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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(5): 807-821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034561

RESUMO

Gout is the most prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis, with a strong impact on individual health and healthcare systems. This article reviews clinical and experimental evidences about gout emerged throughout the 2019. Starting with an epidemiological analysis, the review explores new insights on genetic factors influencing the development of gout flare, pathogenetic mechanisms, risk factors for the disease and comorbidities. An overview on pharmacological therapies and recent knowledge on the impact of lifestyle and dietary habits are also included. Finally, the review contains a novel section on animal models, which reflects the renewed interest of researchers in the acute process triggered by monosodium urate crystals.


Assuntos
Gota , Animais , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/epidemiologia , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038295, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the adherence to quality of care indicators in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate its impact on the risk of hospitalisation in a real-world setting. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients with early-onset RA identified from healthcare regional administrative databases by means of a validated algorithm between 2006 and 2012 in the Lombardy region (Italy). PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 14 203 early-onset RA (71% female, mean age 60 years). OUTCOME MEASURES: For each patient, a summary adherence score was calculated starting from the compliance to six quality indicators: (1-2) methotrexate or sulfasalazine or leflunomide with/without glucocorticoids, (3-4) other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) with/without glucocorticoids, (5) early interruption of glucocorticoids, (6) early clinical assessment.The relationship between low, intermediate and high categories of the summary score and the 12-month risk of hospitalisation for all causes and for RA was assessed. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 1 year, 2609 hospitalisations occurred, of which 704 were for RA (main or secondary diagnosis) and 252 primarily for RA. In a 7-year period (2006-2012), early DMARDs and timely clinical monitoring treatment increased (from 52% to 62% p trend <0.001 and from 25% to 30% p trend 0.009, respectively).Intermediate and high summary adherence score categories (compared with the low category) were related significantly with a lower risk of hospitalisation (adjusted HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.93), p<0.001 and HR 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.84), p<0.001, respectively). Among the indicators of the adherence score, early DMARD prescription showed the strongest positive impact, while long-term use of glucocorticoids was the worst negative one. CONCLUSION: In early RA, adherence to quality standards of care is associated with a lower risk of hospitalisation. Future interventions to improve the adherence to quality standards of care in this setting should decrease the risk of hospitalisation with a significant impact on individual and population health.

