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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2408, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415113

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumour in adults and despite surgical or radiation treatment of primary tumours, ~50% of patients progress to metastatic disease. Therapeutic options for metastatic UM are limited, with clinical trials having little impact. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 103 UM from all sites of the uveal tract (choroid, ciliary body, iris). While most UM have low tumour mutation burden (TMB), two subsets with high TMB are seen; one driven by germline MBD4 mutation, and another by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, which is restricted to iris UM. All but one tumour have a known UM driver gene mutation (GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, PLCB4, CYSLTR2, SF3B1, EIF1AX). We identify three other significantly mutated genes (TP53, RPL5 and CENPE).

2.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary dermal melanoma (PDM) is a subtype of cutaneous melanoma, confined to the dermis, which poses a challenging clinical dilemma. It may represent a true primary melanoma or a dermal cutaneous metastasis. This study aimed to delineate the histopathological characteristics and prognosis of PDM in a large patient cohort to guide appropriate treatment strategies. METHODS: A search of the Melanoma Research Database at Melanoma Institute Australia was conducted to identify all possible PDM patients at our institution diagnosed from 1978 to 2013. Overall, melanoma-specific and disease-free survival outcomes of the PDM group were compared to those of similar cohorts of Stage I-II and Stage IV M1a melanoma patients based on propensity score matching. RESULTS: Sixty-two PDM patients were identified from the MRD with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Five-year survival was 87.1% and overall survival was 74.2%. PDMs had a significantly improved overall survival (p = 0.0002) and melanoma-specific survival (p = 0.001) compared to Stage I-II controls, however there was no difference in disease-free survival (p = 0.08). PDMs also demonstrated improved overall survival (p < 0.0001), melanoma-specific survival (p < 0.0001) and disease-free survival (p < 0.0001) compared to Stage IV M1a controls. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that PDMs have a more favorable prognosis compared to stage I-II cutaneous melanomas and suggest that these are in fact true primary lesions. This study thus provides evidence to justify a treatment approach, by way of a wide local excision and possibly sentinel lymph node biopsy, as for early stage primary cutaneous melanomas.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resistance to anti-PD1 based immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) remains a problem for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Tumor cells as well as host myeloid cells can express the immune checkpoint ligand CD155 to regulate immune cell function. However, the effect of tumor CD155 on the immune context of human melanoma has not been well described. This observational study characterizes tumor CD155 ligand expression by metastatic melanoma tumors and correlates results with differences in immune cell features and response to ICB. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pre-treatment tumor specimens, from 155 metastatic melanoma patients treated with ICB and from 50 patients treated with BRAF/MEK-directed-targeted therapy, were assessed for CD155 expression by immunohistochemistry. Intratumor T cell features were analysed using multiplex-immunohistofluorescence for CD8, PD1 and SOX10. Correlations were made between CD155 tumor level and bulk tumor RNA-seq results, as well as clinical RECIST response and progression-free survival. RESULTS: High pretreatment CD155 tumor levels correlated with high parenchymal PD1+CD8+/CD8+ T cell ratios (PD1tR) and poor response to anti-PD1 therapy. In PD-L1 negative tumors, high CD155 tumor expression was associated with patients who had poor response to combination anti-PD1/CTLA4 therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are the first to suggest that tumor CD155 supports an increase in the fraction of PD1+CD8+ T cells in anti-PD1 refractory melanoma tumors and, further, that targeting the CD155 pathway might improve response to anti-PD1 therapy for metastatic melanoma patients.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1897, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312968

RESUMO

Transcriptomic signatures designed to predict melanoma patient responses to PD-1 blockade have been reported but rarely validated. We now show that intra-patient heterogeneity of tumor responses to PD-1 inhibition limit the predictive performance of these signatures. We reasoned that resistance mechanisms will reflect the tumor microenvironment, and thus we examined PD-1 inhibitor resistance relative to T-cell activity in 94 melanoma tumors collected at baseline and at time of PD-1 inhibitor progression. Tumors were analyzed using RNA sequencing and flow cytometry, and validated functionally. These analyses confirm that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I downregulation is a hallmark of resistance to PD-1 inhibitors and is associated with the MITFlow/AXLhigh de-differentiated phenotype and cancer-associated fibroblast signatures. We demonstrate that TGFß drives the treatment resistant phenotype (MITFlow/AXLhigh) and contributes to MHC class I downregulation in melanoma. Combinations of anti-PD-1 with drugs that target the TGFß signaling pathway and/or which reverse melanoma de-differentiation may be effective future therapeutic strategies.

