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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction occurs commonly following immune checkpoint inhibition. The etiology of thyroid immune-related adverse events (irAEs) remains unclear and clinical presentation can be variable. This study sought to define thyroid irAEs following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment and describe their clinical and biochemical associations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of thyroid dysfunction in patients with melanoma undergoing CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 based ICI treatment from Nov 1, 2009 to Dec 31, 2019. Thyroid function was measured at baseline and at regular intervals following the start of ICI-treatment. Clinical and biochemical features were evaluated for associations with ICI-associated thyroid irAEs. The prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and the effect of thyroid irAEs on survival were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 1246 patients were included with a median follow-up of 11.3 months. 518 (42%) patients developed an ICI-associated thyroid irAE. Subclinical thyrotoxicosis (n=234) was the most common thyroid irAE, followed by overt thyrotoxicosis (n=154), subclinical hypothyroidism (n=61), and overt hypothyroidism (n=39). Onset of overt thyrotoxicosis occurred a median of 5 weeks (IQR 2-8) after receipt of first dose of ICI. Combination immunotherapy was strongly associated with development of overt thyrotoxicosis (OR 10.8, 95% CI 4.51-25.6 vs. CTLA-4 monotherapy; p<0.001), as was female sex (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.37-2.95; p<0.001) and younger age (OR 0.83 per 10-years, 95% CI 0.72-0.95; p=0.007). By comparison, median onset of overt hypothyroidism was 14 weeks (IQR 8-25). The frequency of overt hypothyroidism did not differ between different ICI-types. The strongest associations for hypothyroidism were higher baseline TSH (OR 2.33 per mIU/L, 95% CI 1.61-3.33; p<0.001) and female sex (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.67-6.56; p=0.01). Overt thyrotoxicosis was associated with longer progression free survival (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.94; p=0.02) and overall survival (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.84; p=0.005). There was no association between hypothyroidism and cancer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid irAEs are common and there are multiple distinct phenotypes. Different thyroid irAE subtypes have unique clinical and biochemical associations, suggesting potentially distinct etiologies for thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism arising in this context.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802954

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are a key component of an innate immune system. They are important not only in initiating, but also in augmenting adaptive immune responses. NK cell activation is mediated by a carefully orchestrated balance between the signals from inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors. NK cells are potent producers of proinflammatory cytokines and are also able to elicit strong antitumor responses through secretion of perforin and granzyme B. Tumors can develop many mechanisms to evade NK cell antitumor responses, such as upregulating ligands for inhibitory receptors, secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and recruiting immunosuppressive cells. Enhancing NK cell responses will likely augment the effectiveness of immunotherapies, and strategies to accomplish this are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. A comprehensive understanding of NK cell biology will likely provide additional opportunities to further leverage the antitumor effects of NK cells. In this review, we therefore sought to highlight NK cell biology, tumor evasion of NK cells and clinical trials that target NK cells.

4.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674358

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) are immunogenic skin cancers associated with viral infection or UV mutagenesis. To study T-cell infiltrates in MCC, we analyzed 58 MCC lesions from 39 patients using multiplex-IHC/immunofluorescence (m-IHC/IF). CD4+ or CD8+ T cells comprised the majority of infiltrating T lymphocytes in most tumors. However, almost half of the tumors harbored prominent CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) T-cell infiltrates (>20% DN T cells), and in 12% of cases, DN T cells represented the majority of T cells. Flow cytometric analysis of single-cell suspensions from fresh tumors identified DN T cells as predominantly Vδ2- γδ T cells. In the context of γδ T-cell inflammation, these cells expressed PD-1 and LAG3, which is consistent with a suppressed or exhausted phenotype, and CD103, which indicates tissue residency. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) identified a transcriptional profile of γδ T cells suggestive of proinflammatory potential. T-cell receptor (TCR) analysis confirmed clonal expansion of Vδ1 and Vδ3 clonotypes, and functional studies using cloned γδ TCRs demonstrated restriction of these for CD1c and MR1 antigen-presenting molecules. On the basis of a 13-gene γδ T-cell signature derived from scRNA-seq analysis, gene-set enrichment on bulk RNA-seq data showed a positive correlation between enrichment scores and DN T-cell infiltrates. An improved disease-specific survival was evident for patients with high enrichment scores, and complete responses to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment were observed in three of four cases with high enrichment scores. Thus, γδ T-cell infiltration may serve as a prognostic biomarker and should be explored for therapeutic interventions.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1434, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664264

