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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations for vaccination against influenza virus and S. pneumoniae in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). METHODS: A Consensus Committee including physicians with expertise in rheumatic and infectious diseases was established by two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana di Reumatologia (SIR) and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (SIMIT). The experts were invited to develop evidence-based recommendations concerning vaccinations in ARDs patients, based on their clinical status before and after undergoing immunosuppressive treatments. Key clinical questions were formulated for the systematic literature reviews, based on the clinical pathway. A search was made in Medline (via PubMed) according to the original MeSH strategy from October 2009 and a keyword strategy from January 2016 up to December 2017, updating existing EULAR recommendations. Specific recommendations were separately voted and scored from 0 (no agreement with) to 100 (maximal agreement) and supporting evidence graded. The mean and standard deviation of the scores were calculated to determine the level of agreement among the experts' panel for each recommendation. Total cumulative agreement ≥70 defined consensus for each statement. RESULTS: Nine recommendations, based on 6 key clinical questions addressed by the expert committee, were proposed. The aim of this work is to integrate the 2011 EULAR recommendations on vaccination against influenza and S. pneumoniae in ARDs patients. An implementation plan was proposed to improve the vaccination status of these patients and their safety during immunosuppressive treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations are effective and safe in patients with ARDs. More efforts should be made to translate the accumulated evidence into practice.

2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 519-534, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140394

RESUMO

The current treatment approach in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) follows a stepwise management, starting from early introduction of conventional synthetic (cs) disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), moving to biological (b) DMARDs and targeted synthetic (ts) DMARDs. In the last few years, new drugs with different mechanisms of action have demonstrated their efficacy in treating such a disabling condition, and their approval, along with other more "experienced" treatments, has established their effectiveness on disease activity, damage accrual prevention, patients' quality of life improvement, confirming their safety profile. Moreover, new molecular pathways are under investigation as potential targets of new advanced therapies. Clinicians' capability of stratifying treatment strategies and decisions has improved, with several new tools for the optimisation of long-term management of RA; however, a high proportion of patients are refractory to the available drugs. Finally, as RA is a systemic disease, the knowledge in multi-systemic complications of the disease has grown, as well as the possibility in improving extra-articular manifestations of the disease, although certain drugs have potentially relevant non-articular effects, which need to be monitored. This narrative review summarises the most relevant studies published over the last year in the field of treatment of RA, with the major aim to let clinicians and researchers reflect on "what is new", "what is effective" and "what is safe".


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
3.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997148

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the level of agreement on ultrasonographic (US) lesions among highly experienced sonographers as well as the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of inflammatory and structural US lesions in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the foot. Methods: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was performed to test definitions of US lesions in OA of the foot, including inflammatory lesions (ie, synovial hypertrophy [SH], joint effusion [JE], power Doppler signal [PD]), and structural abnormalities (ie, cartilage damage [CD] and osteophytes). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing the aforementioned lesions was tested on static images as well as during a live exercise. Reliability was assessed by kappa analyses and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) on a dichotomous and an ordinal scale. Results: Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for SH and JE evaluated by binary scoring was good for both components, while the intraobserver reliability for semiquantitative scoring of SH ranged from moderate in the web-based exercise (PABAK 0.49) to good (PABAK 0.8) in the live exercise. Reliability for CD and PD assessments were respectively good and excellent in all exercises (ranged from PABAK 0.61 to 0.79 for CD and 0.88 to 0.95 for PD). The interobserver reliability for the semiquantitative scoring of osteophytes was fair in the live exercise (PABAK 0.36) and moderate in the static exercise (PABAK 0.60). Conclusions: Consensual US definitions were found to be reliable for assessing inflammatory lesions in OA of the foot, while the use of US to assess structural damage requires further studies.

