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1.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108316, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770611

RESUMO

Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been linked to poly-autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Here we studied the impact of 17 different STAT3 GOF mutations on the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway and correlated the molecular results with clinical manifestations. The mutations clustered in three groups. Group 1 mutants showed altered STAT3 phosphorylation kinetics and strong basal transcriptional activity. They were associated with the highest penetrance of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Group 2 mutants showed a strongly inducible transcriptional reporter activity and were clinically less penetrant. Group 3 mutants were mostly located in the DNA binding domain and showed the strongest DNA binding affinity despite a poor transcriptional reporter response. Thus, the GOF effect of STAT3 mutations is determined by a heterogeneous response pattern at the molecular level. The correlation of response pattern and clinical penetrance indicates a significant contribution of mutation-determined effects on disease manifestations.

2.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12811, 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378960

RESUMO

Hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) may result in milder phenotypes and delayed diagnosis of B-cell related immunodeficiencies due to residual BTK function. Newborn screening for kappa-deleting-recombination-excision circles (KRECs) reliably identifies classical X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia at birth but has not been evaluated in patients with residual BTK function. We aimed to evaluate clinical findings, BTK function and KREC copy numbers in three patients with BTK mutations presenting with impaired polysaccharide responsiveness without agammaglobulinaemia. One patient had an invasive pneumococcal infection at the age of 4 years. All three patients (two brothers) had visible tonsils, normal to slightly decreased immunoglobulin G levels, undetectable pneumococcal antibodies despite pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations, no antibody response after a diagnostic polysaccharide vaccination as well as profound B-cell lymphopenia with residual B-cell differentiation. BTK mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing. BTK staining and phosphorylation assays were performed on peripheral B cells. KREC copy numbers were determined from dried blood spots obtained within the first week of life as well as once at the age of 8, 6 and 3 years, respectively. BTK staining showed residual protein expression. Also, residual BTK activity could be demonstrated. KREC copy numbers from dried blood spots were above the threshold set for detection of patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia. Male patients with impaired polysaccharide responsiveness should be evaluated for B-cell lymphopenia followed by BTK analyses irrespective of immunoglobulin levels or tonsil size.

3.
Hum Pathol ; 89: 81-89, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054898

RESUMO

Grading for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is traditionally based on the percentage of gland formation. In recent years, high-grade CRC has become subject to more precise molecular grading strategies. Most, however, are low-grade cases according to the World Health Organization (WHO) with inhomogenous outcomes due to still insufficient characterization. On the other hand, budding and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have developed as interesting additive prognostic factors in CRC. Especially budding has been very well defined by the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference recently. We analyzed a large collective of 576 WHO low-grade CRC cases, stages I to IV, diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 in terms of gland formation, budding, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and developed a new, morphology-based risk score, taking into account each of the 3 parameters. For each parameter, 1 to 2 points were given, resulting in a sum score, dividing the CRC cases into a low-, an intermediate-, and a high-risk group. By our score, 179 (34.9%) of the cases were grouped as low risk, 241 (53.5) as intermediate risk, and 92 (35.5%) as high risk. The 3 groups differed significantly in pT, pN, and M as well as tumor stages, lymphatic vessel invasion, venous invasion, and overall survival (0.;P < .001 for low risk versus high risk, P = .038 for low versus intermediate risk, and P = .036 for intermediate versus high risk; log rank: median, 94.0 months [95% confidence interval {CI}, 74.9-113.1] for low risk; median, 63.0 months [95% CI, 44.0-82.0] for intermediate risk; and median, 40.0 months [95% CI, 23.4-56.7] for high risk) in Kaplan-Meier-analysis. Our proposed Bayreuth score enables separating the large group of WHO low-grade CRC cases into subgroups, which differ significantly in outcome.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 125-133, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028919