3.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880053

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between functional and radiological longitudinal change in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), and to test the OMERACT definition of clinically meaningful progression of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for the prediction of ILD radiological evolution. We retrospectively retrieved high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) studies and PFTs including DLco, both available at two time-points and performed within 6 months of each other, in SSc patients. A subset of patients was selected using a 12-24-month clinically oriented interval (n = 58). The extent of ILD at HRCT was scored according to a visual semi-quantitative method (SQCT). The correlation of absolute change (Δ) in the SQCT score with change in FVC and DLco was examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concordance between the OMERACT criteria (≥ 10% FVC relative decline; or 5-10% FVC and ≥ 15% DLco relative decline) and SQCT categorical change (5% and 10%) was investigated. A total of 129 patients were enrolled. During 12-24-month follow-up, ΔSQCT was negatively correlated with ΔFVC (r = - 0.487, p = 0.0001) and ΔDLco (r = - 0.298, p = 0.023). Ten patients demonstrated CT progression ΔSQCT > 5%, among whom 5 with ΔSQCT > 10%. OMERACT criteria identified 25 patients with progressive SSc-ILD, of whom only 5 presented ΔSQCT > 5 and 3 presented ΔSQCT > 10%. In conclusion, change in radiological extent of SSc-ILD was correlated to functional decline in a limited time-frame. Repeated HRCT after 12-24 months may be useful for the longitudinal characterization of ILD evolution in patients with stable pulmonary function. Conversely, functional changes are suggestive of a concurrent radiological progression only after this interval. Key Points • In SSc patients, chest HRCT performed every 12-24 months can detect minimal but significant changes in ILD extent, even in subjects with stable pulmonary function. • PFT changes in 12-24 months are related to the radiological ILD progression. • OMERACT criteria might overlook patients with radiological progression. • Repeated chest HRCT may be useful for monitoring SSc-ILD when performed within 12 to 24 months from baseline in order to promptly detect progression and possibly impact on prognosis.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(11): 1423-1431, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of European League against Rheumatism (EULAR)/European Musculoskeletal Conditions Surveillance and Information Network, 20 user-focused standards of care (SoCs) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) addressing 16 domains of care were developed. This study aimed to explore gaps in implementation of these SoCs across Europe. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys on the importance, level of and barriers (patients only) to implementation of each SoC (0-10, 10 highest) were designed to be conducted among patients and rheumatologists in 50 European countries. Care gaps were calculated as the difference between the actual and maximum possible score for implementation (ie, 10) multiplied by the care importance score, resulting in care gaps (0-100, maximal gap). Factors associated with the problematic care gaps (ie, gap≥30 and importance≥6 and implementation<6) and strong barriers (≥6) were further analysed in multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 26 and 31 countries provided data from 1873 patients and 1131 rheumatologists, respectively. 19 out of 20 SoCs were problematic from the perspectives of more than 20% of patients, while this was true for only 10 SoCs for rheumatologists. Rheumatologists in countries with lower gross domestic product and non-European Union countries were more likely to report problematic gaps in 15 of 20 SoCs, while virtually no differences were observed among patients. Lack of relevance of some SoCs (71%) and limited time of professionals (66%) were the most frequent implementation barriers identified by patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many problematic gaps were reported across several essential aspects of RA care. More efforts need to be devoted to implementation of EULAR SoCs.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminatory ability of ultrasound in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD), using microscopic analysis of menisci and knee hyaline cartilage (HC) as reference standard. METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for knee replacement surgery, due to osteoarthritis (OA), were enrolled. Each patient underwent ultrasound examination of the menisci and HC of the knee, scoring each site for presence/absence of CPPD. Ultrasound signs of inflammation (effusion, synovial proliferation and power Doppler) were assessed semiquantitatively (0-3). The menisci and condyles, retrieved during surgery, were examined microscopically by optical light microscopy and by compensated polarised microscopy. CPPs were scored as present/absent in six different samples from the surface and from the internal part of menisci and cartilage. Ultrasound and microscopic analysis were performed by different operators, blinded to each other's findings. RESULTS: 11 researchers from seven countries participated in the study. Of 101 enrolled patients, 68 were included in the analysis. In 38 patients, the surgical specimens were insufficient. The overall diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for CPPD was of 75%-sensitivity of 91% (range 71%-87% in single sites) and specificity of 59% (range 68%-92%). The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained by assessing in combination by ultrasound the medial meniscus and the medial condyle HC (88% and 76%, respectively). No differences were found between patients with and without CPPD regarding ultrasound signs of inflammation. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound demonstrated to be an accurate tool for discriminating CPPD. No differences were found between patents with OA alone and CPPD plus OA regarding inflammation.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(4): 748-753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Italy was one of the first countries significantly affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. The Italian Society for Rheumatology promptly launched a retrospective and anonymised data collection to monitor COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), the CONTROL-19 surveillance database, which is part of the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance. METHODS: CONTROL-19 includes patients with RMDs and proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) updated until May 3rd 2020. In this analysis, only molecular diagnoses were included. The data collection covered demographic data, medical history (general and RMD-related), treatments and COVID-19 related features, treatments, and outcome. In this paper, we report the first descriptive data from the CONTROL-19 registry. RESULTS: The population of the first 232 patients (36% males) consisted mainly of elderly patients (mean age 62.2 years), who used corticosteroids (51.7%), and suffered from multi-morbidity (median comorbidities 2). Rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequent disease (34.1%), followed by spondyloarthritis (26.3%), connective tissue disease (21.1%) and vasculitis (11.2%). Most cases had an active disease (69.4%). Clinical presentation of COVID-19 was typical, with systemic symptoms (fever and asthenia) and respiratory symptoms. The overall outcome was severe, with high frequencies of hospitalisation (69.8%), respiratory support oxygen (55.7%), non-invasive ventilation (20.9%) or mechanical ventilation (7.5%), and 19% of deaths. Male patients typically manifested a worse prognosis. Immunomodulatory treatments were not significantly associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission/mechanical ventilation/death. CONCLUSIONS: Although the report mainly includes the most severe cases, its temporal and spatial trend supports the validity of the national surveillance system. More complete data are being acquired in order to both test the hypothesis that RMD patients may have a different outcome from that of the general population and determine the safety of immunomodulatory treatments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Reumatologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/virologia
7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) are frequently associated but the real relation between these diseases is not still understood. The aim of this paper is to investigate the characteristics in terms of inflammation, anatomical changes and synovial fluid (SF) features in knees of patients with OA and CPPD. METHODS: Consecutive patients older than 55 years with knee pain and swelling were enrolled. All patients underwent a complete clinical examination, a US examination of the affected joint, arthrocentesis of the knee and analysis of synovial fluid, including dosing of inorganic ions and number of crystals. The gold standard for the diagnosis was the microscopic analysis of the SF. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, 25 affected by OA and 42 by CPPD. At US, a significantly higher amount of effusion and synovitis was identified in patients with CPPD but there were no significant differences regarding structural changes. At the SF analysis, the white blood cell (WBC) count was higher in patients with CPPD who also presented a higher number of polymorphonuclear cells and a lower number of monocytes. Regarding the inorganic ion concentration, the statistical analysis did not reveal any differences. The number of crystals in the SF, correlated with a larger effusion, higher grade of synovitis and a higher WBC count. CONCLUSIONS: A higher degree of inflammation was found in patients with CPPD. The findings suggest that longitudinal studies would be useful to better understand the evolution of the diseases and highlight the need for different treatment strategies.

