study variation in salivary microbiome profiles linked to these factors. RESULTS: In the population sampled, there were significantly higher numbers of edentulous subjects, and increased levels of polypharmacy found with aging. Large differences in alpha diversity and beta diversity of the salivary microbiome in the old age group were largely linked to edentulism. However, multivariable analysis revealed, even after adjusting for differences in edentulism, polypharmacy, tobacco usage, periodontal disease, caries level, and gender, that old age itself was associated with lower levels of taxa Porphyromonas endodontalis, Alloprevotella tannerae, Filifactor alocis, Treponema, Lautropia Mirabilis and Pseudopropionibacterium sp._HMT_194. Surprisingly, of these taxa, most were ones known to reside on or near tooth surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: Another factor or factors beyond edentulism, polypharmacy and periodontal disease play a role in the differences seen in oral microbiome with old age. The nature of this factor(s) is not known.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Saliva , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bacteroidetes , Burkholderiaceae , Clostridiales , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Saliva/microbiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth defects are a major cause of poor health outcomes during both childhood and adulthood. A growing body of evidence demonstrated associations between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth defects. To date, there is no study looking at birth defects and exposure to wildfire-related air pollution, which is suggested as a type of air pollution source with high toxicity for reproductive health. OBJECTIVE: Our study addresses this gap by examining the association between birth defects and wildfire smoke exposure in Brazil between 2001 and 2018. Based on known differences of impacts of wildfires across different regions of Brazil, we hypothesized differences in risks of birth defects for different regions. METHODS: We used a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for individual birth defects (12 categories) associated with wildfire exposure during each trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the 16,825,497 birth records in our study population, there were a total of 7595 infants born in Brazil between 2001 and 2018 with birth defects in any of the selected categories. After adjusting for several confounders in the primary analysis, we found statistically significant OR for three birth defects, including cleft lip/cleft palate [OR: 1.007 (95% CI: 1.001; 1.013)] during the second trimester of exposure, congenital anomalies of the respiratory system [OR: 1.013 (95% CI: 1.002; 1.023)] in the second trimester of exposure, and congenital anomalies of the nervous system [OR: 1.002 (95% CI: 1.001; 1.003)] during the first trimester of exposure for the regions South, North, and Midwest, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that maternal exposure to wildfire smoke during pregnancy may increase the risk of an infant being born with some congenital anomaly. Considering that birth defects are associated with long-term disability, impacting families and the healthcare system (e.g., healthcare costs), our findings should be of great concern to the public health community. IMPACT STATEMENT: Our study focused on the association between maternal exposure to wildfire smoke in Brazil during pregnancy and the risk of an infant being born with congenital anomalies, which presents serious public health and environmental challenges.

12.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525891

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently identified virus responsible for life-threatening coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects can be asymptomatic or symptomatic; the later may present a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on oral diseases remain poorly studied. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva indicates existence of virus in the oral cavity. Recent studies demonstrating the expression of ACE-2, a SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, in oral tissues further strengthens this observation. Cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 patients and copious secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α) in multiple symptomatic oral pathologies including periodontitis and periapical periodontitis suggests that inflammatory microenvironment is a hallmark of both COVID-19 and oral diseases. Hyperinflammation may provide conducive microenvironment for the growth of local oral pathogens or opportunistic microbes and exert detrimental impact on the oral tissue integrity. Multiple case reports have indicated uncharacterized oral lesions, symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, higher plaque index, necrotizing/desquamative gingivitis in COVID-19 patients suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may worsen the manifestations of oral infections. However, the underlying factors and pathways remain elusive. Here we summarize current literature and suggest mechanisms for viral pathogenesis of oral dental pathology derived from oral microbiome and oral mucosa-dental tissue interactions. Longitudinal studies will reveal how the virus impairs disease progression and resolution post-therapy. Some relationships we suggest provide the basis for novel monitoring and treatment of oral viral disease in the era of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, promoting evidence-based dentistry guidelines to diagnose virus-infected patients to improve oral health.