RESUMO

Although melanoma is initiated by acquisition of point mutations and limited focal copy number alterations in melanocytes-of-origin, the nature of genetic changes that characterise lethal metastatic disease is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolution of human melanoma progressing from early to late disease in 13 patients by sampling their tumours at multiple sites and times. Whole exome and genome sequencing data from 88 tumour samples reveals only limited gain of point mutations generally, with net mutational loss in some metastases. In contrast, melanoma evolution is dominated by whole genome doubling and large-scale aneuploidy, in which widespread loss of heterozygosity sculpts the burden of point mutations, neoantigens and structural variants even in treatment-naïve and primary cutaneous melanomas in some patients. These results imply that dysregulation of genomic integrity is a key driver of selective clonal advantage during melanoma progression.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Melanócitos/patologia , Mutação Puntual/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 51-57, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with synchronous clinical stage III melanoma can present with primary melanoma lesions, locally recurrent melanoma or in-transit metastases. Neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab induces high pathologic response rates and an impressive relapse-free survival in patients with nodal macroscopic stage III melanoma. Whether primary site melanoma and in-transit metastases respond similarly to lymph node metastases with neoadjuvant immunotherapy is largely unknown. Such data would clarify whether surgical excision of these melanoma lesions should be performed before neoadjuvant therapy or whether it could be deferred and performed in conjunction with lymphadenectomy following neoadjuvant immunotherapy. PATIENTS: Patients with synchronous clinical stage III melanoma were identified from the OpACIN, OpACIN-neo and PRADO neoadjuvant trials, where all patients were treated with ipilimumab plus nivolumab. An additional case treated outside those clinical trials was included. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified; six patients had a concordant response in primary site melanoma lesions or in-transit metastasis and the lymph node metastases. One patient had concordant progression in both the primary and nodal tumour lesions and developed stage IV disease during neoadjuvant treatment, and thus, no resection was performed. CONCLUSION: Pathologic response following neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in primary site melanoma lesions or in-transit metastasis is concordant with a response in the lymph node metastases, indicating that there may be no need to perform upfront surgery to these melanoma lesions prior to neoadjuvant treatment.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(11): 1243-1252, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the prognosis of patients with thin primary cutaneous melanomas (T1, ≤ 1.0 mm) is generally excellent, some develop recurrence. We sought to develop and validate a model predicting recurrences in patients with thin melanomas. METHODS: A Dutch population-based cohort (n = 25,930, development set) and a cohort from an Australian melanoma treatment center (n = 2,968, validation set) were analyzed (median follow-up 6.7 and 12.0 years, respectively). Multivariable Cox models were generated for local, regional, and distant recurrence-free survival (RFS). Discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-statistic for each outcome. Each nomogram performance was evaluated using calibration plots defining low-risk and high-risk groups as the lowest and top 5% of the nomogram risk score, respectively. The nomograms' C-statistics were compared with those of a model including the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging parameters (T-stage and sentinel node status). RESULTS: Local, regional, and distant recurrences were found in 209 (0.8%), 503 (1.9%), and 203 (0.8%) Dutch patients, respectively, and 23 (0.8%), 61 (2.1%), and 75 (2.5%) Australian patients, respectively. C-statistics of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.82) for local RFS, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78) for regional RFS, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.83) for distant RFS were obtained for the development model. External validation showed C-statistics of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.82), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.80), respectively. Calibration plots showed a good match between predicted and observed rates. Using the nomogram, the C-statistic was increased by 9%-12% for the development cohort and by 11%-15% for the validation cohort, compared with a model including only T-stage and sentinel node status. CONCLUSION: Most patients with thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis, but some develop recurrence. The presented nomograms can accurately identify a subgroup at high risk. An online calculator is available at www.melanomarisk.org.au.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1137, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602918