5.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304183

RESUMO

Among visceral metastatic sites, cutaneous melanoma (CM) metastasises initially to the liver in ~14-20% of cases. Liver metastases in CM patients are associated with both poor prognosis and poor response to immunotherapy. Histopathological growth patterns (HGPs) of liver metastases of the replacement and desmoplastic type, particularly from colorectal cancer and uveal melanoma (UM), may impart valuable biological and prognostic information. Here, we have studied HGP in 43 CM liver metastases resected from 42 CM patients along with other prognostic factors from three institutions. The HGPs (replacement, desmoplastic, pushing) were scored at the metastasis-liver interface with two algorithms: (1) 100% desmoplastic growth pattern (dHGP) and any (≥1%) replacement pattern (any-rHGP) and (2) >50% dHGP, >50% rHGP or mixed (<50% dHGP and/or rHGP, pushing HGP). For 1 patient with 2 metastases, an average was taken to obtain 1 final HGP yielding 42 observations from 42 patients. 22 cases (52%) had 100% dHGP whereas 20 (48%) had any replacement. Cases with rHGP demonstrated vascular co-option/angiotropism. With the development of liver metastasis, only rHGP (both algorithms), male gender and positive resection margins predicted diminished overall survival (p = 0.00099 and p = 0.0015; p = 0.034 and p = 0.024 respectively). On multivariate analysis, only HGP remained significant. 7 of 42 (17%) patients were alive with disease and 21 (50%) died with follow-up after liver metastases ranging from 1.8 to 42.2 months (mean: 20.4 months, median: 19.0 months). 14 (33%) patients with previously-treated metastatic disease had no evidence of disease at last follow up. In conclusion, we report for the first time replacement and desmoplastic HGPs in CM liver metastases and their prognostic value, as in UM and other solid cancers. Of particular importance, any rHGP significantly predicted diminished overall survival while 100% dHGP correlated with increased survival. These results contribute to a better understanding of the biology of CM liver metastases and potentially may be utilised in managing patients with these metastases.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240177

RESUMO

Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of glioma, has a 5-year survival rate of <5%. While radiation and immunotherapies are routinely studied in the murine Gl261 glioma model, little is known about its inherent immune response. This study quantifies the temporal and spatial localization of immune cell populations and mediators during glioma development. Eight-week old male C57Bl/6 mice were orthotopically inoculated with 1x106 Gl261 cells and tumor morphology, local and systemic immune cell populations, and plasma cytokines/chemokines assessed at day 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-inoculation by magnetic resonance imaging, chromogenic immunohistochemistry, multiplex immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassay respectively. From day 3 tumors were distinguishable with >30% Ki67 and increased tissue vascularization (p<0.05). Increasing tumor proliferation/malignancy and vascularization were associated with significant temporal changes in immune cell populations within the tumor (p<0.05) and systemic compartments (p = 0.02 to p<0.0001). Of note, at day 14 16/24 plasma cytokine/chemokines levels decreased coinciding with an increase in tumor cytotoxic T cells, natural killer and natural killer/T cells. Data derived provide baseline characterization of the local and systemic immune response during glioma development. They reveal that type II macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are more prevalent in tumors than regulatory T cells, highlighting these cell types for further therapeutic exploration.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain involvement occurs in majority of patients with metastatic melanoma. The potential of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for surveillance and monitoring systemic therapy response in patients with melanoma brain metastases merits investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This study examined circulating BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT mutations in melanoma patients with active brain metastases receiving PD-1 inhibitor-based therapy. Intracranial and extracranial disease volumes were measured using the sum of product of diameters, and response assessment performed using RECIST. Longitudinal plasma samples were analysed for ctDNA over the first 12 weeks of treatment (threshold 2.5 copies/ml plasma). RESULTS: Of a total of 72 patients; 13 patients had intracranial metastases only and 59 patients had concurrent intracranial and extracranial metastases. ctDNA detectability was 0% and 64%, respectively, and detectability was associated with extracranial disease volume (p < 0.01). Undetectable ctDNA on-therapy was associated with extracranial response (p < 0.01) but not intracranial response. The median overall survival in patients with undetectable (n = 34) versus detectable (n = 38) ctDNA at baseline was 39.2 versus 10.6 months (HR 0.51 [95% CI 0.28 - 0.94], p = 0.03) and on-therapy was 39.2 versus 9.2 months (HR 0.32 [95% CI 0.16 - 0.63], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ctDNA remains a strong prognostic biomarker in melanoma patients with brain metastases, especially in patients with concurrent extracranial disease. However, ctDNA was not able to detect or monitor intracranial disease activity, and we recommend against using ctDNA as a sole test during surveillance and therapeutic monitoring in patients with melanoma.

