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1.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 62(3)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, patients on bridge-to-transplant extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were kept sedated and intubated. However, awake bridging strategies have evolved during recent years. This study aims to elaborate differences in physical activity and postoperative outcomes after lung transplantation (LTx), depending on bridging strategy and duration. METHODS: Bridged patients receiving LTx between March 2013 and April 2021 were analysed. Awake bridging was defined as a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score of ≥-1 until 24 h before transplantation. Patients were grouped in awake and sedated cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients (35 awake, 53 sedated bridging) were included. After LTx, mobilization to standing position was achieved earlier in awake bridged patients (7 vs 15 days, P < 0.001). Postoperative ventilation time (247 vs 88 h, P = 0.005) and intensive care unit stay (30 vs 16 days, P = 0.004) were longer in the sedated cohort. Awake patients with bridging duration >6 days showed shorter postoperative ventilation time (108 vs 383 h, P = 0.003), less intensive care unit days (23 vs 36, P = 0.003) and earlier mobilization to standing position (9 vs 17 days, P < 0.001). In contrast, postoperative ventilation time and days in intensive care unit in patients with bridge-to-transplant duration ≤6 days were comparable between cohorts. Mobilization to standing position was achieved faster in the awake (≤6 days) bridged cohort (5 vs 9 days, P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the complex management of bridged patients, excellent survival rates after LTx can be achieved. Especially in patients with more than 1 week on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, awake bridging concepts are associated with significantly faster recovery.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vigília
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 892053, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795674

RESUMO

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is the second-leading cause of deaths by antibiotic-resistant bacteria globally, with more than 100,000 attributable deaths annually. Despite the high urgency to develop a vaccine to control this pathogen, all clinical trials with pre-clinically effective candidates failed so far. The recent development of "humanized" mice might help to edge the pre-clinical evaluation closer to the clinical situation and thus close this gap. We infected humanized NSG mice (huNSG: (NOD)-scid IL2Rγ null mice engrafted with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells) locally with S. aureus USA300 LAC* lux into the thigh muscle in order to investigate the human immune response to acute and chronic infection. These mice proved not only to be more susceptible to MRSA infection than wild-type or "murinized" mice, but displayed furthermore inferior survival and signs of systemic infection in an otherwise localized infection model. The rate of humanization correlated directly with the severity of disease and survival of the mice. Human and murine cytokine levels in blood and at the primary site of infection were strongly elevated in huNSG mice compared to all control groups. And importantly, differences in human and murine immune cell lineages surfaced during the infection, with human monocyte and B cell numbers in blood and bone marrow being significantly reduced at the later time point of infection. Murine monocytes in contrast behaved conversely by increasing cell numbers. This study demonstrates significant differences in the in vivo behavior of human and murine cells towards S. aureus infection, which might help to sharpen the translational potential of pre-clinical models for future therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos , Músculos , Staphylococcus aureus , Coxa da Perna
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) can be considered for selected patients suffering from COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill (SSC-CIP) patients has been described as a late complication in COVID-19 ARDS survivors, however, rates of SSC-CIP after LTx and factors predicting this detrimental sequela are unknown. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included all LTx performed for post-COVID ARDS at 8 European LTx centers between May 2020 and January 2022. Clinical risk factors for SSC-CIP were analyzed over time. Prediction of SSC-CIP was assessed by ROC-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included in the analysis. Fifteen patients (37.5%) developed SSC-CIP. GGT at the time of listing was significantly higher in patients who developed SSC-CIP (median 661 (IQR 324-871) vs 186 (109-346); p = 0.001). Moreover, higher peak values for GGT (585 vs 128.4; p < 0.001) and ALP (325 vs 160.2; p = 0.015) were found in the 'SSC' group during the waiting period. Both, GGT at the time of listing and peak GGT during the waiting time, could predict SSC-CIP with an AUC of 0.797 (95% CI: 0.647-0.947) and 0.851 (95% CI: 0.707-0.995). Survival of 'SSC' patients was severely impaired compared to 'no SSC' patients (1-year: 46.7% vs 90.2%, log-rank p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: SSC-CIP is a severe late complication after LTx for COVID-19 ARDS leading to significant morbidity and mortality. GGT appears to be a sensitive parameter able to predict SSC-CIP even at the time of listing.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0015422, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863017

