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1.
Epilepsia ; 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia, or abnormally low blood-oxygen levels, often accompanies seizures and may elicit brain structural changes in people with epilepsy which contribute to central processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The extent to which hypoxia may be related to brain structural alterations in this patient group remains unexplored. METHODS: We analyzed high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine brain morphometric and volumetric alterations in people with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) recorded during long-term video-electroencephalography (VEEG), recruited from two sites (n = 22), together with data from age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 43). Subjects were sub-divided into those with mild/moderate (GTCS-hypox-mild/moderate, n = 12) and severe (GTCS-hypox-severe, n = 10) hypoxia, measured by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during VEEG. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and regional volumetry were used to assess group comparisons and correlations between brain structural measurements as well as the duration and extent of hypoxia during GTCS. RESULTS: Morphometric and volumetric alterations appeared in association with peri-GTCS hypoxia, including volume loss in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), thalamus, hypothalamus, vermis, cerebellum, parabrachial pons, and medulla. Thalamic and PAG volume was significantly reduced in GTCS patients with severe hypoxia compared with GTCS patients with mild/moderate hypoxia. Brainstem volume loss appeared in both hypoxia groups, although it was more extensive in those with severe hypoxia. Significant negative partial correlations emerged between thalamic and hippocampal volume and extent of hypoxia, whereas vermis and accumbens volumes declined with increasing hypoxia duration. SIGNIFICANCE: Brain structural alterations in patients with GTCS are related to the extent of hypoxia in brain sites that serve vital functions. Although the changes are associative only, they provide evidence of injury to regulatory brain sites related to respiratory manifestations of seizures.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8981, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488193

RESUMO

Female choice is an important driver of sexual selection, but can be costly, particularly when choosy females risk remaining unmated or experience delays to reproduction. Thus, females should reduce choosiness when mate encounter rates are low. We asked whether choosiness is affected by social context, which may provide reliable information about the local availability of mates. This has been demonstrated in the lab, but rarely under natural conditions. We studied western black widow spiders (Latrodectus hesperus) in the field, placing experimental final-instar immature females so they were either 'isolated' or 'clustered' near naturally occurring conspecifics (≥10 m or ≤1 m, respectively, from a microhabitat occupied by at least one other female). Upon maturity, females in both treatments were visited by similar numbers of males, but clustered females were visited by males earlier and in more rapid succession than isolated females, confirming that proximity to conspecifics reduces the risk of remaining unmated. As predicted, isolated females were less choosy in staged mating trials, neither rejecting males nor engaging in pre-copulatory cannibalism, in contrast to clustered females. These results demonstrate that exposure of females to natural variation in demography in the field can alter choosiness of adults. Thus, female behaviour in response to cues of local population density can affect the intensity of sexual selection on males in the wild.

3.
Stroke ; 51(5): 1372-1380, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208842

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Population-based studies provide the most reliable data on stroke incidence. A previous systematic review of population-based studies suggested that stroke incidence in high-income countries decreased by 42% between the 1970s and early 2000s. However, it is uncertain whether this trend of steady decline has been maintained in more recent periods. Methods- Data from OCSP (Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project; 1981-1986) and OXVASC (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2017) along with other published population-based stroke incidence studies that reported temporal trends of stroke incidence since 1990 in high-income countries were included. Age-standardized relative incidence rate ratios were calculated for each study and then pooled with inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Projection estimates were calculated for the number of incident stroke patients in the United Kingdom from year 2015 to 2045. Results- In Oxfordshire, stroke incidence fell by 32% from OCSP to OXVASC, with a similar trend before or after year 2000. With the projected aging population, if the age-specific stroke incidence continued to decrease at its current rate (6% every 5 years), there would still be a 13% increase of the number of first-ever strokes in the United Kingdom up to year 2045. Incorporating the Oxfordshire data with other 12 population-based studies, stroke incidence declined steadily between the 1990s and 2010s within each study, resulting in a 28% decline over an average period of 16.5 years (pooled incidence rate ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.66-0.79]; P<0.0001). The trend was the same for men (0.69 [95% CI, 0.61-0.77]; P<0.0001) and women (0.66 [95% CI, 0.59-0.74]; P<0.0001) and remained consistent after year 2010 in OXVASC. Proportion of disabling or fatal stroke also decreased over time (early versus later period, 53.6% versus 46.1%; P=0.02). Conclusions- Stroke incidence is continuing to decline with steady rate in Oxfordshire and in other high-income settings. However, the absolute number of strokes occurring is not falling.

