Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371986

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360675

RESUMO

In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 µg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 µg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201904

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is an anthracycline that is commonly used as a chemotherapy drug due to its cytotoxic effects. The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited due to its known cardiotoxic effects. Treatment with anthracyclines causes heart failure in 15-17% of patients, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium dysregulation, the deterioration of the cardiomyocyte structure, and apoptotic cell death. Polyphenols have a wide range of beneficial properties, and particular importance is given to Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction; Oleuropein, one of the main polyphenolic compounds of olive oil; and Cynara cardunculus extract. These natural compounds have particular beneficial characteristics, owing to their high polyphenol contents. Among these, their antioxidant and antoproliferative properties are the most important. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of these three plant derivatives using an in vitro model of cardiotoxicity induced by the treatment of rat embryonic cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) with doxorubicin. The biological mechanisms involved and the crosstalk existing between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum were examined. Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction, Oleuropein, and Cynara cardunculus extract were able to decrease the damage induced by exposure to doxorubicin. In particular, these natural compounds were found to reduce cell mortality and oxidative damage, increase the lipid content, and decrease the concentration of calcium ions that escaped from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the direct involvement of this cellular organelle was demonstrated by silencing the ATF6 arm of the Unfolded Protein Response, which was activated after treatment with doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cynara/química , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antraciclinas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Mitocôndrias , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805912

RESUMO

The high incidence of obesity is associated with an increasing risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sustained obesity is characterized by a chronic and unsolved inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to a greater expression of proinflammatory adipokines, excessive lipid storage and adipogenesis. The purpose of this review is to clarify how inflammatory mediators act during adipose tissue dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and all obesity-associated diseases. In particular, we focused our attention on the role of inflammatory signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which represent a relevant component of adipose alterations during obesity. Furthermore, we reported the most recent evidence in the literature on nutraceutical supplementation in the management of the adipose inflammatory state, and in particular on their potential effect on common inflammatory mediators and pathways, responsible for WAT and BAT dysfunction. Although further research is needed to demonstrate that targeting pro-inflammatory mediators improves adipose tissue dysfunction and activates thermogenesis in BAT and WAT browning during obesity, polyphenols supplementation could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent progression of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Curcumina/química , Dieta , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/química , Lipídeos/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 616883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833660

RESUMO

Different bacterial families colonize most mucosal tissues in the human organism such as the skin, mouth, vagina, respiratory, and gastrointestinal districts. In particular, the mammalian intestine hosts a microbial community of between 1,000 and 1,500 bacterial species, collectively called "microbiota." Co-metabolism between the microbiota and the host system is generated and the symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial. The balance that is achieved between the microbiota and the host organism is fundamental to the organization of the immune system. Scientific studies have highlighted a direct correlation between the intestinal microbiota and the brain, establishing the existence of the gut microbiota-brain axis. Based on this theory, the microbiota acts on the development, physiology, and cognitive functions of the brain, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been fully interpreted. Similarly, a close relationship between alteration of the intestinal microbiota and the onset of several neurological pathologies has been highlighted. This review aims to point out current knowledge as can be found in literature regarding the connection between intestinal dysbiosis and the onset of particular neurological pathologies such as anxiety and depression, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis. These disorders have always been considered to be a consequence of neuronal alteration, but in this review, we hypothesize that these alterations may be non-neuronal in origin, and consider the idea that the composition of the microbiota could be directly involved. In this direction, the following two key points will be highlighted: (1) the direct cross-talk that comes about between neurons and gut microbiota, and (2) the degree of impact of the microbiota on the brain. Could we consider the microbiota a valuable target for reducing or modulating the incidence of certain neurological diseases?