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a fundamental mucosal barrier and actively participate in tolerance and immunity against intestinal contents. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and invariant chain (Ii) molecules are essential for adaptive immune response. MHC II deficiency often presents with gastrointestinal disorders. Intestinal biopsy samples revealed an absence of HLA-DR, Ii, and local immunoglobulins in both hematopoietic immune cells and IECs accompanied by a lack of faecal sIgA. After successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) absent HLA-DR and Ii expression persisted in IECs and faecal stool analysis indicated inflammation and high microbial activity. We describe multifaceted disturbance of adaptive mucosal immunity in MHC II deficient patients suffering from enteropathy. HLA-DR and Ii expression on enterocytes is not restored by HSCT. This may account for increased susceptibility to enteric infections and intestinal inflammation leading to prolonged enteropathy reported in MHC II deficient patients.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 970-975, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591564

RESUMO

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a critical regulator of cell death and inflammation, but its relevance for human disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Studies of monogenic disorders might provide critical insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic targeting of RIPK1 for common diseases. Here, we report on eight patients from six unrelated pedigrees with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RIPK1 presenting with primary immunodeficiency and/or intestinal inflammation. Mutations in RIPK1 were associated with reduced NF-κB activity, defective differentiation of T and B cells, increased inflammasome activity, and impaired response to TNFR1-mediated cell death in intestinal epithelial cells. The characterization of RIPK1-deficient patients highlights the essential role of RIPK1 in controlling human immune and intestinal homeostasis, and might have critical implications for therapies targeting RIPK1.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Mucosa Intestinal , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/deficiência , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
8.
Blood ; 132(5): 469-483, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891534

RESUMO

Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive form of erythrocytosis associated with a homozygous p.Arg200Trp mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Since this discovery, additional VHL mutations have been identified in patients with congenital erythrocytosis, in a homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. VHL is a major tumor suppressor gene, mutations in which were first described in patients presenting with VHL disease, which is characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors. Here, we identify a new VHL cryptic exon (termed E1') deep in intron 1 that is naturally expressed in many tissues. More importantly, we identify mutations in E1' in 7 families with erythrocytosis (1 homozygous case and 6 compound-heterozygous cases with a mutation in E1' in addition to a mutation in VHL coding sequences) and in 1 large family with typical VHL disease but without any alteration in the other VHL exons. In this study, we show that the mutations induced a dysregulation of VHL splicing with excessive retention of E1' and were associated with a downregulation of VHL protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate a pathogenic role for synonymous mutations in VHL exon 2 that altered splicing through E2-skipping in 5 families with erythrocytosis or VHL disease. In all the studied cases, the mutations differentially affected splicing, correlating with phenotype severity. This study demonstrates that cryptic exon retention and exon skipping are new VHL alterations and reveals a novel complex splicing regulation of the VHL gene. These findings open new avenues for diagnosis and research regarding the VHL-related hypoxia-signaling pathway.

10.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

11.
Hum Pathol ; 79: 160-167, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787819

RESUMO

Tumor budding is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) and has recently been well defined by the International Concensus Conference on Tumor Budding (ITBCC). Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are also an issue in different human cancers and correlate with prognosis in CRC. Here we evaluate the combination of budding and TILs in CRC with regard to prognosis. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides of 501 CRC patients, diagnosed between 2005 and 2010, were reevaluated for tumor budding according to the ITBCC criteria. Low (n = 331) was compared to intermediate/high budding (n = 170). The percentage of TILs was also assessed, and the following four groups were established: low budding + TILs >5% (n = 162), low budding + TILS ≤5% (n = 169), high budding + TILS >5% (n = 68), high budding + TILs ≤5% (n = 93). The combination of both markers revealed highly significant differences in overall survival (OS) between the four groups (P = .001). The low budding/>5% TILs group showed longest OS, followed by high budding/>5% TILs cases, followed by tumors with low budding/≤5% TILs. OS was worst for the high budding/≤ 5% TILs group. The combined score also correlated with T, N, M, L, Vstaging, development of disease relapse and distant metastasis. Our study shows that - even in the age of molecular pathology - it is still important to pay special attention to tumor morphology for additional information on tumor behavior and prognosis. Combining different morphological parameters of tumor and tumor environment can help to further subdivide CRC into new prognostic groups.