4.
Neurobiol Dis ; 134: 104612, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533065

RESUMO

Our understanding of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), one of the most common form of drug-resistant epilepsy in humans, is derived mainly from clinical, imaging, and physiological data from humans and animal models. High-throughput gene expression studies of human MTLE have the potential to uncover molecular changes underlying disease pathogenesis along with novel therapeutic targets. Using RNA- and small RNA-sequencing in parrallel, we explored differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus and cortex of MTLE patients who had undergone surgical resection and non-epileptic controls. We identified differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of MTLE patients and differentially expressed small RNAs across both the cortex and hippocampus. We found significant enrichment for astrocytic and microglial genes among up-regulated genes, and down regulation of neuron specific genes in the hippocampus of MTLE patients. The transcriptome profile of the small RNAs reflected disease state more robustly than mRNAs, even across brain regions which show very little pathology. While mRNAs segregated predominately by brain region for MTLE and controls, small RNAs segregated by disease state. In particular, our data suggest that specific miRNAs (e.g., let-7b-3p and let-7c-3p) may be key regulators of multiple pathways related to MTLE pathology. Further, we report a strong association of other small RNA species with MTLE pathology. As such we have uncovered novel elements that may contribute to the establishment and progression of MTLE pathogenesis and that could be leveraged as therapeutic targets.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029622, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore regional primary care improvement strategies that are potentially determinants of primary care performance. DESIGN: Multiple comparative embedded case study. SETTING: Three regions in Canada: Fraser East, British Columbia; Eastern Ontario Health Unit, Ontario; Central Zone, Nova Scotia. DATA SOURCES: (1) In-depth interviews with purposively selected key informants (eg, primary care decision-makers, physician leads, regulatory agencies) and focus groups with patients and clinicians (n=68 participants) and (2) published and grey literature (n=205 documents). OUTCOME MEASURES: Variations in spread and uptake of primary care improvement strategies across the three study regions. NVivo (V.11) was used to manage data and perform content analysis to identify categories within and across cases. The coding structure was developed by researchers through iterative collaboration, using inductive and deductive processes. RESULTS: Six overarching primary care improvement strategies, differing in focus and spread, were implemented across the three study regions: interprofessional team-based approaches, provider skill mix expansion, physician groups and networks, information systems, remuneration and performance measurement and reporting infrastructure. CONCLUSION: The addition of information on regional improvement strategies to primary care performance reports could add important contextual insights into primary care performance results. This could help identify possible drivers of reported performance outcomes and levers for change in practice, regional and system-level settings.

6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1908): 20191470, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362641

