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1.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605751

RESUMO

Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a cause of drug resistance in a plethora of tumors. More recent evidence indicates additional contribution of these transporters to other processes, such as tumor cell dissemination and metastasis, thereby extending their possible roles in tumor progression. While the role of some ABC transporters, such as ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2, in multidrug resistance is well documented, the mechanisms by which ABC transporters affect the proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion of cancer cells are still poorly defined and are frequently controversial. This review, summarizes recent advances that highlight the role of subfamily A members in cancer. Emerging evidence highlights the potential value of ABCA members as biomarkers of risk and response in different tumors, but information is disperse and very little is known about their possible mechanisms of action. The only clear evidence is that ABCA members are involved in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In particular, the relationship between ABCA1 and cholesterol is becoming evident in different fields of biology, including cancer. In parallel, emerging findings indicate that cholesterol, the main component of cell membranes, can influence many physiological and pathological processes, including cell migration, cancer progression and metastasis. This review aims to link the dispersed knowledge regarding the relationship of ABCA members with lipid metabolism and cancer in an effort to stimulate and guide readers to areas that the writers consider to have significant impact and relevant potentialities.

2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 425, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651343

RESUMO

In the original publication of this article, [1] the affiliation for Katia Scotlandi needs to be revised, because the author prefers using its Italian name: Experimental Oncology Lab, Experimental Oncology Lab, CRS Development of Biomolecular Therapies, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli. We apologize for any confusion this may have caused.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12174, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434953

RESUMO

Standard therapy of osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing sarcoma (EW) rests on cytotoxic regimes, which are largely unsuccessful in advanced patients. Preclinical models are needed to break this impasse. A panel of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) was established by implantation of fresh, surgically resected osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing sarcoma (EW) in NSG mice. Engraftment was obtained in 22 of 61 OS (36%) and 7 of 29 EW (24%). The success rate in establishing primary cell cultures from OS was lower than the percentage of PDX engraftment in mice, whereas the reverse was observed for EW; the implementation of both in vivo and in vitro seeding increased the proportion of patients yielding at least one workable model. The establishment of in vitro cultures from PDX was highly efficient in both tumor types, reaching 100% for EW. Morphological and immunohistochemical (SATB2, P-glycoprotein 1, CD99, caveolin 1) studies and gene expression profiling showed a remarkable similarity between patient's tumor and PDX, which was maintained over several passages in mice, whereas cell cultures displayed a lower correlation with human samples. Genes differentially expressed between OS original tumor and PDX mostly belonged to leuykocyte-specific pathways, as human infiltrate is gradually replaced by murine leukocytes during growth in mice. In EW, which contained scant infiltrates, no gene was differentially expressed between the original tumor and the PDX. A novel therapeutic combination of anti-CD99 diabody C7 and irinotecan was tested against two EW PDX; both drugs inhibited PDX growth, the addition of anti-CD99 was beneficial when chemotherapy alone was less effective. The panel of OS and EW PDX faithfully mirrored morphologic and genetic features of bone sarcomas, representing reliable models to test therapeutic approaches.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(7): 471, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209202

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor with unmet clinical need and significant social impacts on children, adolescents, and young adults. CD99, a hallmark surface molecule of EWS, participates in crucial biological processes including cell migration, differentiation, and death. EWS cells can release CD99 through exosomes (EXOs), specialized extracellular vesicles with major cell communication roles. Here we show that, as a consequence of CD99 silencing, EWS cells deliver exosomes with oncosuppressive functions that significantly reduce tumor aggressiveness. These CD99-lacking microvesicles modulate gene expression of the EWS-recipient cells, reduce proliferation and migration, in turn inducing a more-differentiated less-malignant phenotype. The most relevant effects were detected on the activator protein-1 signaling pathway whose regulation was found to be dependent on the specific cargo loaded in vesicles after CD99 shutdown. Investigation of the miRNA content of CD99-deprived EXOs identified miR-199a-3p as a key driver able to reverse EWS malignancy in experimental models as well as in clinical specimens. All together, our data provide evidence that the abrogation of CD99 in EWS tumor cells leads to produce and release EXOs capable to transfer their antineoplastic effects into the nearby tumor cells, suggesting a novel atypical role for these microvesicles in reversion of malignancy rather than in priming the soil for progression and metastatic seeding. This conceptually innovative approach might offer a new therapeutic opportunity to treat a tumor still refractory to most treatments.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7623023, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049138