12.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(5): 870-877, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843966

RESUMO

CD59 is involved in lymphocyte signal transduction and regulates complement-mediated cell lysis by inhibiting the membrane attack complex. In the cases reported so far, congenital isolated CD59 deficiency was associated with recurrent episodes of hemolytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, and strokes. Here, we report on a patient from a consanguineous Turkish family, who had a first episode of hemolytic anemia at one month of age and presented at 14 months with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The child suffered repeated infection-triggered relapses leading to the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Although partly steroid-responsive, the polyneuropathy failed to be stabilized by a number of immunosuppressive agents. At the age of 6 years, he developed acute hemiparesis and showed progressive stenosis of proximal cerebral arteries, evolving into Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) with recurrent infarctions leading to death at 8 years of age. Post-mortem genetic analysis revealed a pathogenic p.(Asp49Valfs*31) mutation in CD59. Re-analysis of brain biopsy specimens showed absent CD59 expression and severe endothelial damage. Whereas strokes are a known feature of CD59 deficiency, MMS has not previously been described in this condition. Therefore, we conclude that in MMS combined with hemolysis or neuropathy CD59 deficiency should be considered. Establishing the diagnosis and targeted therapy with eculizumab might have prevented the lethal course in our patient.

13.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 94(4): 652-659, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD157, encoded by BST-1, has been described as a useful flow cytometric marker for the analysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) as it is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecule highly expressed on normal monocytes and neutrophils. We and others observed isolated CD157 signal dropouts during intended PNH analysis. We hypothesize that these negative populations occur due to an antibody failure. To investigate the reason for this finding, we compared two different anti-CD157 antibody clones for PNH analysis. METHODS: We sequenced BST-1 of CD157-negative probands that are not suffering from PNH and expressed wild type and a discovered variant form of CD157 in HEK293 cells. We compared the binding patterns of two different anti-CD157 antibody clones (SY11B5 and RF3) by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. RESULTS: When sequencing two CD157-negative probands we detected a common SNP (p.Arg145Gln) in exon 3 of BST-1. We found that only anti-CD157 antibody clone RF3 but not the more widely used clone SY11B5 was able to detect both, the wild type and the variant form of CD157 in flow cytometric experiments. CONCLUSION: The failure of anti-CD157 antibody clone SY11B5 to detect a common SNP can explain some CD157-negative cytometric data. This provides crucial knowledge for laboratories performing PNH analyses as such results can potentially lead to false-positive PNH interpretation. Our results confirm the importance of published PNH guidelines. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

14.
Mol Ther ; 26(1): 115-131, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988714

RESUMO

Short single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides are versatile molecular tools used in different applications. They enable gene repair and genome editing, and they are central to the antisense technology. Because the usability of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides depends on their efficiencies, as well as their specificities, analyzing their genotoxic off-target activities is important. Thus, we have developed a protocol that follows the fate of a biotin-labeled single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide in human cells based on its physical incorporation into the targeted genome. Affected chromosomal fragments are enriched and preferably sequenced by nanopore sequencing. This protocol was validated in gene repair experiments without intentionally inducing a DNA double-strand break. For a 21-nucleotide-long phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotide, we compiled a broad array of error-free incorporations, point mutations, indels, and structural rearrangements from actively dividing HEK293-derived cells. Additionally, we demonstrated the usefulness of this approach for primary cells by treating human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with a 100-nucleotide-long unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide directed against the endogenous CYBB locus. This work should pave the way for future genotoxicity analyses. Concerning genome engineering approaches based on nuclease-induced DNA double-strand breaks, this protocol could aid in detecting the unwanted effects caused by the donor fragments themselves.

15.
Br J Haematol ; 180(5): 644-653, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270983

RESUMO

Reticular Dysgenesis is a rare immunodeficiency which is clinically characterized by the combination of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) with agranulocytosis and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) were identified to cause this phenotype. In this review, we will demonstrate important clinical differences between reticular dysgenesis and other SCID entities and summarize recent concepts in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the management strategies for this difficult condition.

