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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 241, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551265

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics, once hailed as a futuristic approach to pharmacotherapy, has transitioned to clinical implementation. Although logistic and economic limitations to clinical pharmacogenomics are being superseded by external measures such as preemptive genotyping, implementation by clinicians has met resistance, partly due to a lack of education. Pharmacists, with extensive training in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy and accessibility to patients, are ideally suited to champion clinical pharmacogenomics. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of an innovative pharmacogenomic teaching approach. Second-year student pharmacists enrolled in a required, 15-week pharmaceutical care lab course in 2015 completed educational activities including lectures and small group work focusing on practical pharmacogenomics. Reflecting the current landscape of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing, students were offered 23andMe genotyping. Students completed surveys regarding their attitudes and confidence on pharmacogenomics prior to and following the educational intervention. Paired pre- and post-intervention responses were analyzed with McNemar's test for binary comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for Likert items. Responses between genotyped and non-genotyped students were analyzed with Fisher's exact test for binary comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U-test for Likert items. Responses were analyzed for all student pharmacists who voluntarily completed the pre-intervention survey (N = 121, 83% response) and for student pharmacists who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys (N = 39, 27% response). Of those who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys, 59% obtained genotyping. Student pharmacists demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of pharmacogenomic resources (17.9 vs. 56.4%, p < 0.0001) and confidence in applying pharmacogenomic information to manage patients' drug therapy (28.2 vs. 48.7%, p = 0.01), particularly if the student had received genotyping. Student pharmacists understanding of the risks and benefits of using personal genome testing services significantly increased (55.3 vs. 86.8%, p = 0.001) along with agreement that personal genomics would likely play an important role in their future career (47.4 vs. 76.3%, p = 0.01), particularly among students who participated in genotyping. The educational intervention, including personal genotyping, was feasible, and positively enhanced students' reflections, and attitudes toward pharmacogenomics in a professional pharmacy program.

2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 80(9): 149, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28090098