9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210968

RESUMO

The development of changes in T cells, referred to as T cell exhaustion, has been suggested as a cause of primary or acquired resistance to immunotherapy by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). A limited number of studies, largely performed on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), has provided evidence in support of this hypothesis, but whether similar changes occur in circulating blood lymphocytes has received little attention. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes from 42 patients taken over the course of treatment with anti-PD-1 was undertaken. The patients included those grouped as responders (who did not progress), primary non-responders (primary resistance) and those with acquired resistance (who initially responded then subsequently progressed). Analysis included surface markers of exhaustion, production of cytokines following in vitro stimulation, and assessment of transcription factor levels associated with T cell exhaustion. There were differences in innate cell populations between responders and non-responders at baseline and maintained throughout therapy. Frequencies of total and classical CD14+CD16- monocytes were higher and the major subset of NK cells (CD16hiCD56+) was significantly smaller in the primary resistance group compared with responders. However, differences in peripheral blood expression of exhaustion markers were not evident between the treatment groups. T cell exhaustion markers were expressed in practically all patients and the major observation was an increase in CD39 on CD4 T cells during treatment. The results confirm the association of Eomes transcription factor with T cell exhaustion but levels of expression and the ratio with T-bet over Eomes did not differ between the patient groups. Thus, peripheral blood expression of T cell exhaustion markers does not distinguish between responders and non-responders to anti-PD-1 therapy. CD4 T cell expression of IFNγ also differed in pre-treatment samples, indicating that predictors of response unrelated to exhaustion may be present in peripheral blood. The association of response with innate cell populations and CD4 T cell responses requires further study.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e032636, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111612

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a diagnostic procedure developed in the 1990s. It is currently used to stage patients with primary cutaneous melanoma, provide prognostic information and guide management. The Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines state that SLNB should be considered for patients with cutaneous melanoma >1 mm in thickness (or >0.8 mm with high-risk pathology features). Until recently, sentinel lymph node (SLN) status was used to identify patients who might benefit from a completion lymph node dissection, a procedure that is no longer routinely recommended. SLN status is now also being used to identify patients who might benefit from systemic adjuvant therapies such as anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy or BRAF-directed molecular targeted therapy, treatments that have significantly improved relapse-free survival for patients with resected stage III melanoma and improved overall survival of patients with unresectable stage III and stage IV melanoma. Australian and international data indicate that approximately half of eligible patients receive an SLNB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed-methods study seeks to understand the structural, contextual and cultural factors affecting implementation of the SLNB guidelines. Data collection will include: (1) cross-sectional questionnaires and semistructured interviews with general practitioners and dermatologists; (2) semistructured interviews with other healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and early definitive care of melanoma patients and key stakeholders including researchers, representatives of professional colleges, training organisations and consumer melanoma groups; and (3) documentary analysis of documents from government, health services and non-government organisations. Descriptive analyses and multivariable regression models will be used to examine factors related to SLNB practices and attitudes. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations to clinicians, patients, policymakers and researchers and will inform the development of strategies for implementing SLNB guidelines in Australia.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055007

