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1.
Am Heart J ; 215: 91-94, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295633

RESUMO

Given the current increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease in younger women as well as the high lifetime risk of developing an x-ray-induced malignancy in this population, we aimed at assessing chest radiation in 206 women ≤55 years old undergoing coronary calcium scoring (CACS) by using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. Our data indicate that the simulated radiation dose of the female breast during CACS depends substantially on the starting position of the x-ray tube, with an almost 2 times excess of breast radiation exposure being measured during anterior-posterior tube positioning. Thus, an additional technical feature taking into account the position of the x-ray tube when acquisition is triggered might be an important tool to reduce radiation exposure of the female breast during CACS.

2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(6): 1257-1267, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore determinants of cardiovascular risk in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD). Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information for the diagnosis of CMVD. METHODS: Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were analyzed in a propensity-matched cohort of 404 patients (202 women, mean age 65.9 ± 11.0) who underwent clinically indicated myocardial perfusion 13N-ammonia Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) at our institution between September 2013 and May 2017. RESULTS: Baseline heart rate (HR) was significantly higher in patients with abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR, p < 0.001 vs normal CFR). Accordingly, a blunted HR response to adenosine (=reduced heart rate reserve, %HRR) was seen in patients with abnormal CFR, with a most pronounced effect being observed in female patients free of myocardial ischemia (45.9 ± 34.9 vs 26.5 ± 18.0, p < 0.001 in women and 29.1 ± 16.9 vs 24.3 ± 21.7, p = 0.15 in men). Hence, a fully-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model identified HRR as the strongest negative predictor of reduced CFR in women free of myocardial ischemia, but not in men. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the presence of reduced CFR revealed that a %HRR <35 was a powerful predictor for abnormal CFR with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 60% in women. CONCLUSION: A blunted HRR <35% is associated with abnormal CFR in women. Taking into account HR responses during stress test in women may help to risk stratify the heterogeneous female population of patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

3.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(5): 927-936, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623350

RESUMO

Enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with increased mortality in many cardiac conditions including heart failure and coronary artery disease (CAD). To ensure adequate image quality of coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pre-scan ß-adrenergic blockers (BB) are routinely administered. It is currently unknown whether sensitivity to sympathicolytic compounds is associated with severity of CAD. A total of 2633 consecutive patients (1733 [65.8%] men and 900 [34.2%] women, mean age 56.7 ± 11.5 years) undergoing CCTA for exclusion of significant CAD at our department between 06/2013 and 12/2016 were evaluated. Acute heart rate (HR) responses to BB administration were recorded in all patients. Coronary plaque burden as indicated by segment severity score (SSS), segment involvement score (SIS), and significant CAD (i.e. > 50% luminal narrowing) was higher in weak responders to BB as compared to strong responders to BB (p = 0.001 for SSS and SIS, and p = 0.021 for significant CAD). Accordingly, in a multiple linear regression model adjusted for known risk factors of CAD such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia, as well as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), glomerular filtration rate, and HR during CCTA scan, a strong response to BB was selected as a significant independent negative predictor of coronary plaque burden (beta coefficient - 0.08, p = 0.001). We demonstrate that individuals with a weak acute response to BB administration encounter an increased risk of severe CAD. Taking into account sensitivity to sympatho-inhibition may add complementary information in patients undergoing CCTA for evaluation of CAD.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/inervação , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Simpatolíticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
5.
Lung Cancer ; 126: 170-173, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether machine learning may be helpful for the detection of lung cancer in FDG-PET imaging in the setting of ultralow dose PET scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the performance of an artificial neural network discriminating lung cancer patients (n = 50) from controls (n = 50) without pulmonary malignancies. A total of 3936 PET slices including images in which the lung tumor is visually present and image slices of patients with no lung cancer were exported. The diagnostic performance of the artificial neural network based on clinical standard dose PET images (PET100%) as well as with a tenfold (PET10%) and thirtyfold (PET3.3%) reduced radiation dose (∼0.11 mSv) was assessed. RESULTS: The area under the curve of the deep learning algorithm for lung cancer detection was 0.989, 0.983 and 0.970 for standard dose images (PET100%), and reduced dose PET10%, and PET3.3% reconstruction, respectively. The artificial neural network achieved a sensitivity of 95.9% and 91.5% and a specificity of 98.1% and 94.2%, at standard dose and ultralow dose PET3.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that machine learning algorithms may aid fully automated lung cancer detection even at very low effective radiation doses of 0.11 mSv. Further improvement of this technology might improve the specificity of lung cancer screening efforts and could lead to new applications of FDG-PET.