RESUMO

Iron homeostasis in the cardiac tissue as well as the involvement of the hepcidin-ferroportin (HAMP-FPN) axis in this process and in cardiac functionality are not fully understood. Imbalance of iron homeostasis occurs in several cardiac diseases, including iron-overload cardiomyopathies such as Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, OMIM no. 229300), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Exploiting the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology and the iPSC capacity to differentiate into specific cell types, we derived cardiomyocytes of a FRDA patient and of a healthy control subject in order to study the cardiac iron homeostasis and the HAMP-FPN axis. Both CTR and FRDA iPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes express cardiac differentiation markers; in addition, FRDA cardiomyocytes maintain the FRDA-like phenotype. We found that FRDA cardiomyocytes show an increase in the protein expression of HAMP and FPN. Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis revealed for the first time an unexpected nuclear localization of FPN in both CTR and FRDA cardiomyocytes. However, the amount of the nuclear FPN was less in FRDA cardiomyocytes than in controls. These and other data suggest that iron handling and the HAMP-FPN axis regulation in FRDA cardiac cells are hampered and that FPN may have new, still not fully understood, functions. These findings underline the complexity of the cardiac iron homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Ataxia de Friedreich/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Ataxia de Friedreich/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 68, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are epigenetic enzymes involved in embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and control of gene expression, whose overexpression or enhanced catalytic activity has been widely reported in cancer initiation and progression. To date, two DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi), 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. Nevertheless, they are chemically instable and quite toxic for healthy cells; thus, the discovery of novel DNMTi is urgent. RESULTS: Here, we report the identification of a new quinoline-based molecule, MC3353, as a non-nucleoside inhibitor and downregulator of DNMT. This compound was able, in promoter demethylating assays, to induce enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene expression in HCT116 cells and transcription in a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-driven luciferase reporter system in KG-1 cells. Moreover, MC3353 displayed a strong antiproliferative activity when tested on HCT116 colon cancer cells after 48 h of treatment at 0.5 µM. At higher doses, this compound provided a cytotoxic effect in double DNMT knockout HCT116 cells. MC3353 was also screened on a different panel of cancer cells (KG-1 and U-937 acute myeloid leukemia, RAJI Burkitt's lymphoma, PC-3 prostate cancer, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer), where it arrested cell proliferation and reduced viability after 48 h of treatment with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 µM. Compared to healthy cell models, MC3353 induced apoptosis (e.g., U-937 and KG-1 cells) or necrosis (e.g., RAJI cells) at lower concentrations. Importantly, together with the main DNMT3A enzyme inhibition, MC3353 was also able to downregulate the DNMT3A protein level in selected HCT116 and PC-3 cell lines. Additionally, this compound provided impairment of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing E-cadherin while reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) mRNA and protein levels in PC-3 and HCT116 cells. Last, tested on a panel of primary osteosarcoma cell lines, MC3353 markedly inhibited cell growth with low single-digit micromolar IC50 ranging from 1.1 to 2.4 µM. Interestingly, in Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells, MC3353 induced both expression of genes and mineralized the matrix as evidence of osteosarcoma to osteoblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: The present work describes MC3353 as a novel DNMTi displaying a stronger in cell demethylating ability than both 5-AZA and DAC, providing re-activation of the silenced ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene. MC3353 displayed dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell types, inducing cell death and affecting EMT through E-cadherin and MMP2 modulation. In addition, this compound proved efficacy even in primary osteosarcoma cell models, through the modulation of genes involved in osteoblast differentiation.

7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 128, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867009

RESUMO

Cell-to-cell communication has a critical role during tumor development and progression, allowing cancer cell to re-program not only the surrounding tumor microenvironment, but also cells located at distant sites. The crosstalk between neoplastic cells and accessory elements, such as immune and stromal cells, fosters several processes that are necessary for tumor progression and dissemination, such as angiogenesis, immune-escape, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion and multi-drug resistance. There are several means by which cells communicate to each other, either by direct cell interactions through membrane receptors and ligands, or by releasing soluble molecules, such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. More recently, additional means of cell communication have been identified, such as microRNAs and extracellular vesicles. These two peculiar ways of cell-to-cell interaction were the focus of the 31st Annual Conference of the Italian Association of Cell Cultures (AICC).


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1827: 73-91, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196492

RESUMO

Size and variability often represent an obstacle in generating an effective antibody gene library for the detection of an abundant repertoire of antigens. Therefore, optimizing the construction of a large library is essential for the selection of high-affinity reactive fragments. Here, we report a highly efficient method for the construction of a human naïve antibody gene library for the selection of antibodies as single-chain variable fragments. This protocol is based on many different sets of oligonucleotide primers and multistep electroporation and ligation reactions.This advanced method can be adopted by any molecular biology laboratory to generate a naïve library for use in isolating single-chain fragment variables against specific targets.