4.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886735

RESUMO

Objectives: This multicentre study aimed to investigate the overall mortality of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to compare CPFE-SSc characteristics with those of other SSc subtypes (with interstitial lung disease-ILD, emphysema or neither). Methods: Chest CTs, anamnestic data, immunological profile and pulmonary function tests of patients with SSc were retrospectively collected. Each chest CT underwent a semiquantitative assessment blindly performed by three radiologists. Patients were clustered in four groups: SSc-CPFE, SSc-ILD, SSc-emphysema and other-SSc (without ILD nor emphysema). The overall mortality of these groups was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the stratified log-rank test; Kruskal-Wallis test, t-Student test and χ² test assessed the differences between groups. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We enrolled 470 patients (1959 patient-year); 15.5 % (73/470) died during the follow-up. Compared with the SSc-ILD and other-SSc, in SSc-CPFE there was a higher prevalence of males, lower anticentromere antibodies prevalence and a more reduced pulmonary function (p<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrates a significantly worse survival in patients with SSc-CPFE (HR vs SSc-ILD, vs SSc-emphysema and vs other-SSc, respectively 1.6 (CI 0.5 to 5.2), 1.6 (CI 0.7 to 3.8) and 2.8 (CI 1.2 to 6.6). Conclusions: CPFE increases the mortality risk in SSc along with a highly impaired lung function. These findings strengthen the importance to take into account emphysema in patients with SSc with ILD.

5.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(2): 164-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572134

RESUMO

Pregnancy requires a special management in women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs), with the aim of controlling maternal disease activity and avoiding fetal complications. Despite the heterogeneous course of RDs during pregnancy, their impact on pregnancy largely relates to the extent of active inflammation at the time of conception. Therefore, accurate evaluation of disease activity is crucial for the best management of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, there are limitations in using conventional measures of disease activity in pregnancy, as some items included in these instruments can be biased by symptoms or by physiological changes related to pregnancy and the pregnancy itself may influence laboratory parameters used to assess disease activity. This article aims to summarize the current literature about the available instruments to measure disease activity during pregnancy in RDs. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the only disease with instruments that have been modified to account for several adaptations which might interfere with the attribution of signs or symptoms to disease activity during pregnancy. No modified-pregnancy indices exist for women affected by other RDs, but standard indices have been applied to pregnant patients. The current body of knowledge shows that the physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy need to be either adapted from existing instruments or developed to improve the management of pregnant women with RDs. Standardized instruments to assess disease activity during pregnancy would be helpful not only for clinical practice but also for research purposes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia
6.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000782, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402270

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan disease characterised by autoimmunity, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, and vasculopathy. SSc may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review we summarise the results of a systematic literature research, which was performed as part of the European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases project, aimed at evaluating existing clinical practice guidelines or recommendations. Only in the domains 'Vascular & Ulcers' (ie, non-pharmacological approach to digital ulcer), 'PAH' (ie, screening and treatment), 'Treatment' and 'Juveniles' (ie, evaluation of juveniles with Raynaud's phenomenon) evidence-based and consensus-based guidelines could be included. Hence there is a preponderance of unmet needs in SSc referring to the diagnosis and (non-)pharmacological treatment of several SSc-specific complications. Patients with SSc experience significant uncertainty concerning SSc-related taxonomy, management (both pharmacological and non-pharmacological) and education. Day-to-day impact of the disease (loss of self-esteem, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, and occupational, nutritional and relational problems) is underestimated and needs evaluation.

7.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000785, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402272

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare disease characterised by venous and/or arterial thrombosis, pregnancy complications and the presence of specific autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies. This review aims to identify existing clinical practice guidelines (CPG) as part of the ERN ReCONNET project, aimed at evaluating existing CPGs or recommendations in rare and complex diseases. Seventeen papers providing important data were identified; however, the literature search highlighted the scarceness of reliable clinical data to develop CPGs. With no formal clinical guidelines in place, diagnosis and treatment of APS is largely based on consensus and expert opinion. Patients' unmet need refers to the understanding of the disease and its clinical picture and implications, the need of education for patients, family members and healthcare providers, as well as to the development of monitoring pathways involving multiple healthcare providers.