RESUMO

Microscopic satellite metastases are an adverse prognostic feature in primary cutaneous melanoma patients. The prognostic significance of microsatellites, including their number, size and distance from the primary melanoma, using the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer definition, has not previously been evaluated. This study sought to determine the prognostic significance of microsatellites in histopathologically reviewed cases. Eighty-seven cases of primary cutaneous melanoma with the presence of microsatellites documented in the original pathology report and all histopathology slides available were reviewed and the findings were correlated with clinical outcome. Matched control cases were selected for all confirmed microsatellites cases. The presence of microsatellites was confirmed in 69 cases. The microsatellite group had significantly worse prognosis, with 21% 5-year disease-free survival compared with 56% in the control group (p < 0.001). The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was 53% in the microsatellites group and 73% in the control group (p = 0.004). Increasing distance (mm) of the microsatellite from the primary melanoma was found to adversely influence disease-free survival (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.36, p < 0.001), overall survival (HR = 1.26 95%CI: 1.13-1.40, p < 0.001), and melanoma-specific survival (HR = 1.27 95% CI: 1.11-1.45, p < 0.001). Number and size of microsatellites were not significant prognostic factors. The presence of microsatellites was the only factor that proved to be an independent predictor of sentinel node positivity in multivariate analysis (OR 4.64; 95% CI 1.66-12.95; p = 0.003). Microsatellites were significantly associated with more loco-regional recurrences (p < 0.001) but not distant metastases (p = 0.821). Melanomas with microsatellites as defined by the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system are thus aggressive tumors, associated with significantly worse disease-free survival, overall survival and melanoma-specific survival. The presence of microsatellites is also associated with sentinel node-positivity and local and in-transit recurrence. Increasing distance of the microsatellite from the primary tumor is an independent adverse prognostic factor that warrants further evaluation.

12.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(4): 500-522, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057276

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: There have been major advances in the understanding of melanoma since the last revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2006. OBJECTIVE.­: To discuss development of the 9 distinct types of melanoma and distinguishing them by their epidemiology, clinical and histologic morphology, and genomic characteristics. Each melanoma subtype is placed at the end of an evolutionary pathway that is rooted in its respective precursor, wherever appropriate and feasible, based on currently known data. Each precursor has a variable risk of progression culminating in its fully evolved, invasive melanoma. DATA SOURCES.­: This review is based on the "Melanocytic Tumours" section of the 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Skin Tumours, published in 2018. CONCLUSIONS.­: Melanomas were divided into those etiologically related to sun exposure and those that are not, as determined by their mutational signatures, anatomic site, and epidemiology. Melanomas on the sun-exposed skin were further divided by the histopathologic degree of cumulative solar damage (CSD) of the surrounding skin, into low and high CSD, on the basis of degree of associated solar elastosis. Low-CSD melanomas include superficial spreading melanomas and high-CSD melanomas incorporate lentigo maligna and desmoplastic melanomas. The "nonsolar" category includes acral melanomas, some melanomas in congenital nevi, melanomas in blue nevi, Spitz melanomas, mucosal melanomas, and uveal melanomas. The general term melanocytoma is proposed to encompass "intermediate" tumors that have an increased (though still low) probability of disease progression to melanoma.

13.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 19(2): 171-179, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942903