6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807637

RESUMO

Atherothrombosis, a multifactorial and multistep artery disorder, represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development and progression of atherothrombosis is closely associated with age, gender and a complex relationship between unhealthy lifestyle habits and several genetic risk factors. The imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses is the main biological event leading to the development of a pro-oxidant phenotype, triggering cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the atherothrombotic process. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its late thrombotic complications involve multiple cellular events such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations, and platelet activation, contributing to chronic pathological remodeling of the vascular wall, atheromatous plague formation, vascular stenosis, and eventually, thrombus growth and propagation. Emerging studies suggest that clotting activation and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction play key roles in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence indicates that defective autophagy is closely linked to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, in turn, are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. This topic represents a large field of study aimed at identifying new potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the major role played by the autophagic pathway induced by oxidative stress in the modulation of EC dysfunction as a background to understand its potential role in the development of atherothrombosis.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 651021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816502

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is not a single pathology, but a constellation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including: central and abdominal obesity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance (or type 2 diabetes mellitus), and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The global incidence of Metabolic syndrome is estimated to be about one quarter of the world population; for this reason, it would be desirable to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in order to develop treatments that can reduce or eliminate the damage caused. The effects of Metabolic syndrome are multiple and wide ranging; some of which have an impact on the central nervous system and cause neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy is a catabolic intracellular process, essential for the recycling of cytoplasmic materials and for the degradation of damaged cellular organelle. Therefore, autophagy is primarily a cytoprotective mechanism; even if excessive cellular degradation can be detrimental. To date, it is known that systemic autophagic insufficiency is able to cause metabolic balance deterioration and facilitate the onset of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to highlight the current state of knowledge regarding the connection between metabolic syndrome and the onset of several neurological diseases related to it. Furthermore, since autophagy has been found to be of particular importance in metabolic disorders, the probable involvement of this degradative process is assumed to be responsible for the attenuation of neurological disorders resulting from metabolic syndrome.

8.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(4): 268-278, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633042

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetic cardiomyopathy represents the main cause of death among diabetic people. Despite this evidence, the molecular mechanisms triggered by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism inducing heart damage remain unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of altered metabolism on the early stages of cardiac injury in experimental diabetes. METHODS: For this purpose, rats were fed a normocaloric diet (NPD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for up to 12 weeks. After the fourth week, streptozocin (35 mg/kg) was administered in a subgroup of both NPD and HFD rats to induce diabetes. Cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and intracellular localization were assessed through zymography and immunofluorescence, whereas apoptotic and oxidative markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia or hyperlipidaemia reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening as compared with control. Unexpectedly, cardiac dysfunction was less marked in diabetic rats fed a hyperlipidaemic diet, suggesting an adaptive response of the myocardium to hyperglycaemia-induced injury. This response was characterized by the inhibition of N-terminal truncated-MMP-2 translocation from endoplasmic reticulum into mitochondria and by superoxide anion overproduction observed in cardiomyocytes under hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings suggest novel therapeutic targets aimed to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction in the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

9.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105427, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453372

RESUMO

Skeletal muscles and bone tissue form the musculoskeletal apparatus, a complex system essential for the voluntary movement. The loss of muscle mass and muscle strength is often associated with a loss of bone mass, in a "hazardous duet" which implies the co-existence of sarcopenia-osteoporosis and exposes patients to a deterioration in quality of life and increased mortality. From the mechanostat theory to the recent definition of the osteosarcopenia syndrome, many aspects of muscle-bone interaction have been investigated in recent decades. The mechanical interaction is now accepted, considering the close anatomical relationship between the two tissues, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the biochemical muscle-bone interaction. Skeletal muscle has been defined as an endocrine organ capable of exerting an action on other tissues. Myokines, bioactive polypeptides released by the muscle, could represent the encrypted message in the communication between muscle and bone. These two tissues have a reciprocal influence on their metabolisms and respond in a similar way to the multiple external factors. The aim of this review is to stimulate the understanding of the encrypted language between muscle and bone, highlighting the role of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress in the musculoskeletal apparatus to elucidate the shared mechanisms and the similarity of response to the same stimuli by different tissues. Our understanding of muscle-bone interactions it could be useful to identify and develop new strategies to treat musculoskeletal diseases, together with pharmacological, nutritional and exercise-based approaches, which are already in use for the treatment of these pathologies.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477916