8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(2): 181-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213264

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management is driven by evidence, and new 2019 EULAR recommendations help in refining the relevant place of different disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in treatment schedules. At present, new drugs are in phase of development, mainly Janus Kinase inhibitors (JAKis), however, specific treatment strategies seem to count more than individual DMARDs in terms of treatment responses, given the substantial lack of head-to-head comparisons between specific biological (b) and targeted synthetic (ts)DMARDs, and with the general perception of a similar efficacy profile across drugs. In this setting, when reliable biomarkers able to predict treatment responses are lacking, treatment decisions are mainly driven by specific clinical or individual factors, given the recognised role of comorbidities, treatment-specific side effects, patients' preferences, and costs on drug choice. In this narrative review, the authors give their specific point of view on the management of RA, based on a critical revision of the literature published in 2019, focusing on relevant novelties and future research directions.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Preferência do Paciente
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) we aimed to assess the effect of optimal management of pregnancy, on a composite outcome of miscarriage and complicated birth. METHODS: Data were extracted from healthcare databases of the Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases Study. Analyses included women with RA identified through copayment exemption code (ICD9-CM code 714.0) and controls from the general population aged between 18 and 50. Seven healthcare quality indicators (HCQI) were constructed and summarized in 3 pathways indicators: A) diagnostic; B) therapeutic; C) and prenatal follow-up. The groups of complicated birth or miscarriage identified the adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). The relationship between HCQI and APO was analysed using logistic models and the results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The study cohort included the first pregnancy observed in 443 patients with RA compared with 6097 women belonging to the general population. In RA population, patients who followed the ideal pathway had a reduced risk of overall APO with an OR=0.60 (95%CI 0.39, 0.94) and of miscarriage/perinatal death with an OR=0.40 (95%CI 0.24, 0.69) compared to those who did not. Compared with the general population, patients with RA who met all HCQI during pregnancy displayed a risk of APO with an OR=0.92 (95%CI 0.61, 1.38) and miscarriage/perinatal death with an OR=0.77 (95%CI 0.47,1.29). CONCLUSIONS: The adherence to the ideal clinical pathway in women with RA restored the risk of APO to that expected for the general population.