8.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000788, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402273

RESUMO

Due to the rarity of relapsing polychondritis (RP), many unmet needs remain in the management of RP. Here, we present a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) published for RP, as well as a list of the most striking unmet needs for this rare disease. We carried out a systematic search in PubMed and Embase based on controlled terms (medical subject headings and Emtree) and keywords of the disease and publication type (CPGs). The systematic literature review identified 20 citations, among which no CPGs could be identified. We identified 11 main areas with unmet needs in the field of RP: the diagnosis strategy for RP; the therapeutic management of RP; the management of pregnancy in RP; the management of the disease in specific age groups (for instance in paediatric-onset RP); the evaluation of adherence to treatment; the follow-up of patients with RP, including the frequency of screening for the potential complications and the optimal imaging tools for each involved region; perioperative and anaesthetic management (due to tracheal involvement); risk of neoplasms in RP, including haematological malignancies; the prevention and management of infections; tools for assessment of disease activity and damage; and patient-reported outcomes and quality of life indicators. Patients and physicians should work together within the frame of the ReCONNET network to derive valuable evidence for obtaining literature-informed CPGs.

9.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000789, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402274

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a complex autoimmune rheumatic disease that specifically targets salivary and lachrymal glands. As such, patients typically had ocular and oral dryness and salivary gland swelling. Moreover, skin, nasal and vaginal dryness are frequently present. In addition to dryness, musculoskeletal pain and fatigue are the hallmarks of this disease and constitute the classic symptom triad presented by the vast majority of patients. Up to 30% to 50 % of patients with SS may present systemic disease; moreover, there is an increased risk for the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that occurs in a minority of patients. The present work was developed in the framework of the European Reference Network (ERN) dedicated to Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ReCONNET). In line with its goals of aiming to improve early diagnosis, treatment and care of rare connective and musculoskeletal diseases, ERN-ReCONNET set to review the current state of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the rare and complex connective tissue diseases of interest of the network. Therefore, the present work was aimed at providing a state of the art of CPGs for SS.

10.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000790, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402275

RESUMO

Objective: To report the effort of the European Reference Network for Rare and Complex CONnective tissue and musculoskeletal diseases NETwork working group on Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) and related disorders to assess current available clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) specifically addressed to EDS, in order to identify potential clinician and patient unmet needs. Methods: Systematic literature search in PUBMED and EMBASE based on controlled terms (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords of the disease and publication type (CPGs). All the published articles were revised in order to identify existing CPGs on diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of EDS. Results: Literature revision detected the absence of papers reporting good quality CPGs to optimise EDS patient care. The current evidence-based literature regarding clinical guidelines for the EDS was limited in size and quality, and there is insufficient research exploring the clinical features and interventions, and clinical decision-making are currently based on theoretical and limited research evidences. Conclusions: Many clinician and patient unmet needs have been identified.

11.
J Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) features of patients with antisynthetase syndrome (AS) and to investigate possible correlations with clinical and serological features of the disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed NVC images of 190 patients with AS [females/males 3.63, mean age 49.7 ± 12.8 yrs, median disease duration 53.7 mos (interquartile range 82), 133 anti-Jo1 and 57 non-anti-Jo1-positive patients]. For each patient, we examined number of capillaries, giant capillaries, microhemorrhages, avascular areas, ramified capillaries, and the presence of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-like pattern. Finally, we correlated NVC features with clinical and serological findings of patients with AS. Concomitantly, a historical cohort of 75 patients with antinuclear antibody-negative primary Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and longterm followup was used as a control group (female/male ratio 4.13/1, mean age 53.9 ± 17.6 yrs) for NVC measures. RESULTS: NVC abnormalities were observed in 62.1% of AS patients compared with 29.3% of primary RP group (p < 0.001). An SSc-like pattern was detected in 67 patients (35.3%) and it was associated with anti-Jo1 antibodies (p = 0.002) and also with a longer disease duration (p = 0.004). Interestingly, there was no significant correlation between the presence of SSc-like pattern and RP, and only 47% of patients with SSc-like pattern had RP. CONCLUSION: NVC abnormalities are commonly observed in AS, independently from the occurrence of RP. The presence of an SSc-like pattern could allow identification of a more defined AS subtype, and prospective studies could confirm the association with clinical and serological features of AS.