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and many other cardiac disorders, cause about 30% of deaths globally; representing one of the main health problems worldwide. Among CVDs, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The onset of IHDs is essentially due to an unbalance between the metabolic demands of the myocardium and its supply of oxygen and nutrients, coupled with a low regenerative capacity of the heart, which leads to great cardiomyocyte (CM) loss; promoting heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction (MI). To date, the first strategy recommended to avoid IHDs is prevention in order to reduce the underlying risk factors. In the management of IHDs, traditional therapeutic options are widely used to improve symptoms, attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, and reduce early mortality rate. However, there are no available treatments that aim to improve cardiac performance by replacing the irreversible damaged cardiomyocytes (CMs). Currently, heart transplantation is the only treatment being carried out for irreversibly damaged CMs. Hence, the discovery of new therapeutic options seems to be necessary. Interestingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that regenerative stem cell medicine could be a useful therapeutic approach to counteract cardiac damage and promote tissue regeneration. To this end, researchers are tasked with answering one main question: how can myocardial regeneration be stimulated? In this regard, natural compounds from plant extracts seem to play a particularly promising role. The present review will summarize the recent advances in our knowledge of stem cell therapy in the management of CVDs; focusing on the main properties and potential mechanisms of natural compounds in stimulating and activating stem cells for myocardial regeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/citologia
11.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105215, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007421

RESUMO

Cholesterol homeostasis is a highly regulated process in human body because of its several functions underlying the biology of cell membranes, the synthesis of all steroid hormones and bile acids and the need of trafficking lipids destined to cell metabolism. In particular, it has been recognized that peripheral and central nervous system cholesterol metabolism are separated by the blood brain barrier and are regulated independently; indeed, peripherally, it depends on the balance between dietary intake and hepatic synthesis on one hand and its degradation on the other, whereas in central nervous system it is synthetized de novo to ensure brain physiology. In view of this complex metabolism and its relevant functions in mammalian, impaired levels of cholesterol can induce severe cellular dysfunction leading to metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to clarify the role of cholesterol homeostasis in health and disease highlighting new intriguing aspects of the cross talk between its central and peripheral metabolism.

12.
Biomedicines ; 8(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265917

RESUMO

Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system which are generated by progenitor oligodendrocytes as a result of maturation processes. The main function of mature oligodendrocytes is to produce myelin, a lipid-rich multi-lamellar membrane that wraps tightly around neuronal axons, insulating them and facilitating nerve conduction through saltatory propagation. The myelination process requires the consumption a large amount of energy and a high metabolic turnover. Mitochondria are essential organelles which regulate many cellular functions, including energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Any mitochondrial dysfunction impacts cellular metabolism and negatively affects the health of the organism. If the functioning of the mitochondria is unbalanced, the myelination process is impaired. When myelination has finished, oligodendrocyte will have synthesized about 40% of the total lipids present in the brain. Since lipid synthesis occurs in the cellular endoplasmic reticulum, the dysfunction of this organelle can lead to partial or deficient myelination, triggering numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the induced malfunction of oligodendrocytes by harmful exogenous stimuli has been outlined. In particular, the effects of alcohol consumption and heavy metal intake are discussed. Furthermore, the response of the oligodendrocyte to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and to the altered regulation of the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum will be explored.

13.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297504

RESUMO

The employment studies of natural extracts in the prevention and treatment of several diseases highlighted the role of different species of genus Ferula L., belonging to the Apiaceae family, dicotyledonous plants present in many temperate zones of our planet. Ferula communis L. is the main source of sesquiterpene ferutinin, a bioactive compound studied both in vitro and in vivo, because of different effects, such as phytoestrogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, but also antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity, performed in a dose-dependent and cell-dependent way. The present review will focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the different activities of Ferutinin, starting from its antioxidant potential at low doses until its ionophoric property and the subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction induced through administration of high doses, which represent the key point of its anticancer action. Furthermore, we will summarize the data acquired from some experimental studies on different cell types and on several diseases. The results obtained showed an important antioxidant and phytoestrogenic regulation with lack of typical side effects related to estrogenic therapy. The preferential cell death induction for tumor cell lines suggests that ferutinin may have anti-neoplastic properties, and may be used as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent in an estrogen dependent and independent manner. Nevertheless, more data are needed to clearly understand the effect of ferutinin in animals before using it as a phytoestrogen or anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Ferula/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cicloeptanos/química , Cicloeptanos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/química , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291346