10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(2): 245-256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations for vaccination against influenza virus and S. pneumoniae in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). METHODS: A Consensus Committee including physicians with expertise in rheumatic and infectious diseases was established by two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana di Reumatologia (SIR) and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (SIMIT). The experts were invited to develop evidence-based recommendations concerning vaccinations in ARDs patients, based on their clinical status before and after undergoing immunosuppressive treatments. Key clinical questions were formulated for the systematic literature reviews, based on the clinical pathway. A search was made in Medline (via PubMed) according to the original MeSH strategy from October 2009 and a keyword strategy from January 2016 up to December 2017, updating existing EULAR recommendations. Specific recommendations were separately voted and scored from 0 (no agreement with) to 100 (maximal agreement) and supporting evidence graded. The mean and standard deviation of the scores were calculated to determine the level of agreement among the experts' panel for each recommendation. Total cumulative agreement ≥70 defined consensus for each statement. RESULTS: Nine recommendations, based on 6 key clinical questions addressed by the expert committee, were proposed. The aim of this work is to integrate the 2011 EULAR recommendations on vaccination against influenza and S. pneumoniae in ARDs patients. An implementation plan was proposed to improve the vaccination status of these patients and their safety during immunosuppressive treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations are effective and safe in patients with ARDs. More efforts should be made to translate the accumulated evidence into practice.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália , Masculino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/imunologia , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/prevenção & controle , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação/normas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for damage development in a prospective inception cohort of early diagnosed SLE patients. METHODS: The Early Lupus Project recruited an inception cohort of patients within 12 months of SLE classification (1997 ACR criteria). At enrolment and every 6 months thereafter, the SLICC/ACR Damage Index was recorded. The contribution of baseline and time-varying covariates to the development of damage, defined as any SLICC/ACR Damage Index increase from 0 to ≥1, was assessed using univariate analysis. Forward-backward Cox regression models were fitted with covariates with P < 0.05 to identify factors independently associated with the risk of damage development. RESULTS: Overall, 230 patients with a mean (s.d.) age of 36.5 (14.4) years were eligible for this study; the mean number of visits per patient was 5.3 (2.7). There were 51 (22.2%) patients with SLICC/ACR Damage Index ≥1 after 12 months, 59 (25.6%) after 24 months and 67 (29.1%) after 36 months. Dyslipidaemia [P = 0.001; hazard ratio (HR) 2.9; 95% CI 1.5, 5.6], older age (P = 0.001; HR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6, 5.5), number of organs/systems involved (P = 0.002; HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) and cardiorespiratory involvement (P = 0.041; HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.7) were independently associated with an increased risk of developing damage. Risk profiles for damage development differed for glucocorticoid-related and -unrelated damage. HCQ use (P = 0.005; HR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2, 0.8) reduced the risk of glucocorticoid-unrelated damage. CONCLUSION: We identified risk factors of damage development, but little effect of glucocorticoids, in this early SLE cohort. Addressing modifiable risk factors from the time of SLE diagnosis might improve patient outcomes.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750308

RESUMO

The opportunity of a multidisciplinary evaluation for the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonias highlighted a major change in the diagnostic approach to diffuse lung disease. The new American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Latin American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have reinforced this assumption and have underlined that the exclusion of connective tissue disease related lung involvement is mandatory, with obvious clinical and therapeutic impact. The multidisciplinary team discussion consists in a moment of interaction among the radiologist, pathologist and pulmonologist, also including the rheumatologist when considered necessary, to improve diagnostic agreement and optimize the definition of those cases in which pulmonary involvement may represent the first or prominent manifestation of an autoimmune systemic disease. Moreover, the proposal of classification criteria for interstitial lung disease with autoimmune features (IPAF) represents an effort to define lung involvement in clinically undefined autoimmune conditions. The complexity of autoimmune diseases, and in particular the lack of classification criteria defined for pathologies such as anti-synthetase syndrome, makes the involvement of the rheumatologist essential for the correct interpretation of the autoimmune element and for the application of classification criteria, that could replace clinical pictures initially interpreted as IPAF in defined autoimmune disease, minimizing the risk of misdiagnosis. The aim of this review was to evaluate the available evidence about the efficiency and efficacy of different multidisciplinary team approaches, in order to standardize the professional figures and the core set procedures that should be necessary for a correct approach in diagnosing patients with interstitial lung disease.

13.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 519-534, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140394

RESUMO

The current treatment approach in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) follows a stepwise management, starting from early introduction of conventional synthetic (cs) disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), moving to biological (b) DMARDs and targeted synthetic (ts) DMARDs. In the last few years, new drugs with different mechanisms of action have demonstrated their efficacy in treating such a disabling condition, and their approval, along with other more "experienced" treatments, has established their effectiveness on disease activity, damage accrual prevention, patients' quality of life improvement, confirming their safety profile. Moreover, new molecular pathways are under investigation as potential targets of new advanced therapies. Clinicians' capability of stratifying treatment strategies and decisions has improved, with several new tools for the optimisation of long-term management of RA; however, a high proportion of patients are refractory to the available drugs. Finally, as RA is a systemic disease, the knowledge in multi-systemic complications of the disease has grown, as well as the possibility in improving extra-articular manifestations of the disease, although certain drugs have potentially relevant non-articular effects, which need to be monitored. This narrative review summarises the most relevant studies published over the last year in the field of treatment of RA, with the major aim to let clinicians and researchers reflect on "what is new", "what is effective" and "what is safe".