12.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021447, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: These analyses aim to comparatively evaluate the persistence on treatment of different biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) when administered in monotherapy compared with combination with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving first-line biologics. DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study on Administrative Healthcare Databases. METHODS: Data were extracted from healthcare databases of the Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases study, on behalf of the Italian Society for Rheumatology. Analyses included patients with RA starting first-line approved course of bDMARDs and evaluated drug survival by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results are presented as HRs and 95% CI, crude and adjusted for prespecified confounders (age, sex, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), previous infections, use of concomitant glucocorticoids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)). RESULTS: 4478 patients with RA were included (17.84% monotherapy). Etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab were the most prescribed first-line biologics. bDMARD monotherapy was associated with longer disease duration, higher CCI, lower glucocorticoids and NSAIDs use. Compared with monotherapy, combination associated with a lower risk of failure (adjusted HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88). Among monotherapies, considering etanercept as reference, adalimumab (1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.59) and infliximab (2.41, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.15) had higher risk of failure. Concomitant methotrexate (0.78, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), leflunomide (0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.98) or csDMARD combinations (0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) reduced the risk of bDMARD withdrawal. CONCLUSION: Adalimumab and infliximab monotherapies show lower retention rate compared with etanercept. The relatively small number of therapeutic courses different from tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors makes more difficult to achieve conclusive results with other biologics. Concomitant methotrexate, leflunomide and csDMARDs combination associate with longer survival on bDMARD. Our data confirm the effectiveness of the current practices in the choice of etanercept as first-line anti-TNF monotherapy and strengthen the currently recommended use of bDMARDs in combination with csDMARDs.

13.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to define the risk of serious bacterial infections in patients receiving specific biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and evaluating the effect of concomitant synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) in a large population-based sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) deriving from an administrative health database. METHODS: Data were extracted from health databases of Lombardy Region, Italy (2004-2013), as a part of the RECord-linkage On Rheumatic Diseases (RECORD) study. Patients with RA treated with approved bDMARDs were included. Hospitalisations for bacterial infections were evaluated by hospital discharge forms. The association between drug exposure and infections was assessed by survival models, with time-dependent covariates. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) and 95%CI, crude and adjusted for pre-specified confounders (sex, age, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index, previous biologics, previous infections, use of methotrexate, leflunomide, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). RESULTS: 4,656 RA patients with at least one bDMARD prescription were included, for a total of 7,601 biological courses; 3,603 (77.4%) women with a mean (SD) age of 55.8 (12.7) years. Crude incidence rate of hospitalised infection ranged from 0.14 to 2.95 per 1000 person-years. After multivariable adjustment, abatacept users (HR 0.29, 95%CI 0.10-0.82) had significantly lower risk of infections compared to etanercept. Concurrent treatment with methotrexate (0.72, 0.52-0.99) reduced the overall risk of infection while glucocorticoids increased it (1.09 per mg/day, 1.06-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In RA patients treated with bDMARDs, abatacept was associated with the lowest risk of infections; overall risk was mitigated by concomitant methotrexate and increased by glucocorticoids in a dose-dependent manner.