RESUMO

The horizontal transfer of genomic islands is essential for the adaptation and evolution of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, three porcine E. faecalis strains, each harboring a large lsa(E)-carrying genomic island, were identified. When using the E. faecalis OG1RF as the recipient, the horizontal transfer of the lsa(E)-carrying genomic island occurred only from E. faecalis E512, which also harbored a pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid, but not from the other two E. faecalis strains, E533 and E509, which lacked such a plasmid. Subsequently, through plasmid curing of E. faecalis E512 and plasmid introduction into E. faecalis E533, the pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid was identified to be indispensable for the horizontal transfer of the lsa(E)-carrying genomic island and a subsequent homologous recombination between the chromosomal DNA of the donor and the recipient. In addition, the presence of a chromosomally-located conjugative transposon, Tn916, in E. faecalis E509 could not mediate the horizontal transfer of the lsa(E)-carrying genomic island, although Tn916 itself could transfer by conjugation. Thus, these data highlight the role of the pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid in the transfer of the lsa(E)-carrying genomic island in E. faecalis, thereby establishing the dual role of pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids in contributing to the dissemination of both plasmid-borne resistance genes and chromosomally-located genomic islands. IMPORTANCE In this study, it was shown that a pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid played an indispensable role in the horizontal transfer of a lsa(E)-carrying genomic island. This finding indicates a dual role of the pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid in disseminating both plasmid-borne resistance genes and chromosomally-located genomic islands. The role of the pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid in disseminating chromosomal genomic islands is suggested to be essential in the genomic evolution of E. faecalis, which has become one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 878137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646742

RESUMO

The phylogenetic tree of the Staphylococcus aureus complex consists of several distinct clades and the majority of human and veterinary S. aureus isolates form one large clade. In addition, two divergent clades have recently been described as separate species. One was named Staphylococcus argenteus, due to the lack of the "golden" pigment staphyloxanthin. The second one is S. schweitzeri, found in humans and animals from Central and West Africa. In late 2021, two additional species, S. roterodami and S. singaporensis, have been described from clinical samples from Southeast Asia. In the present study, isolates and their genome sequences from wild Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) and a Diamond firetail (Stagonopleura guttata, an estrildid finch) kept in a German aviary are described. The isolates possessed staphyloxanthin genes and were closer related to S. argenteus and S. schweitzeri than to S. aureus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were nearly identical to both, S. roterodami and S. singaporensis. We propose considering the study isolates, the recently described S. roterodami and S. singaporensis as well as some Chinese strains with MLST profiles stored in the PubMLST database as different clonal complexes within one new species. According to the principle of priority we propose it should be named S. roterodami. This species is more widespread than previously believed, being observed in West Africa, Southeast Asia and Southern China. It has a zoonotic connection to bats and has been shown to be capable of causing skin and soft tissue infections in humans. It is positive for staphyloxanthin, and it could be mis-identified as S. aureus (or S. argenteus) using routine procedures. However, it can be identified based on distinct MLST alleles, and "S. aureus" sequence types ST2470, ST3135, ST3952, ST3960, ST3961, ST3963, ST3965, ST3980, ST4014, ST4075, ST4076, ST4185, ST4326, ST4569, ST6105, ST6106, ST6107, ST6108, ST6109, ST6999 and ST7342 belong to this species.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Filogenia , Staphylococcus , Animais , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 365, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli carrying clinically important antimicrobial resistances [i.e., against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBL)] are of high concern for human health and are increasingly detected worldwide. Worryingly, they are often identified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, frequently including resistances against quinolones/fluoroquinolones. RESULTS: Here, the occurrence and genetic basis of the fluoroquinolone resistance enhancing determinant qnrB in ESBL-/non-ESBL-producing E. coli was investigated. Overall, 33 qnrB-carrying isolates out of the annual German antimicrobial resistance (AMR) monitoring on commensal E. coli (incl. ESBL-/AmpC-producing E. coli) recovered from food and livestock between 2013 and 2018 were analysed in detail. Whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics analyses and transferability evaluation was conducted to characterise the prevailing qnrB-associated plasmids. Furthermore, predominant qnrB-carrying plasmid-types were subjected to in silico genome reconstruction analysis. In general, the qnrB-carrying E. coli were found to be highly heterogenic in their multilocus sequence types (STs) and their phenotypic resistance profiles. Most of them appeared to be MDR and exhibited resistances against up to ten antimicrobials of different classes. With respect to qnrB-carrying plasmids, we found qnrB19 located on small Col440I plasmids to be most widespread among ESBL-producing E. coli from German livestock and food. This Col440I plasmid-type was found to be highly conserved by exhibiting qnrB19, a pspF operon and different genes of unassigned function. Furthermore, we detected plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncN and IncH as carriers of qnrB. All qnrB-carrying plasmids also exhibited virulence factors and various insertion sequences (IS). The majority of the qnrB-carrying plasmids were determined to be self-transmissible, indicating their possible contribution to the spread of resistances against (fluoro)quinolones and other antimicrobials. CONCLUSION: In this study, a diversity of different plasmid types carrying qnrB alone or in combination with other resistance determinants (i.e., beta-lactamase genes) were found. The spread of these plasmids, especially those carrying antimicrobial resistance genes against highest priority critically important antimicrobial agents, is highly unfavourable and can pose a threat for public health. Therefore, the dissemination pathways and evolution of these plasmids need to be further monitored.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Transativadores/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
9.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497884