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
14.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997148

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the level of agreement on ultrasonographic (US) lesions among highly experienced sonographers as well as the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of inflammatory and structural US lesions in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the foot. Methods: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was performed to test definitions of US lesions in OA of the foot, including inflammatory lesions (ie, synovial hypertrophy [SH], joint effusion [JE], power Doppler signal [PD]), and structural abnormalities (ie, cartilage damage [CD] and osteophytes). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing the aforementioned lesions was tested on static images as well as during a live exercise. Reliability was assessed by kappa analyses and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) on a dichotomous and an ordinal scale. Results: Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for SH and JE evaluated by binary scoring was good for both components, while the intraobserver reliability for semiquantitative scoring of SH ranged from moderate in the web-based exercise (PABAK 0.49) to good (PABAK 0.8) in the live exercise. Reliability for CD and PD assessments were respectively good and excellent in all exercises (ranged from PABAK 0.61 to 0.79 for CD and 0.88 to 0.95 for PD). The interobserver reliability for the semiquantitative scoring of osteophytes was fair in the live exercise (PABAK 0.36) and moderate in the static exercise (PABAK 0.60). Conclusions: Consensual US definitions were found to be reliable for assessing inflammatory lesions in OA of the foot, while the use of US to assess structural damage requires further studies.


Assuntos
Pé/patologia , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Terapia por Exercício , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Osteoartrite/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/normas
15.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886735

RESUMO

Objectives: This multicentre study aimed to investigate the overall mortality of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to compare CPFE-SSc characteristics with those of other SSc subtypes (with interstitial lung disease-ILD, emphysema or neither). Methods: Chest CTs, anamnestic data, immunological profile and pulmonary function tests of patients with SSc were retrospectively collected. Each chest CT underwent a semiquantitative assessment blindly performed by three radiologists. Patients were clustered in four groups: SSc-CPFE, SSc-ILD, SSc-emphysema and other-SSc (without ILD nor emphysema). The overall mortality of these groups was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the stratified log-rank test; Kruskal-Wallis test, t-Student test and χ² test assessed the differences between groups. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We enrolled 470 patients (1959 patient-year); 15.5 % (73/470) died during the follow-up. Compared with the SSc-ILD and other-SSc, in SSc-CPFE there was a higher prevalence of males, lower anticentromere antibodies prevalence and a more reduced pulmonary function (p<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrates a significantly worse survival in patients with SSc-CPFE (HR vs SSc-ILD, vs SSc-emphysema and vs other-SSc, respectively 1.6 (CI 0.5 to 5.2), 1.6 (CI 0.7 to 3.8) and 2.8 (CI 1.2 to 6.6). Conclusions: CPFE increases the mortality risk in SSc along with a highly impaired lung function. These findings strengthen the importance to take into account emphysema in patients with SSc with ILD.


Assuntos
Enfisema Pulmonar/complicações , Enfisema Pulmonar/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
J Rheumatol ; 46(3): 279-284, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) features of patients with antisynthetase syndrome (AS) and to investigate possible correlations with clinical and serological features of the disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed NVC images of 190 patients with AS [females/males 3.63, mean age 49.7 ± 12.8 yrs, median disease duration 53.7 mos (interquartile range 82), 133 anti-Jo1 and 57 non-anti-Jo1-positive patients]. For each patient, we examined number of capillaries, giant capillaries, microhemorrhages, avascular areas, ramified capillaries, and the presence of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-like pattern. Finally, we correlated NVC features with clinical and serological findings of patients with AS. Concomitantly, a historical cohort of 75 patients with antinuclear antibody-negative primary Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and longterm followup was used as a control group (female/male ratio 4.13/1, mean age 53.9 ± 17.6 yrs) for NVC measures. RESULTS: NVC abnormalities were observed in 62.1% of AS patients compared with 29.3% of primary RP group (p < 0.001). An SSc-like pattern was detected in 67 patients (35.3%) and it was associated with anti-Jo1 antibodies (p = 0.002) and also with a longer disease duration (p = 0.004). Interestingly, there was no significant correlation between the presence of SSc-like pattern and RP, and only 47% of patients with SSc-like pattern had RP. CONCLUSION: NVC abnormalities are commonly observed in AS, independently from the occurrence of RP. The presence of an SSc-like pattern could allow identification of a more defined AS subtype, and prospective studies could confirm the association with clinical and serological features of AS.