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection is associated, alongside with lung infection and respiratory disease, to cardiovascular dysfunction that occurs at any stage of the disease. This includes ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. The common pathophysiological link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the cardiovascular events is represented by coagulation abnormalities and disruption of factors released by endothelial cells, which contribute in maintaining the blood vessels into an anti-thrombotic state. Thus, early alteration of the functionality of endothelial cells, which may be found soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection, seems to represent the major target of a SARS CoV-2 disease state and accounts for the systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to a detrimental effect in terms of hospitalization and death accompanying the disease. In particular, the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor located in the endothelial cell surface, either at the pulmonary and systemic level, leads to early impairment of endothelial function, which, in turn, is followed by vascular inflammation and thrombosis of peripheral blood vessels. This highlights systemic hypoxia and further aggravates the vicious circle that compromises the development of the disease, leading to irreversible tissue damage and death of people with SARS CoV-2 infection. The review aims to assess some recent advances to define the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular complications accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, the molecular mechanisms associated with the interaction of SARS CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor located on the endothelial cells are highlighted to support its role in compromising endothelial cell functionality. Finally, the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in enhancing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are assessed in order to identify early therapeutic interventions able to reduce the impact of the disease in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Vasculite/etiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Trombose/metabolismo , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Vasculite/metabolismo , Vasculite/fisiopatologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050121

RESUMO

Clinical management of diabetic cardiomyopathy represents an unmet need owing to insufficient knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dysfunctional heart. The aim of this work is to better clarify the role of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) isoforms and of translocator protein (TSPO)/voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC1) modulation in the development of hyperglycaemia-induced myocardial injury. Hyperglycaemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats through a streptozocin injection (35 mg/Kg, i.p.). After 60 days, cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate NADPH oxidase and TSPO expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 activity was detected by zymography. Superoxide anion production was estimated by MitoSOX™ staining. Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC-1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and cytochrome C expression was assessed by Western blot. Hyperglycaemic rats displayed cardiac dysfunction; this response was characterized by an overexpression of NADPH oxidase, accompanied by an increase of superoxide anion production. Under hyperglycaemia, increased expression of TSPO and VDAC1 was detected. MMP-2 downregulated activity occurred under hyperglycemia and this profile of activation was accompanied by the translocation of intracellular N-terminal truncated isoform of MMP-2 (NT-MMP-2) from mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) into mitochondria. In the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy, mitochondrial impairment in cardiomyocytes is characterized by the dysregulation of the different MMP-2 isoforms. This can imply the generation of a "frail" myocardial tissue unable to adapt itself to stress.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Isoenzimas , Modelos Biológicos , Contração Miocárdica , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740426

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetic cardiomyopathy represents the main cause of death among diabetic people. Despite this evidence, the molecular mechanisms triggered by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism inducing heart damage remain unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of altered metabolism on the early stages of cardiac injury in experimental diabetes. METHODS: For this purpose, rats were fed a normocaloric diet (NPD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for up to 12 weeks. After the fourth week, streptozocin (35 mg/kg) was administered in a subgroup of both NPD and HFD rats to induce diabetes. Cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and intracellular localization were assessed through zymography and immunofluorescence, whereas apoptotic and oxidative markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia or hyperlipidaemia reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening as compared with control. Unexpectedly, cardiac dysfunction was less marked in diabetic rats fed a hyperlipidaemic diet, suggesting an adaptive response of the myocardium to hyperglycaemia-induced injury. This response was characterized by the inhibition of N-terminal truncated-MMP-2 translocation from endoplasmic reticulum into mitochondria and by superoxide anion overproduction observed in cardiomyocytes under hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings suggest novel therapeutic targets aimed to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction in the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