13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112066, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537201

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that solar and geomagnetic activity can affect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and melatonin secretion, both of which may influence immune response. We investigated the association between solar geomagnetic activity and white blood cell counts in the Normative Aging Study (NAS) Cohort between 2000 and 2013. Linear mixed effects models with moving day averages ranging from 0 to 28 days were used to evaluate the effects of solar activity measures, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and sunspot number (SSN), and a measure of geomagnetic activity, K Index (K), on total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, monocytes, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and basophil concentrations. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, there were consistently significant associations between IMF, SSN, and Kp index, with reductions in total WBC, neutrophils, and basophil counts. These associations were stronger with longer moving averages. The associations were similar after adjusting for ambient air particulate pollution and particle radioactivity. Our findings suggest that periods of increased solar and geomagnetic activity result in lower WBC, neutrophil, and basophil counts that may contribute to mil mild immune suppression.

14.
Environ Int ; 157: 106861, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported that long-term air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality rates. These investigations have been criticized for failure to control for omitted, generally personal, confounders. Study designs that are robust to such confounders can address this issue. METHODS: We used a self-controlled design for survival analysis. We stratified on each person in the Medicare cohort between 2000 and 2015 who died, and examined whether PM2.5, O3 and NO2 exposures predicted in which follow-up period the death occurred. We used conditional logistic regression stratified on person and controlled for nonlinear terms in calendar year and age. By design slowly varying covariates such as smoking history, BMI, diabetes and other pre-existing conditions, usual alcohol consumption, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and green space were controlled by matching each person to themselves. RESULTS: There were 6,452,618 deaths in the study population in the study period. We observed a 5.37% increase in the mortality rate (95% CI 4.67%, 6.08%) for every 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, a 1.98% (95% CI 1.61%, 2.36%) increase for 5 ppb increment in O3, and a 2.10% decrease (95% CI 1.88%, 2.33%) for a 5 ppb increase in NO2. When restricted to persons whose PM2.5 exposure never exceeded 12 µg/m3 in any year between 2000 and 2015, the effect size increased for PM2.5 (12.71% (11.30, 14.15)), and the signs of O3 and NO2 reversed (-0.26% (-0.88, 0.35) for O3 and 1.77% increase (1.40, 2.13) for NO2). Effect sizes were larger for Blacks (e.g. 7.71% (5.46, 10.02) for PM2.5). CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that the association between annual exposure to PM2.5 and mortality is not confounded by individual or neighborhood covariates, and continues below the standard. The effects of O3 and NO2 are difficult to disentangle.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Medicare , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e579-e587, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many regions of the world are now facing more frequent and unprecedentedly large wildfires. However, the association between wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality has not been well characterised. We aimed to comprehensively assess the association between short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality across various regions of the world. METHODS: For this time series study, data on daily counts of deaths for all causes, cardiovascular causes, and respiratory causes were collected from 749 cities in 43 countries and regions during 2000-16. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM2·5 were estimated using the three-dimensional chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 0·25°â€ˆ× 0·25° resolution. The association between wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure and mortality was examined using a quasi-Poisson time series model in each city considering both the current-day and lag effects, and the effect estimates were then pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Based on these pooled effect estimates, the population attributable fraction and relative risk (RR) of annual mortality due to acute wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure was calculated. FINDINGS: 65·6 million all-cause deaths, 15·1 million cardiovascular deaths, and 6·8 million respiratory deaths were included in our analyses. The pooled RRs of mortality associated with each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 3-day moving average (lag 0-2 days) of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure were 1·019 (95% CI 1·016-1·022) for all-cause mortality, 1·017 (1·012-1·021) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1·019 (1·013-1·025) for respiratory mortality. Overall, 0·62% (95% CI 0·48-0·75) of all-cause deaths, 0·55% (0·43-0·67) of cardiovascular deaths, and 0·64% (0·50-0·78) of respiratory deaths were annually attributable to the acute impacts of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure during the study period. INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of mortality. Urgent action is needed to reduce health risks from the increasing wildfires. FUNDING: Australian Research Council, Australian National Health & Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Austrália , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118024, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523531