14.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021942, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) occurs in 10%-15% of people with psoriasis and accounts for 10%-20% of early arthritis clinics referral. Only a few prognostic factors of therapeutic response in patients with PsA have been identified. In the last years, the role of imaging has grown up and the European League Against Rheumatism recognised that ultrasound (US) has higher sensitivity than clinical examination to detect inflammatory disease activity. The aims of the Ultrasound in PSoriatic arthritis TREAtMent (UPSTREAM) study are to integrate clinic and US in order to inform whether US has provide an added prognostic value in PsA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: UPSTREAM is an observational prospective cohort study enrolling patients with PsA having clinically active joint disease and starting a new course of therapy. The primary objective is to evaluate the additional value of US over clinical examination in detecting patients achieving minimal disease activity after 6 months. Data will be obtained at baseline and at standard clinical follow-up visits. Patient's clinical assessment will be performed according to the core set proposed by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis-Outcome Measures in Rheumatology. Sonographic evaluations will be performed by expert sonographers in 42 joints, 36 tendons, 12 entheses and 2 bursae, according to a score that will be purposely developed for PsA by the US Study Group of the Italian Society for Rheumatology. The UPSTREAM study will identify clinical and US predictors of response to treatment in patients with PsA and active peripheral arthritis starting a new course of therapy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethic approval for this study has been obtained from the institutional review board (IRB)/independent ethics committee (IEC) Comitato Etico Lazio 1 (Prot. N 198 02-02-2017) and then locally from the IRB/IEC of each participating centre. Results will be published in relevant scientific journals and be disseminated in international conferences. Fully anonymised data will be accessible from authors upon request. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03330769; Pre-results.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(9): 1283-1289, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the role of ultrasound (US) for the assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission, including joint and tendon evaluation. METHODS: A multicentre longitudinal study has been promoted by the US Study Group of the Italian Society for Rheumatology. 25 Italian centres participated, enrolling consecutive patients with RA in clinical remission. All patients underwent complete clinical assessment (demographic data, disease characteristics, laboratory exams, clinical assessment of 28 joints and patient/physician-reported outcomes) and Power Doppler (PD) US evaluation of wrist, metacarpalphalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joints and synovial tendons of the hands and wrists at enrolment, 6 and 12 months. The association between clinical and US variables with flare, disability and radiographic progression was evaluated by univariable and adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: 361 patients were enrolled, the mean age was 56.20 (±13.31) years and 261 were women, with a mean disease duration of 9.75 (±8.07) years. In the 12 months follow-up, 98/326 (30.1%) patients presented a disease flare. The concurrent presence of PD positive tenosynovitis and joint synovitis predicted disease flare, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.75 (1.45 to 5.20) in crude analyses and 2.09 (1.06 to 4.13) in adjusted analyses. US variables did not predict the worsening of function or radiographic progression. US was able to predict flare at 12 months but not at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: PD positivity in tendons and joints is an independent risk factor of flare in patients with RA in clinical remission. Musculoskeletal ultrasound evaluation is a valuable tool to monitor and help decision making in patients with RA in clinical remission.

16.
RMD Open ; 4(1): e000598, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862043

RESUMO

Objectives: To define the elementary ultrasound (US) lesions in giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to evaluate the reliability of the assessment of US lesions according to these definitions in a web-based reliability exercise. Methods: Potential definitions of normal and abnormal US findings of temporal and extracranial large arteries were retrieved by a systematic literature review. As a subsequent step, a structured Delphi exercise was conducted involving an expert panel of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) US Large Vessel Vasculitis Group to agree definitions of normal US appearance and key elementary US lesions of vasculitis of temporal and extracranial large arteries. The reliability of these definitions on normal and abnormal blood vessels was tested on 150 still images and videos in a web-based reliability exercise. Results: Twenty-four experts participated in both Delphi rounds. From originally 25 statements, nine definitions were obtained for normal appearance, vasculitis and arteriosclerosis of cranial and extracranial vessels. The 'halo' and 'compression' signs were the key US lesions in GCA. The reliability of the definitions for normal temporal and axillary arteries, the 'halo' sign and the 'compression' sign was excellent with inter-rater agreements of 91-99% and mean kappa values of 0.83-0.98 for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities of all 25 experts. Conclusions: The 'halo' and the 'compression' signs are regarded as the most important US abnormalities for GCA. The inter-rater and intra-rater agreement of the new OMERACT definitions for US lesions in GCA was excellent.