RESUMO

Objective: The impact of previous lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) on lung transplantation (LuTX) remains unclear. This study assesses the risk of previous lung volume reduction on the outcome of a later LuTX. Methods: Patients suffering from emphysema who underwent bilateral LuTX were included in this multicenter analysis. Study groups were defined as: previous LVRS, previous ELVR, controls. Imbalances were corrected by coarsened exact matching for center, gender, age, diagnosis, and BMI. A comparative analysis of intraoperative characteristics, perioperative outcome and long-term survival was performed. Results: 615 patients were included (LVRS = 26; ELVR = 60). Compared to controls, LVRS patients had a higher rate of postoperative ECMO (15.4 vs. 3.9%; p = 0.006), whereas ELVR patients suffered more often from wound infections (8.9% vs. 2.5%; p = 0.018). Perioperative outcome, duration of ventilation, ICU stay, and hospital stay were comparable between groups. Bacterial colonization of the airway differed significantly between both LVR groups and controls in pre- and post-LuTX cultures. Survival was not impacted (1-/3-/5-year survival for LVRS: 92.3%/85.7%/77.1%; controls: 91.3%/82.4%/76.3%; p = 0.58 | ELVR: 93.1%/91%/91%; controls 91.2%/81.7%/75.3%; p = 0.17). Conclusion: Lung volume reduction does not impact short and long-time survival after bilateral LuTX. Due to differences in airway colonization after LVR, caution to prevent infectious complications is warranted.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pneumonectomia , Período Pós-Operatório
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0049622, 2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579466