RESUMO

Adjuvant systemic therapies are now routinely used following resection of stage III melanoma, however accurate prognostic information is needed to better stratify patients. We use differential expression analyses of primary tumours from 204 RNA-sequenced melanomas within a large adjuvant trial, identifying a 121 metastasis-associated gene signature. This signature strongly associated with progression-free (HR = 1.63, p = 5.24 × 10-5) and overall survival (HR = 1.61, p = 1.67 × 10-4), was validated in 175 regional lymph nodes metastasis as well as two externally ascertained datasets. The machine learning classification models trained using the signature genes performed significantly better in predicting metastases than models trained with clinical covariates (pAUROC = 7.03 × 10-4), or published prognostic signatures (pAUROC < 0.05). The signature score negatively correlated with measures of immune cell infiltration (ρ = -0.75, p < 2.2 × 10-16), with a higher score representing reduced lymphocyte infiltration and a higher 5-year risk of death in stage II melanoma. Our expression signature identifies melanoma patients at higher risk of metastases and warrants further evaluation in adjuvant clinical trials.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: G9a histone methyltransferase exerts oncogenic effects in several tumor types and its inhibition promotes anticancer effects. However, the impact on checkpoint inhibitor blockade response and the utility of G9a or its target genes as a biomarker is poorly studied. We aimed to examine whether G9a inhibition can augment the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor blockade and whether LC3B, a G9a target gene, can predict treatment response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Clinical potential of LC3B as a biomarker of checkpoint inhibitor blockade was assessed using patient samples including tumor biopsies and circulating tumor cells from liquid biopsies. Efficacy of G9a inhibition to enhance checkpoint inhibitor blockade was examined using a mouse model. RESULTS: Patients with melanoma who responded to checkpoint inhibitor blockade were associated with not only a higher level of tumor LC3B but also a higher proportion of cells expressing LC3B. A higher expression of MAP1LC3B or LC3B protein was associated with longer survival and lower incidence of acquired resistance to checkpoint inhibitor blockade, suggesting LC3B as a potential predictive biomarker. We demonstrate that G9a histone methyltransferase inhibition is able to not only robustly induce LC3B level to augment the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor blockade, but also induces melanoma cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Checkpoint inhibitor blockade response is limited to a subset of the patient population. These results have implications for the development of LC3B as a predictive biomarker of checkpoint inhibitor blockade to guide patient selection, as well as G9a inhibition as a strategy to extend the proportion of patients responding to immunotherapy.

10.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 151-153, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561397

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers, including melanoma. However, primary and acquired resistance remain key challenges for the field. Promising results from a phase I clinical trial recently published in Science highlight the potential of modulating the microbiome via fecal transplant to overcome resistance to immunotherapy.

11.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 301-309, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558722

RESUMO

The association among pathological response, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) with neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we pooled data from six clinical trials of anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. In total, 192 patients were included; 141 received immunotherapy (104, combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab; 37, anti-PD-1 monotherapy), and 51 received targeted therapy. A pathological complete response (pCR) occurred in 40% of patients: 47% with targeted therapy and 33% with immunotherapy (43% combination and 20% monotherapy). pCR correlated with improved RFS (pCR 2-year 89% versus no pCR 50%, P < 0.001) and OS (pCR 2-year OS 95% versus no pCR 83%, P = 0.027). In patients with pCR, near pCR or partial pathological response with immunotherapy, very few relapses were seen (2-year RFS 96%), and, at this writing, no patient has died from melanoma, whereas, even with pCR from targeted therapy, the 2-year RFS was only 79%, and OS was only 91%. Pathological response should be an early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and a new benchmark for development and approval in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(21): 3578-3587, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410475