17.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854210

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18, 20 or 22 carbon atoms, which have been found able to counteract cardiovascular diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in particular, have been found to produce both vaso- and cardio-protective response via modulation of membrane phospholipids thereby improving cardiac mitochondrial functions and energy production. However, antioxidant properties of n-3 PUFAs, along with their anti-inflammatory effect in both blood vessels and cardiac cells, seem to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular impairment. In fact, dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been demonstrated to reduce oxidative stress-related mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial cell apoptosis, an effect occurring via an increased activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. On the other hand, n-3 PUFAs have been shown to counteract the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both vascular tissues and in the myocardium, thereby restoring vascular reactivity and myocardial performance. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of n-3 PUFAs in vascular and cardiac tissues and their implication in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

18.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 107(3): 266-280, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607636

RESUMO

C-peptide therapy protects against diabetic micro- and macrovascular damages and neuropatic complications. However, to date, the role of C-peptide in preventing diabetes-related bone loss has not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate if C-peptide infusion improves bone quality in diabetic rats. Twenty-three male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group; sham diabetic control group; diabetic plus C-peptide group. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and C-peptide was delivered subcutaneously for 6 weeks. We performed micro-CT and histological testing to assess several trabecular microarchitectural parameters. At the end, diabetic plus C-peptide rats had a higher serum C-peptide (p = 0.02) and calcium (p = 0.04) levels and tibia weight (p = 0.02) than the diabetic control group. The diabetic plus C-peptide group showed a higher trabecular thickness and cross-sectional thickness than the diabetic control group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03). Both the normal control and diabetic plus C-peptide groups had more Runx-2 and PLIN1 positive cells in comparison with the diabetic control group (p = 0.045 and p = 0.034). Diabetic rats receiving C-peptide had higher quality of trabecular bone than diabetic rats not receiving this treatment. If confirmed, C-peptide could have a role in improving bone quality in diabetes.

19.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 10(3): 268-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670822

RESUMO

Background and aim: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causing an enhancement of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Although insulin resistance appears the link between NAFLD and T2DM, current pharmacological treatments of T2DM failed to produce relevant benefits in preventing T2DM-related liver dysfunction. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we evaluated the effect of Bergacyn, an innovative formulation originating from the combination of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) and Cynara cardunculus (CyC). Experimental procedure: 80 adult patients with a history of at least 12 months of T2DM and NAFLD received orally BPF (300 mg/daily) Cyc (300 mg/daily), separately or formulated in combination 50/50% (Bergacyn; 300 mg/daily), or placebo all containing 300 mg of bergamot albedo fibers micronized and co-grinded as excipients. Results and conclusion: Serum measurements and liver ultrasound analyses showed that concomitant administration of BPF and CyC produced significant improvement of NAFLD biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This effect was associated with a substantial reduction of oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers, thus contributing to a significant improvement of NO-mediated reactive vasodilation. Furthermore, the effect of Bergacyn showed a synergistic effect of both extracts, thus suggesting that this peculiar formulation represents a novel therapeutic strategy to counteract vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients suffering from T2DM and NAFLD. Further studies in larger cohort of diabetic patients are required to better identify the potential of Bergacyn on metabolic disorders accompanying T2DM and NAFLD.

20.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455840

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a set of clinical findings that include visceral adiposity, insulin-resistance, high triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and hypertension, which is linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors triggering oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction and systemic inflammation process mainly responsible for the pathophysiological mechanism. In recent years, MetS has gained importance due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. However, at present, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present review will summarize the pathogenesis of MetS and the existing pharmacological therapies currently used and focus attention on the beneficial effects of natural compounds to reduce the risk and progression of MetS. In this regard, emerging evidence suggests a potential protective role of bergamot extracts, in particular bergamot flavonoids, in the management of different features of MetS, due to their pleiotropic anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...