17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(1): 60-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to define the risk of serious bacterial infections in patients receiving specific biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and evaluating the effect of concomitant synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) in a large population-based sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) deriving from an administrative health database. METHODS: Data were extracted from health databases of Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases (RECORD) study. Patients with RA treated with approved bDMARDs were included. Hospitalisations for bacterial infections were evaluated by hospital discharge forms. The association between drug exposure and infections was assessed by survival models, with time-dependent covariates. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) and 95%CI, crude and adjusted for pre-specified confounders (sex, age, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index, previous biologics, previous infections, use of methotrexate, leflunomide, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). RESULTS: 4,656 RA patients with at least one bDMARD prescription were included, for a total of 7,601 biological courses; 3,603 (77.4%) women with a mean (SD) age of 55.8 (12.7) years. Crude incidence rate of hospitalised infection ranged from 0.14 to 2.95 per 1000 person-years. After multivariable adjustment, abatacept users (HR 0.29, 95%CI 0.10-0.82) had significantly lower risk of infections compared to etanercept. Concurrent treatment with methotrexate (0.72, 0.52-0.99) reduced the overall risk of infection while glucocorticoids increased it (1.09 per mg/day, 1.06-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In RA patients treated with bDMARDs, abatacept was associated with the lowest risk of infections; overall risk was mitigated by concomitant methotrexate and increased by glucocorticoids in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas , Produtos Biológicos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reumatologia
18.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(2): 164-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572134

RESUMO

Pregnancy requires a special management in women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs), with the aim of controlling maternal disease activity and avoiding fetal complications. Despite the heterogeneous course of RDs during pregnancy, their impact on pregnancy largely relates to the extent of active inflammation at the time of conception. Therefore, accurate evaluation of disease activity is crucial for the best management of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, there are limitations in using conventional measures of disease activity in pregnancy, as some items included in these instruments can be biased by symptoms or by physiological changes related to pregnancy and the pregnancy itself may influence laboratory parameters used to assess disease activity. This article aims to summarize the current literature about the available instruments to measure disease activity during pregnancy in RDs. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the only disease with instruments that have been modified to account for several adaptations which might interfere with the attribution of signs or symptoms to disease activity during pregnancy. No modified-pregnancy indices exist for women affected by other RDs, but standard indices have been applied to pregnant patients. The current body of knowledge shows that the physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy need to be either adapted from existing instruments or developed to improve the management of pregnant women with RDs. Standardized instruments to assess disease activity during pregnancy would be helpful not only for clinical practice but also for research purposes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia
19.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(3): 427-434, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The language currently used to describe gout lacks standardization. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement on the labels and definitions used to describe the basic disease elements of gout. METHODS: Experts in gout (n = 130) were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach consensus on the labeling and definitions for the basic disease elements of gout. Disease elements and labels in current use were derived from a content analysis of the contemporary medical literature, and the results of this analysis were used for item selection in the Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting. RESULTS: There were 51 respondents to the Delphi exercise and 30 attendees at the face-to-face meeting. Consensus agreement (≥80%) was achieved for the labels of 8 disease elements through the Delphi exercise; the remaining 3 labels reached consensus agreement through the face-to-face consensus meeting. The agreed labels were monosodium urate crystals, urate, hyperuric(a)emia, tophus, subcutaneous tophus, gout flare, intercritical gout, chronic gouty arthritis, imaging evidence of monosodium urate crystal deposition, gouty bone erosion, and podagra. Participants at the face-to-face meeting achieved consensus agreement for the definitions of all 11 elements and a recommendation that the label "chronic gout" should not be used. CONCLUSION: Consensus agreement was achieved for the labels and definitions of 11 elements representing the fundamental components of gout etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. The Gout, Hyperuricemia, and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing the basic disease elements of gout.


Assuntos
Consenso , Artropatias por Cristais/diagnóstico , Técnica Delfos , Gota/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Artropatias por Cristais/classificação , Gota/classificação , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/classificação , Ácido Úrico/análise
20.
RMD Open ; 4(2): e000793, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564454

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the paradigm of systemic autoimmune diseases characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations with an unpredictable relapsing-remitting course. The aim of the present work was to identify current available clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for SLE, to provide their review and to identify physicians' and patients' unmet needs. Twenty-three original guidelines published between 2004 and 2017 were identified. Many aspects of disease management are covered, including global disease management, lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric involvement, management of pregnancies, vaccinations and comorbidities monitoring. Unmet needs relate with disease management of some clinical manifestations and adherence to treatment. Many patient's unmet needs have been identified starting with faster diagnosis, need for more therapeutic options, guidelines on lifestyle issues, attention to quality of life and adequate education.

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