RESUMO

Germline genetic variants have been identified, which predispose individuals and families to develop melanoma. Tumor thickness is the strongest predictor of outcome for clinically localized primary melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether there is a heritable genetic contribution to variation in tumor thickness. If confirmed, this will justify the search for specific genetic variants influencing tumor thickness. To address this, we estimated the proportion of variation in tumor thickness attributable to genome-wide genetic variation (variant-based heritability) using unrelated patients with measured primary cutaneous melanoma thickness. As a secondary analysis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tumor thickness. The analyses utilized 10 604 individuals with primary cutaneous melanoma drawn from nine GWAS datasets from eight cohorts recruited from the general population, primary care and melanoma treatment centers. Following quality control and filtering to unrelated individuals with study phenotypes, 8125 patients were used in the primary analysis to test whether tumor thickness is heritable. An expanded set of 8505 individuals (47.6% female) were analyzed for the secondary GWAS meta-analysis. Analyses were adjusted for participant age, sex, cohort and ancestry. We found that 26.6% (SE 11.9%, P = 0.0128) of variation in tumor thickness is attributable to genome-wide genetic variation. While requiring replication, a chromosome 11 locus was associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with tumor thickness. Our work indicates that sufficiently large datasets will enable the discovery of genetic variants associated with greater tumor thickness, and this will lead to the identification of host biological processes influencing melanoma growth and invasion.

13.
Exp Dermatol ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455025

RESUMO

Non-cutaneous melanomas most frequently involve the uveal tract and mucosal membranes, including the conjunctiva. In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, they often present at an advanced clinical stage, are associated with worse clinical outcomes and show poorer responses to immunotherapy. The mutational load within most non-cutaneous melanomas reflects their lower ultraviolet light (UV) exposure. The genetic drivers within non-cutaneous melanomas are heterogeneous. Within ocular melanomas, posterior uveal tract melanomas typically harbour one of two distinct, sets of driver mutations and alterations of clinical and biological significance. In contrast to posterior uveal tract melanomas, anterior uveal tract melanomas of the iris and conjunctival melanomas frequently carry both a higher mutational burden and specific mutations linked with UV exposure. The genetic drivers in iris melanomas more closely resemble those of the posterior uveal tract, whereas conjunctival melanomas harbour similar genetic driver mutations to cutaneous melanomas. Mucosal melanomas occur in sun-shielded sites including sinonasal and oral cavities, nasopharynx, oesophagus, genitalia, anus and rectum, and their mutational landscape is frequently associated with a dominant process of spontaneous deamination and infrequent presence of UV mutation signatures. Genetic drivers of mucosal melanomas are diverse and vary with anatomic location. Further understanding of the causes of already identified recurrent molecular events in non-cutaneous melanomas, identification of additional drivers in specific subtypes, integrative multi-omics analyses and analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment will expand knowledge in this field. Furthermore, such data will likely uncover new therapeutic strategies which will lead to improved clinical outcomes in non-cutaneous melanoma patients.

14.
Pathology ; 53(2): 141-156, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388161

RESUMO

Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is well established as an effective treatment for non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma. The list of approved indications for treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors is growing rapidly as clinical trials continue to show their efficacy in patients with a wide range of solid tumours. Clinical trials have used a variety of PD-L1 immunohistochemical assays to evaluate PD-L1 expression on tumour cells, immune cells or both as a potential biomarker to predict response to immunotherapy. Requests to pathologists for PD-L1 testing to guide choice of therapy are rapidly becoming commonplace. Thus, pathologists need to be aware of the different PD-L1 assays, methods of evaluation in different tumour types and the impact of the results on therapeutic decisions. This review discusses the key practical issues relating to the implementation of PD-L1 testing for solid tumours in a pathology laboratory, including evidence for PD-L1 testing, different assay types, the potential interchangeability of PD-L1 antibody clones and staining platforms, scoring criteria for PD-L1, validation, quality assurance, and pitfalls in PD-L1 assessment. This review also explores PD-L1 IHC in solid tumours including non-small cell lung carcinoma, head and neck carcinoma, triple negative breast carcinoma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, gastric and gastroesophageal carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and endometrial carcinoma. The review aims to provide pathologists with a practical guide to the implementation and interpretation of PD-L1 testing by immunohistochemistry.