RESUMO

To investigate the contribution of a tet(A) variant to tigecycline resistance in Enterobacter hormaechei and the recombination events that occurred during transmission of this variant. MICs were determined by broth microdilution. E. hormaechei G17 was characterized by PCR, transfer assay, S1-PFGE, Southern blot hybridization, and WGS analysis. A tet(A) variant conferring resistance to tigecycline was present in E. hormaechei G17. This strain harbored two resistance plasmids (pG17-1, 264,084 bp and pG17-2, 68,610 bp) and its E. coli transformant Tm-G17TGC one resistance plasmid (pTm-G17, 93,013 bp). The comparative analysis of pG17-1, pG17-2, and pTm-G17 showed that a tet(A) variant-carrying multiresistance gene cluster (~23 kb) originating from pG17-1 had integrated into pG17-2, forming the novel plasmid pTm-G17. In a first step, this multiresistance gene cluster was excised from pG17-1 by recombination of homologous sequences, including △TnAs1 at both termini, thereby generating an unconventional circularizable structure (UCS). In a second step, this UCS integrated into pG17-2 via recombination between homologous sequences, including IS26 present on both, the UCS and pG17-2, thereby giving rise to the new plasmid pTm-G17. In summary, a tet(A) variant conferring resistance to tigecycline was reported in E. hormaechei. Transfer of a tet(A) variant-carrying multiresistance gene cluster between plasmids occurred in a two-step recombination process, in which homologous sequences, including either △TnAs1 or IS26, were involved. IMPORTANCE Tigecycline is an important last-resort broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. This study describes the two-step recombination processes resulting in the transfer of the tet(A) variant gene between different plasmids in E. hormaechei, which depicts the role of recombination processes in the generation of UCSs and new plasmids, both carrying a tet(A) variant conferring resistance to tigecycline. Such processes enhance the dissemination of resistance genes, which is of particular relevance for resistance genes, such as the tet(A) variant. The presence and transmission of a tet(A) variant in E. hormaechei will compromise the efficacy of tigecycline treatment for E. hormaechei associated infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacter , Escherichia coli/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Recombinação Genética , Tigeciclina/farmacologia
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(8): 2125-2129, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in a Lactobacillus salivarius isolate of pig origin. METHODS: L. salivarius isolate BNS11 was investigated for the presence of mobile oxazolidinone resistance genes by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. Transfer experiments were conducted to assess horizontal transferability of the gene poxtA. WGS was carried out using a combination of Oxford Nanopore MinION/Illumina HiSeq platforms. The presence of translocatable units (TUs) carrying resistance genes was studied by PCR assays and subsequent sequence analysis. RESULTS: L. salivarius isolate BNS11 was positive for poxtA. WGS showed that it harboured two gene copies each of the poxtA and the fexB genes, which were located on the broad-host-range Inc18 plasmid pBNS11-37kb and in the chromosomal DNA, respectively. The plasmid-borne poxtA gene together with the genes fexB, vat(E) and erm(C) were located in an MDR region on plasmid pBNS11-37kb. Analysis of the genetic context showed that an approx. 11 kb poxtA-fexB fragment was integrated into the chromosomal DNA and two novel IS elements ISLasa1 and ISLasa2 were identified in this inserted fragment. PCR assays revealed that five different IS1216E-based TUs carrying the resistance genes poxtA, fexB, vat(E) or erm(C) were formed. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the transferable oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in the genus Lactobacillus. In addition, the presence of IS1216E-based TUs will contribute to the persistence and accelerate the dissemination of resistance genes, including poxtA.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus salivarius , Oxazolidinonas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Lactobacillus salivarius/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dual-lumen extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation is considered technically challenging and harbors the risk of potential life-threatening complications during cannulation. Dual-lumen cannula insertion is performed under either ultrasound or fluoroscopy guidance. Both techniques have significant disadvantages, such as examiner dependence or the necessity for transportation of the patient from the intensive care unit to the operating room. DESCRIPTION: Digital, mobile X-ray devices provide a novel, examiner-independent imaging modality for bedside dual-lumen ECMO cannulation. EVALUATION: From November 2019 to November 2021, 23 dual-lumen cannulations were performed in 20 patients at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna. Twelve of 23 (52.2%) were inserted in the intensive care unit using a mobile X-ray device. The remaining patients (47.8%) were cannulated in the operating room with conventional fluoroscopy guidance. In none of the procedures did cardiovascular injuries occur. Insertion site bleeding was the most common ECMO-related complication (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Dual-lumen cannulation using sequential X-rays can be performed safely. Especially for infectious patients or patients who require an awake ECMO, this technique overcomes disadvantages of established imaging modalities.

