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1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(11): 737-745A, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673189

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse the epidemiological trends of tuberculosis in the Siberian and Far Eastern federal districts, the areas with the highest disease burden in the Russian Federation. Methods: We applied principal coordinate analysis to study a total of 68 relevant variables on tuberculosis epidemiology, prevention and control. Data on these variables were collected over 2003-2016 in all 21 regions of the Siberian federal district and Far Eastern federal district (total population: 25.5 million) through the federal and departmental reporting system. We identified the regions with a favourable or unfavourable tuberculosis epidemiological profile and ranked them as low or high priority for specific interventions. Findings: The median number of tuberculosis notifications in the regions was 123.3 per 100 000 population (range: 54.5-265.7) in 2003, decreasing to 82.3 per 100 000 (range: 52.9-178.3) in 2016. We found large variations in the tuberculosis epidemiological profile across different regions. The principal coordinate analysis revealed that three aggregated indicators accounted for 55% of the variation. The first coordinate corresponded to tuberculosis prevalence and case notifications in the regions; the second to the severity of the disease among patients; and the third to the percentage of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients. The regions where intervention was most urgently needed were Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Tyva Republic. Conclusion: The variability in tuberculosis epidemiology across regions was likely due to differences in the quality of antituberculosis services. Precision in defining necessary interventions, as determined through the principal coordinate analysis approach, can guide focused tuberculosis control efforts.

3.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 117: 7-17, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378272

RESUMO

The currently available methods are unable to directly detect dormant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vivo. The persistence of Mtb in the host body is detectable only in an indirect manner via the immunological response to Mtb-specific antigens. It is commonly recognized that the pathogen prevalently exists in the human body in a latent stage. Additional research efforts focusing on the Mtb dormancy are needed for development of sterilizing drugs, which are necessary to control LTBI and stop TB epidemic. To this end, the in vitro models of Mtb dormancy may be useful. This review briefly describes the phenomenon of Mtb dormancy and its role in the context of tuberculosis as a persistent bacterial infection; then the article characterizes in details the in vitro methods used for modeling the Mtb dormancy in bacterial cultures.

4.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 101: 130-136, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27865382

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) transplantation is an actively studied therapeutic approach used in regenerative medicine and in the field of control of immunoinflammatory response. Conditioning of MSC in culture can form their predominantly pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes. We demonstrated that poly(A:U)-conditioning of bone marrow-derived mouse MSC induced predominantly pro-inflammatory phenotype. The effects of administration of naïve MSC (nMSC) or conditioned MSC (cMSC) on the course of mycobacterial infection were studied. BALB/c mice infected i.p. with 5 × 106 M. bovis BCG were successively injected i.v. with 0.75 × 106 of nMSC or cMSC in 11 and 12.5 weeks after infection and sacrificed at the week 14. Histological and bacteriological examination of BCG-infected animals revealed low bacterial loads in liver, lungs and spleen; the bacterial load in spleen was higher than in other organs. Treatment with nMSC induced 3-fold increase of the number of bacteria in spleen granulomas, while cMSC decreased significantly the number of bacteria in BCG-positive granulomas. Analysis of preparations of organ homogenates by luminescent microscopy, MGIT cultures and CFU count on Lowenstein-Jensen medium revealed that nMSC promoted mycobacterial growth whereas cMSC suppressed mycobacterial growth significantly. We concluded that MSC therapy can be effective in mycobacterial infection, but only in a case of appropriate conditioning of the cells.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Citocinas/biossíntese , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Polirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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