15.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(2): 166-173, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355600

RESUMO

Importance: Although regression is commonly observed in cutaneous melanoma, it is uncertain whether it is associated with patient prognosis. Objective: To determine whether histologically confirmed regression was associated with better or worse survival in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from 2 large cohorts of adults (one in the Netherlands and the other in Australia) with histologically proven, stage 1 and 2 primary, invasive cutaneous melanoma with known regression status treated between 2000 and 2014, with median follow-up times of 4.5 and 11.1 years for the Dutch and Australian cohorts, respectively. For the Dutch patients, population-based data from PALGA, the Dutch Pathology Registry, were used, and follow-up data were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. For the Australian patients, data from the database of a large, specialized melanoma treatment center were used. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed per cohort to assess recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), and subgroup analyses according to Breslow thickness category and melanoma subtype were performed. Results: A total of 17 271 Dutch patients and 4980 Australian patients were included. In both cohorts, survival outcomes were better for patients with disease regression. For Dutch patients, the hazard ratio (HR) for those with disease regression was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.48-0.63; P < .001) for RFS and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96; P = .004) for OS; for the Australian patients, the HR was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72; P < .001) for RFS and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.64-0.84; P < .001) for OS. Subgroup analyses showed that the presence of regression improved RFS within thin and intermediate Breslow thickness melanomas in both cohorts. For patients with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) subtype, regression improved RFS and OS in both cohorts. For Dutch patients with SSM, the HR for those with disease regression was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.46-0.63; P < .001) for RFS and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P = .009) for OS; for the Australian patients with SSM, the HR was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.52-0.85; P = .001) for RFS and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88; P = .001) for OS. Conclusions and Relevance: In 2 large patient cohorts from 2 different continents, regression was a favorable prognostic factor for patients with stage 1 and 2 melanomas, especially in those with thin and intermediate thickness tumors and those with SSM subtype.

16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The profound disparity in response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) by cutaneous melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM) patients is not well understood. Therefore, we characterized metastases of CM and UM from the same metastatic site (liver), in order to dissect the potential underlying mechanism in differential response on ICB. METHODS: Tumor liver samples from CM (n=38) and UM (n=28) patients were analyzed at the genomic (whole exome sequencing), transcriptional (RNA sequencing) and protein (immunohistochemistry and GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling) level. RESULTS: Comparison of CM and UM metastases from the same metastatic site revealed that, although originating from the same melanocyte lineage, CM and UM differed in somatic mutation profile, copy number profile, tumor mutational burden (TMB) and consequently predicted neoantigens. A higher melanin content and higher expression of the melanoma differentiation antigen MelanA was observed in liver metastases of UM patients. No difference in B2M and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression was observed. A higher expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) was found in CM compared with UM liver metastases, although the majority of CM and UM liver metastases lacked PD-L1 expression. There was no difference in the extent of immune infiltration observed between CM and UM metastases, with the exception of a higher expression of CD163 (p<0.0001) in CM liver samples. While the extent of immune infiltration was similar for CM and UM metastases, the ratio of exhausted CD8 T cells to cytotoxic T cells, to total CD8 T cells and to Th1 cells, was significantly higher in UM metastases. CONCLUSIONS: While TMB was different between CM and UM metastases, tumor immune infiltration was similar. The greater dependency on PD-L1 as an immune checkpoint in CM and the identification of higher exhaustion ratios in UM may both serve as explanations for the difference in response to ICB. Consequently, in order to improve current treatment for metastatic UM, reversal of T cell exhaustion beyond programmed cell death 1 blockade should be considered.