17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(3): 347-361, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29798748

RESUMO

The current approach to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes early and aggressive intervention aiming to reach early and persistent low disease activity and remission. New drugs have improved the therapeutic armamentarium of rheumatologists, providing new options for patients. Beyond these innovations, new evidence has improved the safety of therapies and provided tools for the optimisation of long-term management of RA. This paper reviews the most relevant studies published over the last year in the field of treatment of RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The language currently used to describe gout lacks standardisation. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement on the labels and definitions used to describe the basic disease elements of gout. METHODS: Experts in gout (n=130) were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach consensus on the labelling and definitions for the basic disease elements of gout. Disease elements and labels in current use were derived from a content analysis of the contemporary medical literature, and the results of this analysis were used for item selection in the Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting. RESULTS: There were 51 respondents to the Delphi exercise and 30 attendees at the face-to-face meeting. Consensus agreement (≥80%) was achieved for the labels of eight disease elements through the Delphi exercise; the remaining three labels reached consensus agreement through the face-to-face consensus meeting. The agreed labels were: monosodium urate crystals, urate, hyperuric(a)emia, tophus, subcutaneous tophus, gout flare, intercritical gout, chronic gouty arthritis, imaging evidence of monosodium urate crystal deposition, gouty bone erosion and podagra. The face-to-face meeting achieved consensus agreement for the definitions of all 11 elements and a recommendation that the label 'chronic gout' should not be used. CONCLUSION: Consensus agreement was achieved for the labels and definitions of 11 elements representing the fundamental components of gout aetiology, pathophysiology and clinical presentation. The Gout, Hyperuricemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) recommends the use of these labels when describing the basic disease elements of gout. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 34(8): 1411-1417, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being regarded as an easily-treatable disease, gout diagnosis and management can be challenging. REVIEW: This review discusses current issues in gout management and proposes some potential solutions. Gout diagnosis should be reached as early as possible and often requires specific tests, such as synovial fluid analysis or imaging techniques that are not available in most centers, leaving healthcare professionals to rely only on clinical presentations and their experience. In addition, gout management requires the evaluation of multiple aspects, such as monitoring of serum uric acid (sUA) level (which should be reduced to <6 mg/dL) to ensure adherence and efficacy of treatment, evaluation of patient's risk profile and comorbidities, and continuous assessments to manage clinical manifestations. An important premise in gout management is non-pharmacological intervention; however, pharmacological urate-lowering therapy is crucial for an optimal control of the disease. Available options include xanthine-oxidase inhibitors (XOI), targeting uric acid overproduction, and uricosuric agents which target the predominant cause of hyperuricemia (under-excretion). Among these, lesinurad is the novel uricosuric agent to be used in combination with XOI in patients with gout not adequately controlled with XOI alone, which can further contribute to the control of hyperuricemia in gout. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary management is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of gout, in order to ensure treatment continuity and improve management. This review, therefore, advises that educational activities for General Practitioners and specialists should be implemented to help raise awareness on gout diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(8): 1194-1199, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of the OMERACT ultrasound (US) definitions for the identification of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) at the metacarpal-phalangeal, triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist (TFC), acromioclavicular (AC) and hip joints. METHODS: A web-based exercise and subsequent patient-based exercise were carried out. A panel of 30 OMERACT members, participated at the web-based exercise by evaluating twice a set of US images for the presence/absence of CPPD. Afterwards, 19 members of the panel met in Siena, Italy, for the patient-based exercise. During the exercise, all sonographers examined twice eight patients for the presence/absence of CPPD at the same joints. Intraoberserver and interobserver kappa values were calculated for both exercises. RESULTS: The web-based exercise yielded high kappa values both in intraobserver and interobserver evaluation for all sites, while in the patient-based exercise, inter-reader agreement was acceptable for the TFC and the AC. TFC reached high interobserver and intraobserver k values in both exercises, ranging from 0.75 to 0.87 (good to excellent agreement). AC reached moderate kappa values, from 0.51 to 0.85 (moderate to excellent agreement) and can readily be used for US CPPD identification. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our exercise, the OMERACT US definitions for the identification of CPPD demonstrated to be reliable when applied to the TFC and AC. Other sites reached good kappa values in the web-based exercise but failed to achieve good reproducibility at the patient-based exercise, meaning the scanning method must be further refined.

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