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine if a teaching assistant (TA) program for third-year pharmacy students (PY3s) improves confidence in teaching abilities. Additionally, 3 assessment methods (faculty, student, and TA self-evaluations) were compared for similarities and correlations. Methods. An application and interview process was used to select 21 pharmacy students to serve as TAs for the Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course for 2 semesters. Participants' self-perceived confidence in teaching abilities was assessed at the start, midpoint, and conclusion of the program. The relationships between the scores were analyzed using 3 assessment methods. Results. All 21 TAs agreed to participate in the study and completed the 2 teaching semesters. The TAs confidence in overall teaching abilities increased significantly (80.7 vs 91.4, p<0.001). There was a significant difference between the three assessment scores in the fall (p=0.027) and spring (p<0.001) semesters. However, no correlation was found among the assessment scores. Conclusions. The TA program was effective in improving confidence in teaching abilities. The lack of correlation among the assessment methods highlights the importance of various forms of feedback.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia , Ensino , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Docentes de Farmácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Farmacêutica , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 102(1): 47-51, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24415919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated whether pharmacogenomic information contained in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved package inserts of sixty-five drugs was present in five drug information resources. METHODS: The study searched for biomarkers from the FDA package inserts in 5 drug information sources: American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information (AHFS), Facts & Comparisons 4.0 (Facts), ePocrates Online Free (ePocrates Free), Lexicomp Online (Lexicomp), and Micromedex 2.0. Each resource had the opportunity to present biomarker information for 65 drugs, a total of 325 opportunities. A binary system was used to indicate presence or absence of the biomarker information. A sub-analysis was performed on the 13 most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States. RESULTS: Package insert biomarker information was available, on average, for 81.5% of the 65 FDA-listed drugs in 2011. Percent availability for the individual resources was: Lexicomp, 95.3%; Micromedex 2.0, 92.3%; Facts, 76.9%; AHFS, 75.3%; and ePocrates Free, 67.7%. The sub-analysis of the 13 top drugs showed Lexicomp and Micromedex 2.0 had the most mentions, 92.3%; ePocrates Free had the least, 53.8%. CONCLUSION: The strongest resource for pharmacogenomic information was Lexicomp. The gap between Lexicomp and ePocrates Free is concerning. Clinicians would miss pharmacogenomic information 6.6 times more often in ePocrates Free than in Lexicomp. IMPLICATIONS: Health sciences librarians should be aware of the variation in biomarker availability when recommending drug resources for licensing and use. Librarians can also use this study to encourage publishers to include pharmacogenomics information from the package insert as a minimum standard.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmacogenética
4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 77(5): 97, 2013 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23788808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of institutional initiatives to enhance recruitment of minority students as a strategy to increase diversity and inclusion. METHODS: The Office of Recruitment, Development, and Diversity Initiatives (ORDDI) was established and several initiatives were developed within the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy to promote student diversity and engagement. Applicant demographics and admission data were tracked from 2007-2012 to assess program performance and effectiveness. RESULTS: Over the 6-year period, 812 recruitment events were facilitated. Twenty-nine percent of the students admitted from 2007-2012 participated in 1 or more ORDDI recruitment programs prior to admission. Forty-two percent of this cohort were minorities. The overall average minority profile of students increased from 19% to 25% after establishing the ORDDI. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve student diversity and inclusion, a multifaceted effort is required, involving a continuum of institutional strategies, including innovative practice models and high impact programs.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Faculdades de Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Educação em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , North Carolina , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 76(4): 70, 2012 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22611279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of incorporating Spanish language lectures and activities in a required Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course on first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' perceptions of and comfort level with Spanish-speaking patients and basic knowledge of Spanish pharmacy terms. DESIGN: The 6-week module consisted of attendance at a 1-hour lecture on medical Spanish and Hispanic culture, and completion of 4 small-group activities: drug and product information, patient information, counseling and side effects, and a written scenario that involved filling a prescription for and counseling a Spanish-speaking patient. ASSESSMENT: All students enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course in fall 2008 (153) and fall 2009 (152) completed a pre- and post-intervention questionnaire (100% response rate). Less than 4% of students considered themselves fluent in Spanish prior to participating in the Spanish language module. Students agreed or strongly agreed that it was important for pharmacists to be able to translate common pharmacy label instructions from English to Spanish (89.8%) and Spanish to English (73.8%). Student-reported confidence in their ability to pronounce common pharmacy and medical terms in Spanish significantly increased, as did their ability to correctly interpret pharmacy label instructions. CONCLUSIONS: While incorporation of a Spanish language module in a first-year Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course did not result in students achieving fluency in Spanish, it was a beneficial method of exposing students to Spanish language and culture.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Idioma , Assistência Farmacêutica , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente
6.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 50(6): 720-2, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21071316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of pharmacist use in medication management, roles of school nurses, and use of other health care providers at elementary schools in North Carolina. METHODS: Prospective survey of 153 (130 public and 23 private) elementary schools in four counties of North Carolina. A 21-question survey was e-mailed to the head administrator of each school (e.g., principal, headmaster) containing a Qualtrics survey link. Questions were designed to elicit information on school policies and procedures for medication management and use of health care providers, including pharmacists, in the schools. Responses were collected during a 2-month period. RESULTS: Representatives from 29 schools participated in the survey (19% response rate). All 29 schools reported having a school policy regarding medication administration during school hours. Of those, 27 schools reported consulting with nurses on their policies. Only 1 of 27 respondents reported consulting with pharmacists on medication management policies. The majority of the respondents (93.1%) stated that administrative staff was responsible for medication administration at the schools. CONCLUSION: Use of pharmacists in creating and reviewing policies for schools and actual medication management at schools was extremely low. The findings in this study reinforce the findings in previous studies that pharmacists are not being used and are not a major presence in elementary school health.