RESUMO

Nicotinamide (NAM), an amide form of vitamin B3, replenishes cellular energy after ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, thereby enhancing DNA repair and reducing UVR's immunosuppressive effects. NAM reduces actinic keratoses and new keratinocyte cancers in high risk individuals, but its effects on melanoma are unknown. Melanomas arising on NAM or placebo within the ONTRAC skin cancer chemoprevention trial (Oral Nicotinamide To Reduce Actinic Cancer) were examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NAM (50 µM, 5 mM and 20 mM) on the viability, proliferation and invasiveness of four human melanoma cell lines and on the viability and proliferation of two human melanocyte lines, with and without UV irradiation were also investigated. 50 µM NAM did not affect viability, proliferation or invasion of melanoma or melanocyte cell lines, whereas concentrations too high to be achievable in vivo reduced viability and proliferation. Nicotinamide did not enhance melanoma viability, proliferation or invasiveness in vitro, providing additional confidence in its safety for use in clinical trials in high risk patients. Peritumoral and tumour infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in melanomas arising on NAM compared to those arising on placebo. Given the chemopreventive activity of nicotinamide against keratinocyte cancers, its DNA repair enhancing effects in melanocytes and now its potential enhancement of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and lack of adverse effects on melanoma cell growth and proliferation, clinical trials of nicotinamide for melanoma chemoprevention are now indicated.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Niacinamida/química , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1429-1441, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improved understanding of the incidence, risk factors, and timing of CNS metastasis is needed to inform surveillance strategies for patients with melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data were extracted from the databases of 2 major melanoma centers in the United States and Australia for 1,918 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition stage III melanoma, diagnosed from 1998-2014, who had (negative) baseline CNS imaging within 4 months of diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of CNS metastasis was calculated in the presence of the competing risk of death, from stage III presentation and at benchmark time points 1, 2, and 5 years postdiagnosis. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 70.2 months, distant recurrence occurred in 711 patients (37.1%). The first site of distant metastasis was CNS only for 3.9% of patients, CNS and extracranial (EC) for 1.8%, and EC only for 31.4%. Overall, 16.7% of patients were diagnosed with CNS metastasis during follow-up. The cumulative incidence of CNS metastasis was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.9% to 4.6%) at 1 year, 9.6% (95% CI, 8.3% to 11.0%) at 2 years, and 15.8% (95% CI, 14.1% to 17.6%) at 5 years. The risk of CNS metastasis was significantly influenced by patient sex, age, AJCC stage, primary tumor site, and primary tumor mitotic rate in multivariable and conditional analyses. High primary tumor mitotic rate was significantly associated with increased risk of CNS metastasis at diagnosis and all subsequent time points examined. CONCLUSION: Similar rates of CNS metastasis were observed in 2 large, geographically distinct cohorts of patients with stage III melanoma. The results highlight the importance of primary tumor mitotic rate. Furthermore, they provide a framework for developing evidence-based surveillance strategies and evaluating the impact of contemporary adjuvant therapies on the risk of CNS metastasis development.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 33(Suppl 1): 15-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758078

RESUMO

The pathological diagnosis of melanoma can be challenging. The provision of an appropriate biopsy and pertinent history can assist in establishing an accurate diagnosis and reliable estimate of prognosis. In their reports, pathologists should document both the criteria on which the diagnosis was based as well as important prognostic parameters. For melanoma, such prognostic parameters include tumor thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion, neurotropism, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Disease staging is important for risk stratifying melanoma patients into prognostic groups and patient management recommendations are often stage based. The 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging System was implemented in 2018 and several important changes were made. Tumor thickness and ulceration remain the key T category criteria. T1b melanomas were redefined as either ulcerated melanomas <1.0 mm thick or nonulcerated melanomas 0.8-1.0 mm thick. Although mitotic rate was removed as a T category criterion in the 8th edition, it remains a very important prognostic factor and should continue to be documented in primary melanoma pathology reports. It was also recommended in the 8th edition that tumor thickness be recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm (rather than the nearest 0.01 mm). In the future, incorporation of additional prognostic parameters beyond those utilized in the current version of the staging system into (web based) prognostic models/clinical tools will likely facilitate more personalized prognostic estimates. Evaluation of molecular markers of prognosis is an active area of current research; however, additional data are needed before it would be appropriate to recommend use of such tests in routine clinical practice.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 487-504, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Response rates to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB; anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4) correlate with the extent of tumor immune infiltrate, but the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of T cells following therapy are poorly characterized. A greater understanding of these processes may see the development of therapeutic interventions that enhance T-cell recruitment and, consequently, improved patient outcomes. We therefore investigated the chemokines essential for immune cell recruitment and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of these immunotherapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The chemokines upregulated by dual PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade were assessed using NanoString-based analysis with results confirmed at the protein level by flow cytometry and cytometric bead array. Blocking/neutralizing antibodies confirmed the requirement for key chemokines/cytokines and immune effector cells. Results were confirmed in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors using single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and paired survival analyses. RESULTS: The CXCR3 ligands, CXCL9 and CXCL10, were significantly upregulated following dual PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade and both CD8+ T-cell infiltration and therapeutic efficacy were CXCR3 dependent. In both murine models and patients undergoing immunotherapy, macrophages were the predominant source of CXCL9 and their depletion abrogated CD8+ T-cell infiltration and the therapeutic efficacy of dual ICB. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of patient tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) revealed that CXCL9/10/11 was predominantly expressed by macrophages following ICB and we identified a distinct macrophage signature that was associated with positive responses to ICB. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the fundamental importance of macrophage-derived CXCR3 ligands for the therapeutic efficacy of ICB and highlight the potential of manipulating this axis to enhance patient responses.