9.
Aging Cell ; 17(5): e12824, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109767

RESUMO

Defects in stress response are main determinants of cellular senescence and organism aging. In fibroblasts from patients affected by Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, a severe LMNA-linked syndrome associated with bone resorption, cardiovascular disorders, and premature aging, we found altered modulation of CDKN1A, encoding p21, upon oxidative stress induction, and accumulation of senescence markers during stress recovery. In this context, we unraveled a dynamic interaction of lamin A/C with HDAC2, an histone deacetylase that regulates CDKN1A expression. In control skin fibroblasts, lamin A/C is part of a protein complex including HDAC2 and its histone substrates; protein interaction is reduced at the onset of DNA damage response and recovered after completion of DNA repair. This interplay parallels modulation of p21 expression and global histone acetylation, and it is disrupted by LMNAmutations leading to progeroid phenotypes. In fact, HGPS cells show impaired lamin A/C-HDAC2 interplay and accumulation of p21 upon stress recovery. Collectively, these results link altered physical interaction between lamin A/C and HDAC2 to cellular and organism aging. The lamin A/C-HDAC2 complex may be a novel therapeutic target to slow down progression of progeria symptoms.

10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 17(9): 1881-1892, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959201

RESUMO

The identification of new therapeutic strategies against osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone tumor, continues to be a primary goal to improve the outcomes of patients refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Osteosarcoma originates from the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and/or osteoblast progenitors, and the loss of differentiation is a common biological osteosarcoma feature, which has strong significance in predicting tumor aggressiveness. Thus, restoring differentiation through epigenetic reprogramming is potentially exploitable for therapeutic benefits. Here, we demonstrated that the novel nonnucleoside DNMT inhibitor (DNMTi) MC3343 affected tumor proliferation by blocking osteosarcoma cells in G1 or G2-M phases and induced osteoblastic differentiation through the specific reexpression of genes regulating this physiologic process. Although MC3343 has a similar antiproliferative effect as 5azadC, the conventional FDA-approved nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation, its effects on cell differentiation are distinct. Induction of the mature osteoblast phenotype coupled with a sustained cytostatic response was also confirmed in vivo when MC3343 was used against a patient-derived xenograft (PDX). In addition, MC3343 displayed synergistic effects with doxorubicin and cisplatin (CDDP), two major chemotherapeutic agents used to treat osteosarcoma. Specifically, MC3343 increased stable doxorubicin bonds to DNA, and combined treatment resulted in sustained DNA damage and increased cell death. Overall, this nonnucleoside DNMTi is an effective novel agent and is thus a potential therapeutic option for patients with osteosarcoma who respond poorly to preadjuvant chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(9); 1881-92. ©2018 AACR.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731738

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is an oncofetal protein that binds RNA, thereby influencing the fate of target transcripts. IGF2BP3 is synthesized de novo in cancer, where it promotes proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis via both IGF2-dependent and IGF2-independent mechanisms. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a rare bone and soft tissue tumor in which the IGF system plays a pivotal role. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IGF2BP3 on the regulation of the IGF system in ES. Among the components of the IGF axis, a direct significant correlation was identified between IGF2BP3 and IGF1R at mRNA and protein levels in two independent series of clinical specimens from patients with localized ES. After the formal demonstration of a direct association between IGF2BP3 and IGF1R mRNA using ribo-immunoprecipitation assay, we performed in vitro studies using A673 and TC-71 ES cell lines to demonstrate that IGF2BP3 loss promotes the downregulation of IGF1R and a decreased biological response to IGF1, represented by reduced migration and cell growth. Additionally, the compensatory activation of insulin receptor (IR) and its mitogenic ligand IGF2 is triggered in some but not all cell lines in response to IGF2BP3-mediated IGF1R loss. These findings have therapeutic implications because cells with a decreased expression of IGF2BP3/IGF1R axis but an increased expression of the IR/IGF2 loop display higher sensitivity to the dual inhibitor OSI-906 than do control cells. Therefore, studies on IGF2BP3, which was confirmed as a post-transcriptional regulator of IGF1R, provide a step forward in the identification of new mechanisms regulating the IGF system. In addition, our results demonstrate that the detection of IGF2BP3 expression should be combined with the assessment of the IGF1R/IR ratio to predict cell responses to anti-IGF1R/IR agents.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(15): 3704-3716, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703820