6.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reduction in left ventricular apical tracer uptake (apical thinning) is frequently observed in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), yet its cause remains a matter of debate, particularly in perfusion emission tomography (PET). This analysis sought to determine whether apical thinning in PET-MPI is attributable to true anatomical thinning of the left ventricular apical myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 57 patients without any history or signs of apical myocardial infarction who underwent rest PET-MPI with 13N-ammonia and contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT). Semi-quantitative normalized percent apical 13N-ammonia uptake at rest, myocardial blood flow (MBF), and k2 wash-out rate constants were compared to apical myocardial wall thickness measurements derived from CT and base-to-apex gradients were calculated. Apical thinning was found in 93% of patients and in 74% when analysis of normalized apical tracer uptake was confined to end-systole. No significant correlation was found between apical myocardial thickness and apical tracer uptake (r = - 0.080, P = .553), MBF (r = - 0.211, P = .115), or k2 wash-out rate (r = - 0.023, P = .872), nor between apical myocardial thickness and any gradients. A statistically significant but small difference in apical myocardial thickness was observed in patients with moderately to severely reduced apical tracer uptake vs patients with normal to mildly reduced uptake (4.3 ± 0.7 mm vs 4.7 ± 0.7 mm; P = .043). CONCLUSIONS: Apical thinning is a highly prevalent finding during 13N-ammonia PET-MPI that is not solely attributable to true anatomical apical wall thickness or the partial volume effect. Other factors that yet need to be identified seem to have a more prominent impact.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in cardiac sympathetic outflow has recently gained attention in the context of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Previous studies suggest that there are sex- and age-dependent differences in peripheral autonomic control, however, data on cardiac-specific sympathetic activation in aged women and men are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Regional quantitative analysis of cardiac fluorine-18 (18F)- Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) uptake was retrospectively performed in 133 patients (69 females, mean age 52.4±17.7 years) referred for assessment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) by Positron-Emission-Tomography. Cardiac 18F-DOPA uptake was significantly higher in women as compared to men (1.33±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.24, p<0.001). This sex-difference was most pronounced in the apical region of the left ventricle (LV, 1.30±0.24 in women vs. 1.13±0.25 in men, p<0.001) and in individuals >55 years of age (1.39±0.25 in women vs. 1.09±0.24 in men, p<0.001). Women showed a prominent increase in myocardial 18F-DOPA uptake with age with the strongest increase seen in the LV apical region (r = 0.34, p = 0.004). Accordingly, sex and age were selected as significant predictors of LV apical 18F-DOPA uptake in a stepwise linear regression model. No age-dependent changes of cardiac 18F-DOPA uptake were observed in men or in the right ventricular region. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that aging is related to sex-specific changes in regional cardiac sympathetic activity. Future studies will have to assess whether the increase in LV apical 18F-DOPA uptake with age in women is of pathogenic relevance for the higher susceptibility of postmenopausal women to conditions associated with increased sympathetic activity.

8.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The applicability of ultra-low-dose computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction (AC) of single-photon-emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred patients underwent one-day 99mTc-tetrofosmin stress-rest MPI and non-contrast enhanced cardiac CT with 120, 80, and 70 kilovolt peak (kVp) tube voltage and tube current of 200 milliamperes for creation of AC maps. Normalized percent myocardial uptake from SPECT-MPI using 80 kVp scans for AC showed excellent correlation vs AC from 120 kVp scans for stress [intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.988, 95% CI = 0.986-0.989, P < .001] and rest (ICC = 0.985, 95% CI = 0.983-0.987, P < .001) with narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement (BA-LA) (- 5.3% to 4.5% and - 5.4% to 4.4%, respectively) and minimal bias (- 0.4% and - 0.5%, respectively). Correlation of AC SPECT-MPI based on 70 vs 120 kVp scans was excellent for stress (ICC = 0.988, 95% CI = 0.986-0.989, P < .001) and rest (ICC = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.984-0.987, P < .001) with narrow BA-LA (- 5.3% to 4.4% and - 5.2% to 4.5%, respectively) and small bias (- 0.4% and - 0.3%, respectively). Mean effective radiation dose for the 120, 80 and 70 kVp scans were 0.58 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.01 mSv, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Attenuation maps for MPI obtained from ultra-low radiation dose CT scans are interchangeable with attenuation maps from standard-dose CT while offering a substantial reduction in radiation dose exposure.