16.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 66, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The virome of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) under immunosuppressive therapy is dominated by non-pathogenic Anelloviridae and further includes several pathogenic viruses such as Herpesviruses or respiratory viruses. It is unclear whether the donor-derived virome in the transplanted lung influences recipient virome dynamics in other body compartments and if so, to which degree. Likewise, it is unknown whether dependencies exist among virus populations that mutually shape viral loads and kinetics. RESULTS: To address these questions, we characterized viral communities in airways and plasma of 49 LTRs and analyzed their abundance patterns in a data modeling approach. We found distinct viral clusters that were specific for body compartments and displayed independent dynamics. These clusters robustly gathered specific viral species across the patient cohort. In the lung, viral cluster abundance associated with time after transplantation and we detected mutual exclusion of viral species within the same human host. In plasma, viral cluster dynamics were associated with the indication for transplantation lacking significant short-time changes. Interestingly, pathogenic viruses in the plasma co-occurred specifically with Alpha torque virus genogroup 4 and Gamma torque virus strains suggesting shared functional or ecological requirements. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the detailed analysis of virome dynamics after lung transplantation revealed host, body compartment, and time-specific dependency patterns among viruses. Furthermore, our results suggested genetic adaptation to the host microenvironment at the level of the virome and support the hypothesis of functional complementarity between Anellovirus groups and other persistent viruses. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Pulmão , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Transplantados
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(6): 1008-1015, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263446

RESUMO

This is the first report of acute deaths in five European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) attributed to mucoid and necrotizing typhlocolitis caused by genetically different Cronobacter (C.) turicensis strains in northeastern Austria. As this opportunistic pathogen is mainly known for causing disease in immunocompromised humans and neonates, this previously unrecognized potential for a spill over from a wildlife reservoir to humans warrants further attention.


Assuntos
Cronobacter , Lebres , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
18.
Microorganisms ; 10(3)2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336088

RESUMO

Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause disease, mainly in elderly, pregnant or immunocompromised persons through consumption of contaminated food, including pork products. It is widespread in the environment and can also be found in asymptomatic carrier animals, for example, in different tissues of pigs. To learn more about their nature, 16 Listeria spp. isolates found in tonsils and intestinal content of pigs and 13 isolates from the slaughterhouse environment were characterized using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A wide distribution of clonal complexes was observed in pigs, as well as in the pork production chain, suggesting multiple sources of entry. Hypervirulent clones were found in pig tonsils, showing the potential risk of pigs as source of isolates causing human disease. The presence of closely related isolates along the production chain suggests a cross-contamination in the slaughterhouse or recontamination from the same source, strengthening the importance of efficient cleaning and disinfection procedures. The phenotypical antimicrobial resistance status of L. monocytogenes isolates was examined via broth microdilution and revealed a low resistance level. Nevertheless, genotypical resistance data suggested multiple resistances in some non-pathogenic L. innocua isolates from pig samples, which might pose a risk of spreading resistances to pathogenic species.

20.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203730

RESUMO

A total of 114 Staphylococcus isolates from various infections of companion animals, including 43 feline Staphylococcus aureus, 19 canine S. aureus, 11 feline Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and 41 canine S. pseudintermedius were investigated for (i) their susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents and three combinations of antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations and (ii) the corresponding resistance genes. In addition, the isolates were tested for their susceptibility to the four biocides benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, polyhexanide and octenidine by a recently developed biocide susceptibility testing protocol. Penicillin resistance via blaZ was the dominant resistance property in all four groups of isolates ranging between 76.7 and 90.9%. About one quarter of the isolates (25.4%) proved to be methicillin-resistant and carried the genes mecA or mecC. Macrolide resistance was the second most prevalent resistance property (27.2%) and all isolates harbored the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T) or msr(A), alone or in combinations. Fluoroquinolone resistance was detected in 21.1% of all isolates tested, whereas tetracycline resistance via tet(K) and/or tet(M) occurred in 19.3% of the isolates. Resistance to last resort antimicrobial agents in human medicine was seen only in single isolates, if at all. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the four biocides showed unimodal distributions and were very similar for the four groups of staphylococci. Because of the large number of (multi)resistant isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of feline and canine S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius isolates is highly recommended before the start of an antimicrobial chemotherapy. Moreover, no hints towards the development of biocide resistance were detected.

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