18.
Blood ; 130(7): 875-880, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559357

RESUMO

We report 5 individuals in 3 unrelated families with severe thrombocytopenia progressing to trilineage bone marrow failure (BMF). Four of the children received hematopoietic stem cell transplants and all showed poor graft function with persistent severe cytopenias even after repeated transplants with different donors. Exome and targeted sequencing identified mutations in the gene encoding thrombopoietin (THPO): THPO R99W, homozygous in affected children in 2 families, and THPO R157X, homozygous in the affected child in the third family. Both mutations result in a lack of THPO in the patients' serum. For the 2 surviving patients, improvement in trilineage hematopoiesis was achieved following treatment with a THPO receptor agonist. These studies demonstrate that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in THPO cause BMF, which is unresponsive to transplant due to a hematopoietic cell-extrinsic mechanism. These studies provide further support for the critical role of the MPL-THPO pathway in hematopoiesis and highlight the importance of accurate genetic diagnosis to inform treatment decisions for BMF.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Medula Óssea/patologia , Mutação/genética , Trombopoetina/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptores Fc/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Trombopoetina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 449, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507545

RESUMO

Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p.Trp456Cys, p.Ile425Thr, p.Cys1244ProfsX17, p.Pro884_Gln885ins53X13, and one with novel heterozygous mutation p.Val796AlafsX4. The most unifying features were hypocellular BMF in 6/6 and B-/NK-cell lymphopenia in 5/6 patients. In addition, three patients with homozygous mutations p.Trp456Cys or p.Ile425Thr also suffered from immunodeficiency, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enteropathy, consistent with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Chromosomal breakage resembling a homologous recombination defect was detected in patient-derived fibroblasts but not in hematopoietic compartment. Notably, in both cellular compartments, differential expression of 1243aa and 1219/1300aa RTEL1 isoforms was observed. In fibroblasts, response to ionizing irradiation and non-homologous end joining were not impaired. Telomeric circles did not accumulate in patient-derived primary cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines, implying alternative pathomechanisms for telomeric loss. Overall, RTEL1-deficient cells exhibited a phenotype of replicative exhaustion, spontaneous apoptosis and senescence. Specifically, CD34+ cells failed to expand in vitro, B-cell development was compromised, and T-cells did not proliferate in long-term culture. Finally, we report on the natural history and outcome of our patients. While two patients died from infections, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) resulted in sustained engraftment in two patients. Whether chemotherapy negatively impacts on the course and onset of other DC-related symptoms remains open at present. Early-onset lung disease occurred in one of our patients after HSCT. In conclusion, RTEL deficiency can show a heterogeneous clinical picture ranging from mild hypocellular BMF with B/NK cell lymphopenia to early-onset, very severe, and rapidly progressing cellular deficiency.

20.
Blood ; 129(21): 2928-2938, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331055

RESUMO

Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis, and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Retrospective data on clinical presentation, genetics, and outcome of HSCT were collected from centers in Europe, Asia, and North America for a total of 32 patients born between 1982 and 2011. Age at presentation was <4 weeks in 30 of 32 patients (94%). Grafts originated from mismatched family donors in 17 patients (55%), from matched family donors in 6 patients (19%), and from unrelated marrow or umbilical cord blood donors in 8 patients (26%). Thirteen patients received secondary or tertiary transplants. After transplantation, 21 of 31 patients were reported alive at a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (range: 0.6-23.6 years). All patients who died beyond 6 months after HSCT had persistent or recurrent agranulocytosis due to failure of donor myeloid engraftment. In the absence of conditioning, HSCT was ineffective to overcome agranulocytosis, and inclusion of myeloablative components in the conditioning regimens was required to achieve stable lymphomyeloid engraftment. In comparison with other SCID entities, considerable differences were noted regarding age at presentation, onset, and type of infectious complications, as well as the requirement of conditioning prior to HSCT. Although long-term survival is possible in the presence of mixed chimerism, high-level donor myeloid engraftment should be targeted to avoid posttransplant neutropenia.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucopenia/mortalidade , Leucopenia/terapia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doadores não Relacionados , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Aloenxertos , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucopenia/enzimologia , Leucopenia/genética , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/enzimologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
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