9.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of growing cardiovascular mortality rates observed in young women, sexual dimorphism in cardiac autonomic nervous control is gaining increasing attention. Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were retrospectively analysed in a propensity-matched cohort of 1932 consecutive patients undergoing myocardial perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography (MPI-SPECT). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased during adenosine infusion (P < 0.001). The increase in SBP and HR (heart rate reserve, HRR), was significantly more pronounced in women compared with men (P < 0.05). Patients ≤ 55 years had a higher HRR compared with patients > 55 years (46.8% vs 37.5%, P = 0.015). Women ≤ 55 years with a reversible perfusion defect on MPI-SPECT exhibited the highest HRR (89.2%), while age-matched men showed a blunted HR response to adenosine (26.4%, P = 0.01). Accordingly, age and an interaction term of female sex and increased HRR were identified as significant predictors of myocardial ischemia in a multiple regression analysis (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.02-1.9, P = 0.038). CONCLUSION: HRR during adenosine infusion is influenced by age and sex. Our data suggest a stronger, sympathetic-driven, hemodynamic response to adenosine in younger women with myocardial ischemia.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 373(10): 929-38, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history, management, and outcome of takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy are incompletely understood. METHODS: The International Takotsubo Registry, a consortium of 26 centers in Europe and the United States, was established to investigate clinical features, prognostic predictors, and outcome of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients were compared with age- and sex-matched patients who had an acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: Of 1750 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, 89.8% were women (mean age, 66.8 years). Emotional triggers were not as common as physical triggers (27.7% vs. 36.0%), and 28.5% of patients had no evident trigger. Among patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, as compared with an acute coronary syndrome, rates of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were higher (55.8% vs. 25.7%) and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was markedly lower (40.7±11.2% vs. 51.5±12.3%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of severe in-hospital complications including shock and death were similar in the two groups (P=0.93). Physical triggers, acute neurologic or psychiatric diseases, high troponin levels, and a low ejection fraction on admission were independent predictors for in-hospital complications. During long-term follow-up, the rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events was 9.9% per patient-year, and the rate of death was 5.6% per patient-year. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy had a higher prevalence of neurologic or psychiatric disorders than did those with an acute coronary syndrome. This condition represents an acute heart failure syndrome with substantial morbidity and mortality. (Funded by the Mach-Gaensslen Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01947621.).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 111(2): 250-7, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23103200

RESUMO

The role of the electrophysiologic (EP) study for risk stratification in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is controversial. We investigated the role of inducible sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (SMVT) for the prediction of an adverse outcome (AO), defined as the occurrence of cardiac death, heart transplantation, sudden cardiac death, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia with hemodynamic compromise or syncope. Of 62 patients who fulfilled the 2010 Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Task Force criteria and underwent an EP study, 30 (48%) experienced an adverse outcome during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. SMVT was inducible in 34 patients (55%), 22 (65%) of whom had an adverse outcome. In contrast, in 28 patients without inducible SMVT, 8 (29%) had an adverse outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an event-free survival benefit for patients without inducible SMVT (log-rank p = 0.008) with a cumulative survival free of an adverse outcome of 72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 56% to 92%) in the group without inducible SMVT compared to 26% (95% CI 14% to 50%) in the other group after 10 years. The inducibility of SMVT during the EP study (hazard ratio [HR] 2.99, 95% CI 1.23 to 7.27), nonadherence (HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.77), and heart failure New York Heart Association functional class II and III (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.87) were associated with an adverse outcome on univariate Cox regression analysis. The inducibility of SMVT (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.16, p = 0.043) and nonadherence (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.99, p = 0.028) remained as significant predictors on multivariate analysis. This long-term observational data suggest that SMVT inducibility during EP study might predict an adverse outcome in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, advocating a role for EP study in risk stratification.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Adulto , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/complicações , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
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