RESUMO

Purpose: Large-scale sequencing studies have indicated that besides genomic alterations, the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression or epigenetic mechanisms largely influences the clinical behavior of Ewing sarcoma. We investigated the significance of the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 in the regulation of Ewing sarcoma aggressiveness.Experimental Design: Explorative study was performed in 14 patients with localized Ewing sarcoma using RNA sequencing. Next, 128 patients with localized Ewing sarcoma were divided into two cohorts. In the training set, 29 Ewing sarcoma samples were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. In the validation set, 99 Ewing sarcoma samples were examined using qRT-PCR. Patient-derived cell lines and experimental models were used for functional studies.Results:Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated IGF2BP3 as a potent indicator of poor prognosis. Furthermore, ABCF1 mRNA was identified as a novel partner of IGF2BP3. Functional studies indicated IGF2BP3 as an oncogenic driver and ABCF1 mRNA as a sponge that by binding IGF2BP3, partly repressed its functions. The combined evaluation of IGF2BP3 and ABCF1 could identify different patient outcomes-high IGF2BP3 and low ABCF1 levels indicated poor survival (25%), whereas low IGF2BP3 and high ABCF1 levels indicated favorable survival (85.5%). The bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitor (BETi) JQ1 decreased IGF2BP3 expression, modified the expression of its validated targets and inhibited the capability of Ewing sarcoma cells to grow under anchorage-independent conditions.Conclusions: The combined assessment of IGF2BP3 and ABCF1 predicts recurrence in Ewing sarcoma patients. Thus, for patients with high expression of IGF2BP3 and poor probability of survival, the use of BETis should be clinically evaluated. Clin Cancer Res; 24(15); 3704-16. ©2018 AACR.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(3)2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534016

RESUMO

The cell surface molecule CD99 has gained interest because of its involvement in regulating cell differentiation and adhesion/migration of immune and tumor cells. However, the molecule plays an intriguing and dual role in different cell types. In particular, it acts as a requirement for cell malignancy or as an oncosuppressor in tumors. In addition, the gene encodes for two different isoforms, which also act in opposition inside the same cell. This review highlights key studies focusing on the dual role of CD99 and its isoforms and discusses major critical issues, challenges, and strategies for overcoming those challenges. The review specifically underscores the properties that make the molecule an attractive therapeutic target and identifies new relationships and areas of study that may be exploited. The elucidation of the spatial and temporal control of the expression of CD99 in normal and tumor cells is required to obtain a full appreciation of this molecule and its signaling.

15.
Virchows Arch ; 472(5): 815-824, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445891

RESUMO

Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are aggressive neoplasms with scant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. We analyzed the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 and their prognostic significance in clinically localized neoplasms in a cohort of 370 ESFT. Slides prepared from tissue microarrays were stained for PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8. Membranous/cytoplasmic staining over 5% of tumor cells was regarded as positive for PD-L1 and PD-1. Prognostic analysis was done considering only clinically localized tumors (n = 217). PD-L1 expression was present in 19% of ESFT, while PD-1 was expressed in 26%. Forty-eight percent of tumors were negative and 12% were positive for both PD-L1 and PD-1. Metastatic tumors displayed higher expression of PD-L1 (p < 0.0001). Histological subtypes were not correlated with PD-L1 or PD-1 positivity. ESFT with elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) were associated with higher PD-L1 expression (p = 0.049). Regarding prognosis, no significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS), whereas lack of PD-1 expression in tumor cells was correlated with both poor PFS (p = 0.02) and poor OS (p = 0.004). Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes were observed in 15.4% of ESFT with informative results (347 tumors). No correlation was found between tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes and ESFT histological subtypes, tumor location, or PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, nor with PFS (p = 0.473) or OS (p = 0.087). PD-L1 expression was not significantly related to prognosis. PD-1 was expressed in 26% of ESFT tumor cells and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. CD8 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was not related to prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/biossíntese , Sarcoma de Ewing/imunologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncogene ; 37(16): 2181-2196, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382926

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue malignancy that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CD99 is a cell surface protein that is highly expressed on ES cells and is required to maintain their malignancy. We screened small molecule libraries for binding to extracellular domain of recombinant CD99 and subsequent inhibition of ES cell growth. We identified two structurally similar FDA-approved compounds, clofarabine and cladribine that selectively inhibited the growth of ES cells in a panel of 14 ES vs. 28 non-ES cell lines. Both drugs inhibited CD99 dimerization and its interaction with downstream signaling components. A membrane-impermeable analog of clofarabine showed similar cytotoxicity in culture, suggesting that it can function through inhibiting CD99 independent of DNA metabolism. Both drugs drastically inhibited anchorage-independent growth of ES cells, but clofarabine was more effective in inhibiting growth of three different ES xenografts. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for clofarabine that involves direct binding to a cell surface receptor CD99 and inhibiting its biological activities.