17.
Nat Cancer ; 1(2): 197-209, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305293

RESUMO

Primary melanomas >1 mm thickness are potentially curable by resection, but can recur metastatically. We assessed the prognostic value of T cell fraction (TCFr) and repertoire T cell clonality, measured by high-throughput-sequencing of the T cell receptor beta chain (TRB) in T2-T4 primary melanomas (n=199). TCFr accurately predicted progression-free survival (PFS) and was independent of thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, or age. TCFr was second only to tumor thickness in its predictive value, using a gradient boosted model. For accurate PFS prediction, adding TCFr to tumor thickness was superior to adding any other histopathological variable. Furthermore, a TCFr >20% was protective regardless of tumor ulceration status, mitotic rate or presence of nodal disease. TCFr is a quantitative molecular assessment that predicts metastatic recurrence in primary melanoma patients whose disease has been resected surgically. This study suggests that a successful T cell-mediated antitumor response can be present in primary melanomas.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colitis is one of the common immune-related adverse events that leads to morbidity and treatment discontinuation of immunotherapy. The clinical presentation, endoscopic and histopathological features and best management of this toxicity are not well defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic melanoma who received immunotherapy (programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) antibodies, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibody (PD1 +CTLA-4)) and who developed clinically significant colitis (requiring systemic corticosteroids) were identified retrospectively from two academic centers. Clinical data were collected for all patients; endoscopic and histopathological data were examined in a subset. RESULTS: From May 2013 to May 2019, 118/1507 (7.8%) patients developed significant colitis; 80/553 (14.5%) after PD1+CTLA-4, 35/1000 (3.5%) PD1 alone, and three patients after Ipilimumab (IPI) alone. Combination therapy-induced colitis was more frequent (14.5% vs 3.5% in PD1 alone, p=<0.0001), had an earlier onset (6.3 weeks vs 25.7 weeks, p=<0.001), was more severe (grade 3/4 69% vs 31%, p=<0.001), and are more likely to require higher doses of steroids (91% vs 74%, p=0.01) than PD1 colitis. Among all patients treated with steroids (N=114), 54 (47%) responded and required no further therapy (steroid sensitive), 47 patients (41%) responded to infliximab (infliximab sensitive), and 13 (11%) were infliximab refractory and needed further immunosuppressive drugs. Infliximab-refractory patients all had onset within 4 weeks of immunotherapy commencement and were more likely to have an underlying autoimmune disease, have higher grade colitis, and require longer immunosuppression, yet had similar response and survival than other patients with colitis. Of 43 (37%) patients re-resumed treatment with PD1 monotherapy after colitis resolution, 16 (37%) of whom developed recurrent colitis. Endoscopic and histopathologic data were available for 64 patients. Most had left-sided colitis, with an increase in chronic inflammatory cells and neutrophils within the lamina propria, an increase in neutrophils in the surface epithelium, without increased lymphocytes or increased eosinophils. Infliximab-refractory colitis had a trend towards more confluent pancolitis with edema, erythema, ulceration, and absent vascularity with neutrophilic infiltration and erosion. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant colitis varies in presentation, response to immunosuppression, and endoscopic/histologic features depending on the immunotherapy type. Infliximab-refractory colitis occurs early, is often high grade, and has adverse endoscopic and histopathologic features.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202676

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, namely programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and/or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), leads to durable responses in a proportion of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Combination immunotherapy results in higher rates of response compared to anti-PD-1 monotherapy, at the expense of higher toxicity. Currently, there are no robust molecular biomarkers for the selection of first-line immunotherapy. We used flow cytometry to profile pretreatment tumor biopsies from 36 melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 or combination (anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4) immunotherapy. A novel quantitative score was developed to determine the tumor cell expression of antigen-presenting MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules, and to correlate expression data with treatment response. Melanoma MHC-I expression was intact in all tumors derived from patients who demonstrated durable response to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. In contrast, melanoma MHC-I expression was low in 67% of tumors derived from patients with durable response to combination immunotherapy. Compared to MHC-I high tumors, MHC-I low tumors displayed reduced T-cell infiltration and a myeloid cell-enriched microenvironment. Our data emphasize the importance of robust MHC-I expression for anti-PD-1 monotherapy response and provide a rationale for the selection of combination immunotherapy as the first-line treatment in MHC-I low melanoma.

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