Assuntos
Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal Administrativo , Coleta de Dados , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Carolina , Políticas , Papel Profissional
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 65(4): 299-314, 2008 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18238767

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Devices used for home evaluation of fertility, pregnancy, menopause, colon cancer, breast cancer, and urinary-tract and vaginal yeast infections are discussed. SUMMARY: Ovulation-prediction devices monitor natural changes in a woman's body during the menstrual cycle, including changes in basal body temperature, urinary luteinizing hormone, and urinary estrone-3-glucuronide concentrations. Also available are devices that identify changes in the content of sodium chloride and other electrolytes in saliva and cervical-vaginal mucus. Home pregnancy tests are designed to detect human chorionic gonadotropin in the urine. Both urine and saliva tests are available for home evaluation of menopause; the most common devices use urine to measure follicle-stimulating hormone. The saliva tests measure estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Devices for home screening for colon cancer use either the guaiac test or the fecal immunochemical test. For aid in breast self-examination, patients may use a simulated-breast product designed to train them to detect lumps or a thin, silicone-containing pad intended to increase the sensitivity of the fingers to abnormalities. Urine-dipstick tests can be used to screen for urinary-tract infection, and a swab or panty liner can be used to detect vaginal pH changes indicative of vaginal yeast infection. Home-based tests may be convenient and economical but also have limitations; pharmacists can help educate patients and clinicians. CONCLUSION: Many devices are available to help evaluate women's health concerns at home.


Assuntos
Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Autocuidado , Saúde da Mulher , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/instrumentação , Autoexame de Mama/métodos , Muco do Colo Uterino/química , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Equipamentos e Provisões , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Detecção da Ovulação/instrumentação , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Saliva/química , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Vaginite/diagnóstico
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 62(18): 1894-903, 2005 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16141109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The equipment and methods used for ambulatory and home monitoring of blood pressure, lipids, coagulation, and weight management are discussed. SUMMARY: Over 100 million people in the United States have one or more chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. With the goal to improve health while reducing costs and the overall health care burden, ambulatory and home monitoring by pharmacists and patients are receiving more attention. Ambulatory and home monitoring of blood pressure, cholesterol, coagulation, and weight management (including devices for assessing overweight and obese patients, heart rate monitors, and pedometers) are convenient for clinicians and patients. Such monitoring provides pharmacists with an opportunity to differentiate their practices. Studies suggest that patients who are involved in ambulatory and home monitoring take a more active role in their health and may have better adherence to a prescribed diet and medication regimens. Studies also show that ambulatory and home monitoring, if done correctly, provide clinicians with a large quantity of reliable readings for future therapeutic decisions. Devices are also a means for pharmacists to increase their provision of pharmacy services. Ambulatory monitoring is billable in many clinic settings, and the devices can be a profitable addition to prescription services. CONCLUSION: Many devices are available to assist patients and clinicians in monitoring blood pressure, lipids, coagulation, and weight management. Familiarity with the devices will help in their proper selection and use.


Assuntos
Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Ergometria/instrumentação , Lipídeos/sangue , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/economia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/economia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/normas , Ergometria/economia , Ergometria/normas , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/economia , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/instrumentação , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/normas , Monitorização Ambulatorial/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Tempo de Protrombina/economia , Tempo de Protrombina/instrumentação , Tempo de Protrombina/normas , Autocuidado/economia , Autocuidado/normas , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 62(17): 1802-12, 2005 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16120741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The equipment and methods used for ambulatory and home monitoring of blood pressure, lipids, coagulation, and weight management are discussed. SUMMARY: Over 100 million people in the United States have one or more chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. With the goal to improve health while reducing costs and the overall health care burden, ambulatory and home monitoring by pharmacists and patients are receiving more attention. Ambulatory and home monitoring of blood pressure, cholesterol, coagulation, and weight management (including devices for assessing overweight and obese patients, heart rate monitors, and pedometers) are convenient for clinicians and patients. Such monitoring provides pharmacists with an opportunity to differentiate their practices. Studies suggest that patients who are involved in ambulatory and home monitoring take a more active role in their health and may have better adherence to prescribed diet and medication regimens. Studies also show that ambulatory and home monitoring, if done correctly, provide clinicians with a large quantity of reliable readings for future therapeutic decisions. Devices are also a means for pharmacists to increase their provision of pharmacy services. Ambulatory monitoring is billable in many clinic settings, and the devices can be a profitable addition to prescription services. CONCLUSION: Many devices are available to assist patients and clinicians in monitoring blood pressure, lipids, coagulation, and weight management. Familiarity with the devices will help in their proper selection and use.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Equipamentos e Provisões/economia , Lipídeos/sangue , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/tendências , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Humanos
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