17.
Cancer Med ; 7(3): 665-676, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473324

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors in childhood and adolescence. Metastases occurrence at diagnosis or during disease evolution is the main therapeutic challenge. New drug evaluation to improve patient survival requires the development of various preclinical models mimicking at best the complexity of the disease and its metastatic potential. We describe here the development and characteristics of two orthotopic bioluminescent (Luc/mKate2) cell-derived xenograft (CDX) models, Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX and HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX, in different immune (nude and NSG mouse strains) and bone (intratibial and paratibial with periosteum activation) contexts. IVIS SpectrumCT system allowed both longitudinal computed tomography (CT) and bioluminescence real-time follow-up of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread, which was confirmed by histology. The murine immune context influenced tumor engraftment, primary tumor growth, and metastatic spread to lungs, bone, and spleen (an unusual localization in humans). Engraftment in NSG mice was found superior to that found in nude mice and intratibial bone environment more favorable to engraftment compared to paratibial injection. The genetic background of the two CDX models also led to distinct primary tumor behavior observed on CT scan. Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX showed osteocondensed, HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX osteolytic morphology. Bioluminescence defined a faster growth of the primary tumor and metastases in Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX than in HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX. The early detection of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread by bioluminescence allows an improved exploration of osteosarcoma disease at tumor progression, and metastatic spread, as well as the evaluations of anticancer treatments. Our orthotopic models with metastatic spread bring complementary information to other types of existing osteosarcoma models.

18.
J Cell Commun Signal ; 12(1): 55-68, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305692

RESUMO

CD99 is a cell surface protein with unique features and only partly defined mechanisms of action. This molecule is involved in crucial biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, death, differentiation and diapedesis, and it influences processes associated with inflammation, immune responses and cancer. CD99 is frequently overexpressed in many types of tumors, particularly pediatric tumors including Ewing sarcoma and specific subtypes of leukemia. Engagement of CD99 induces the death of malignant cells through non-conventional mechanisms. In Ewing sarcoma, triggering of CD99 by specific monoclonal antibodies activates hyperstimulation of micropinocytosis and leads to cancer cells killing through a caspase-independent, non-apoptotic pathway resembling methuosis. This process is characterized by extreme accumulation of vacuoles in the cytoplasmic space, which compromises cell viability, requires the activation of RAS-Rac1 downstream signaling and appears to be rather specific for tumor cells. In addition, anti-CD99 monoclonal antibodies exhibit antitumor activities in xenografts in the absence of immune effector cells or complement proteins. Overall, these data establish CD99 as a new opportunity to treat patients with high expression of CD99, particularly those that are resistant to canonical apoptosis-inducing agents.

19.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 61(1): T45-T60, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273680

RESUMO

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has gained substantial interest due to its involvement in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival during anoikis and after conventional and targeted therapies. However, results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing, with only a few but notable exceptions, such as trials targeting sarcomas, especially Ewing sarcoma. This review highlights key studies focusing on IGF signaling in sarcomas, specifically studies underscoring the properties that make this system an attractive therapeutic target and identifies new relationships that may be exploited. This review discusses the potential roles of IGF2 mRNA-binding proteins (IGF2BPs), discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) and metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in regulating the IGF system. Deeper investigation of these novel regulators of the IGF system may help us to further elucidate the spatial and temporal control of the IGF axis, as understanding the control of this axis is essential for future clinical studies.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(8): 1594-1601, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210060

RESUMO

Survival rates for osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone cancer, have changed little over the past three decades and are particularly low for patients with metastatic disease. We conducted a multi-institutional genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify germline genetic variants associated with overall survival in 632 patients with osteosarcoma, including 523 patients of European ancestry and 109 from Brazil. We conducted a time-to-event analysis and estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards models, with and without adjustment for metastatic disease. The results were combined across the European and Brazilian case sets using a random-effects meta-analysis. The strongest association after meta-analysis was for rs3765555 at 9p24.1, which was inversely associated with overall survival (HR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.41-2.18, p = 4.84 × 10-7 ). After imputation across this region, the combined analysis identified two SNPs that reached genome-wide significance. The strongest single association was with rs55933544 (HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.4; p = 1.3 × 10-8 ), which localizes to the GLDC gene, adjacent to the IL33 gene and was consistent across both the European and Brazilian case sets. Using publicly available data, the risk allele was associated with lower expression of IL33 and low expression of IL33 was associated with poor survival in an independent set of patients with osteosarcoma. In conclusion, we have identified the GLDC/IL33 locus on chromosome 9p24.1 as associated with overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and shed light on the biological underpinnings of this susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Interleucina-33/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Alelos , Brasil , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida
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