RESUMO

In utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as synthetic phenols, may alter DNA methylation in different tissues, including placenta - a critical organ for fetal development. We studied associations between prenatal urinary biomarker concentrations of synthetic phenols and placental DNA methylation. Our study involved 202 mother-son pairs from the French EDEN cohort. Nine phenols were measured in spot urine samples collected between 22 and 29 gestational weeks. We performed DNA methylation analysis of the fetal side of placental tissues using the IlluminaHM450 BeadChips. We evaluated methylation changes of individual CpGs in an adjusted epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We performed mediation analysis to test whether placental tissue heterogeneity mediated the association between urinary phenol concentrations and DNA methylation. We identified 46 significant DMRs (≥5 CpGs) associated with triclosan (37 DMRs), 2,4-dichlorophenol (3), benzophenone-3 (3), methyl- (2) and propylparaben (1). All but 2 DMRs were positively associated with phenol concentrations. Out of the 46 identified DMRs, 7 (6 for triclosan) encompassed imprinted genes (APC, FOXG1, GNAS, GNASAS, MIR886, PEG10, SGCE), which represented a significant enrichment. Other identified DMRs encompassed genes encoding proteins responsible for cell signaling, transmembrane transport, cell adhesion, inflammatory, apoptotic and immunological response, genes encoding transcription factors, histones, tumor suppressors, genes involved in tumorigenesis and several cancer risk biomarkers. Mediation analysis suggested that placental cell heterogeneity may partly explain these associations. This is the first study describing the genome-wide modifications of placental DNA methylation associated with pregnancy exposure to synthetic phenols or their precursors. Our results suggest that cell heterogeneity might mediate the effects of triclosan exposure on placental DNA methylation. Additionally, the enrichment of imprinted genes within the DMRs suggests mechanisms by which certain exposures, mainly to triclosan, could affect fetal development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenóis/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
17.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 94, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies estimate associations without considering exposure measurement error. While some studies have estimated the impact of error in single-exposure models we aimed to quantify the effect of measurement error in multi-exposure models, specifically in time-series analysis of PM2.5, NO2, and mortality using simulations, under various plausible scenarios for exposure errors. Measurement error in multi-exposure models can lead to effect transfer where the effect estimate is overestimated for the pollutant estimated with more error to the one estimated with less error. This complicates interpretation of the independent effects of different pollutants and thus the relative importance of reducing their concentrations in air pollution policy. METHODS: Measurement error was defined as the difference between ambient concentrations and personal exposure from outdoor sources. Simulation inputs for error magnitude and variability were informed by the literature. Error-free exposures with their consequent health outcome and error-prone exposures of various error types (classical/Berkson) were generated. Bias was quantified as the relative difference in effect estimates of the error-free and error-prone exposures. RESULTS: Mortality effect estimates were generally underestimated with greater bias observed when low ratios of the true exposure variance over the error variance were assumed (27.4% underestimation for NO2). Higher ratios resulted in smaller, but still substantial bias (up to 19% for both pollutants). Effect transfer was observed indicating that less precise measurements for one pollutant (NO2) yield more bias, while the co-pollutant (PM2.5) associations were found closer to the true. Interestingly, the sum of single-pollutant model effect estimates was found closer to the summed true associations than those from multi-pollutant models, due to cancelling out of confounding and measurement error bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulation study indicated an underestimation of true independent health effects of multiple exposures due to measurement error. Using error parameter information in future epidemiological studies should provide more accurate concentration-response functions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidade , Erro Experimental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Environ Int ; 157: 106834, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat warnings are issued in advance of forecast extreme heat events, yet little evidence is available regarding their effectiveness in reducing heat-related illness and death. We estimated the association of heat warnings and advisories (collectively, "alerts") issued by the United States National Weather Service with all-cause mortality and cause-specific hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older in 2,817 counties, 2006-2016. METHODS: In each county, we compared days with heat alerts to days without heat alerts, matched on daily maximum heat index and month. We used conditional Poisson regression models stratified on county, adjusting for year, day of week, federal holidays, and lagged daily maximum heat index. RESULTS: We identified a matched non-heat alert day for 92,029 heat alert days in 2,817 counties, or 54.6% of all heat alert days during the study period. Contrary to expectations, heat alerts were not associated with lower risk of mortality (RR: 1.005 [95% CI: 0.997, 1.013]). However, heat alerts were associated with higher risk of hospitalization for fluid and electrolyte disorders (RR: 1.040 [95% CI: 1.015, 1.065]) and heat stroke (RR: 1.094 [95% CI: 1.038, 1.152]). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses additionally adjusting for same-day heat index, ozone, and PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that heat alerts are not associated with lower risk of mortality but may be associated with higher rates of hospitalization for fluid and electrolyte disorders and heat stroke, potentially suggesting that heat alerts lead more individuals to seek or access care.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(4): e167, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414349