18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(3): 357-367, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743128

RESUMO

The accurate recognition of subtle melanomas and their distinction from benign mimics is an oft-recurring diagnostic problem, critical for patient management. Melanomas that bear resemblance to benign nevi (so-called nevoid melanomas, NMs) and benign mitotically active nevi in pregnancy (MANP) are 2 lesions particularly prone to error. Molecular data, including analysis of noncoding regions, in MANP and NM are very limited. This study sought to identify differences in clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics between MANP and NMs to facilitate correct diagnosis and reduce the risk of overtreatment or undertreatment. Clinicopathologic characteristics of NM (n=18) and MANP (n=30) were evaluated, and mutation data were analyzed using next-generation sequencing for available cases in each group (NM, n=8; MANP, n=12). All MANP showed innocent histopathologic characteristics apart from increased mitotic activity, frequently in both superficial and deep parts of the lesion (median dermal mitotic rate: 2/mm, range: 1 to 7/mm). All cases of NM demonstrated a characteristic nevoid silhouette, subtle atypical architectural and cytologic features, and variable mitoses (median mitotic rate: 3/mm, range: 1 to 5/mm). Median NM tumor thickness was 1.4 mm. Four of 10 NM patients with follow-up had metastatic disease, including 3 patients who developed widespread metastases, with 1 disease-related death. No other recurrences have been identified (follow-up period: 24 to 60 mo). None of the 15 MANP patients with available follow-up had a recurrence. Most NMs harbored hotspot mutations in NRAS (6/8, 75%). Noncoding mutations were significantly more common in NMs than in MANP (median: 4 vs. 0, P=0.0014). Copy number alterations were infrequent but, when present, were seen in NMs (3/8 NMs vs. 0/12 MANP). All NMs but only 1 of 12 MANP had >1 abnormality in the noncoding regions. Similar to conventional common acquired nevi, MANP mostly harbored driver BRAF mutations, while activating NRAS mutations, noncoding mutations, and copy number alterations were rare. NM and MANP have subtle but recognizable distinguishing histopathologic characteristics that are underpinned by molecular differences. Mutation analysis of targeted noncoding mutations may assist in the diagnosis of difficult lesions.

19.
Hum Pathol ; 95: 149-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704364

RESUMO

Since it was first recognized as a disease entity more than two centuries ago, advanced melanoma has, until recently, followed a very aggressive and almost universally fatal clinical course. However, over the past 50 years crucial ground breaking research has greatly enhanced our understanding of the etiology, risk factors, genomic pathogenesis, immunological interactions, prognostic features and management of melanoma. It is this combined body of work which has culminated in the exciting improvements in patient outcomes for those with advanced melanoma over the last ten years. In this the 50th anniversary of Human Pathology, we highlight the key developments in melanoma over this period.

20.
Future Oncol ; 16(3): 4429-4438, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870188

RESUMO

Patients with high-risk stage II melanoma are at significant risk for recurrence after surgical resection. Adjuvant treatment options to lower the risk for distant metastases are limited. Although adjuvant IFN-α2b is associated with improved relapse-free survival in patients with high-risk melanoma, toxicity and limited overall survival benefits limit its use. Adjuvant treatment with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab significantly improved recurrence-free survival, compared with placebo, in patients with resected stage III melanoma in the Phase III KEYNOTE-054 trial; efficacy in patients with stage II disease has not been established. This article describes the design and rationale of KEYNOTE-716 (NCT03553836), a two-part, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III study of adjuvant pembrolizumab in patients with surgically resected high-risk stage II melanoma. Clinical trial registry & ID: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03553836.

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