RESUMO

Ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns PM2.5) levels in Delhi routinely exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for acceptable levels of daily exposure. Only a handful of studies have examined the short-term mortality effects of PM in India, with none from Delhi examining the contribution of PM2.5. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the association between short-term PM2.5 exposures and daily nonaccidental mortality in Delhi, India. Methods: Using generalized additive Poisson regression models, we examined the association between daily PM2.5 exposures and nonaccidental mortality between June 2010 and December 2016. Daily exposures to PM2.5 were estimated using an ensemble averaging technique developed by our research group, and mortality data were obtained from the Municipal Corporations of Delhi and the New Delhi Municipal Council. Results: Median exposures to PM2.5 were 91.1 µg/m3 (interquartile range = 68.9, 126.2), with minimum and maximum exposures of 21.4 µg/m3 and 276.7 µg/m3, respectively. Total nonaccidental deaths recorded in Delhi during the study period were 700,512. Each 25 µg/m3 increment in exposure was associated with a 0.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.3, 1.3%) increase in daily nonaccidental mortality in the study population and a 1.5% (95% CI = 0.8, 2.2%) increase in mortality among those with 60 years of age or over. The exposure-response relationship was nonlinear in nature, with relative risk rising rapidly before tapering off above 125 µg/m3. Meeting WHO guidelines for acceptable levels of exposure over the study period would have likely averted 17,526 (95% CI = 6,837, 25,589) premature deaths, with older and male populations disproportionately affected. Discussion: This study provides robust evidence of the impact of short-term exposure to PM2.5 on nonaccidental mortality with important considerations for various stakeholders including policymakers and physicians. Most importantly, we find that reducing exposures significantly below current levels would substantially decrease the mortality burden associated with PM2.5.

20.
Environ Int ; 156: 106737, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218185

RESUMO

Although research indicates health and well-being benefits of greenspace, little is known regarding how greenspace may influence adaptation to health risks from heat, particularly how these risks change over time. Using daily hospitalization rates of Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years for 2000-2016 in 40 U.S. Northeastern urban counties, we assessed how temperature-related hospitalizations from cardiovascular causes (CVD) and heat stroke (HS) changed over time. We analyzed effect modification of those temporal changes by Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), approximating greenspace. We used a two-stage analysis including a generalized additive model and meta-analysis. Results showed that relative risk (RR) (per 1 °C increase in lag0-3 temperature) for temperature-HS hospitalization was higher in counties with the lowest quartile EVI (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.0, 3.4) compared to counties with the highest quartile EVI (RR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.14, 1.13) in the early part of the study period (2000-2004). RR of HS decreased to 0.88 (95% CI: 0.31, 2.53) in 2013-2016 in counties with the lowest quartile EVI. RR for HS changed over time in counties in the highest quartile EVI, with RRs of 0.4 (95% CI: -0.7, 1.4) in 2000-2004 and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.6, 3.2) in 2013-2016. Findings suggest that adaptation to heat-health associations vary by greenness. Greenspace may help lower risks from heat but such health risks warrant continuous local efforts such as heat-health plans.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Medicare , Temperatura , Estados Unidos
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