RESUMO

Mate-searching success is a critical precursor to mating, but there is a dearth of research on traits and tactics that confer a competitive advantage in finding potential mates. Theory and available empirical evidence suggest that males locate mates using mate-attraction signals produced by receptive females (personal information) and avoid inadvertently produced cues from rival males (social information) that indicate a female has probably already mated. Here, we show that western black widow males use both kinds of information to find females efficiently, parasitizing the searching effort of rivals in a way that guarantees competition over mating after reaching a female's web. This tactic may be adaptive because female receptivity is transient, and we show that (i) mate searching is risky (88% mortality) and (ii) a strongly male-biased operational sex ratio (from 1.2 : 1 to more than 10 : 1) makes competition inevitable. Males with access to rivals' silk trails moved at higher speeds than those with only personal information, and located females even when personal information was unreliable or absent. We show that following rivals can increase the potential for sexual selection on females as well as males and argue it may be more widespread in nature than is currently realized.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e027869, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to primary healthcare (PHC) has a fundamental influence on health outcomes, particularly for members of vulnerable populations. Innovative Models Promoting Access-to-Care Transformation (IMPACT) is a 5-year research programme built on community-academic partnerships. IMPACT aims to design, implement and evaluate organisational innovations to improve access to appropriate PHC for vulnerable populations. Six Local Innovation Partnerships (LIPs) in three Australian states (New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia) and three Canadian provinces (Ontario, Quebec and Alberta) used a common approach to implement six different interventions. This paper describes the protocol to evaluate the processes, outcomes and scalability of these organisational innovations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The evaluation will use a convergent mixed-methods design involving longitudinal (pre and post) analysis of the six interventions. Study participants include vulnerable populations, PHC practices, their clinicians and administrative staff, service providers in other health or social service organisations, intervention staff and members of the LIP teams. Data were collected prior to and 3-6 months after the interventions and included interviews with members of the LIPs, organisational process data, document analysis and tools collecting the cost of components of the intervention. Assessment of impacts on individuals and organisations will rely on surveys and semistructured interviews (and, in some settings, direct observation) of participating patients, providers and PHC practices. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The IMPACT research programme received initial ethics approval from St Mary's Hospital (Montreal) SMHC #13-30. The interventions received a range of other ethics approvals across the six jurisdictions. Dissemination of the findings should generate a deeper understanding of the ways in which system-level organisational innovations can improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations and new knowledge concerning improvements in PHC delivery in health service utilisation.

8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 98(Pt A): 73-79, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ictal (ICA) and postconvulsive central apnea (PCCA) have been implicated in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. Previous studies suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) may influence breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate if chronic use of these drugs alters central apnea occurrence in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy admitted to epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in nine centers participating in a SUDEP study were consented. Polygraphic physiological parameters were analyzed, including video-electroencephalography (VEEG), thoracoabdominal excursions, and pulse oximetry. Outpatient medication details were collected. Patients and seizures were divided into SRI, BZD, and control (no SRI or BZD) groups. Ictal central apnea and PCCA, hypoxemia, and electroclinical features were assessed for each group. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventy-six seizures were analyzed (204 patients). The relative risk (RR) for ICA in the SRI group was half that of the control group (p = 0.02). In the BZD group, ICA duration was significantly shorter than in the control group (p = 0.02), as was postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) duration (p = 0.021). Both SRI and BZD groups were associated with smaller seizure-associated oxygen desaturation (p = 0.009; p ≪ 0.001). Neither presence nor duration of PCCA was significantly associated with SRI or BZD (p ≫ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Seizures in patients taking SRIs have lower occurrence of ICA, and patients on chronic treatment with BZDs have shorter ICA and PGES durations. Preventing or shortening ICA duration by using SRIs and/or BZD in patients with epilepsy may play a possible role in SUDEP risk reduction.

9.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 718-729, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) remain elusive, but centrally mediated cardiovascular or respiratory collapse is suspected. Volume changes in brain areas mediating recovery from extreme cardiorespiratory challenges may indicate failure mechanisms and allow prospective identification of SUDEP risk. METHODS: We retrospectively imaged SUDEP cases (n = 25), patients comparable for age, sex, epilepsy syndrome, localization, and disease duration who were high-risk (n = 25) or low-risk (n = 23), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 25) with identical high-resolution T1-weighted scans. Regional gray matter volume, determined by voxel-based morphometry, and segmentation-derived structure sizes were compared across groups, controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and sex. RESULTS: Substantial bilateral gray matter loss appeared in SUDEP cases in the medial and lateral cerebellum. This was less prominent in high-risk subjects and absent in low-risk subjects. The periaqueductal gray, left posterior and medial thalamus, left hippocampus, and bilateral posterior cingulate also showed volume loss in SUDEP. High-risk subjects showed left thalamic volume reductions to a lesser extent. Bilateral amygdala, entorhinal, and parahippocampal volumes increased in SUDEP and high-risk patients, with the subcallosal cortex enlarged in SUDEP only. Disease duration correlated negatively with parahippocampal volume. Volumes of the bilateral anterior insula and midbrain in SUDEP cases were larger the closer to SUDEP from magnetic resonance imaging. SIGNIFICANCE: SUDEP victims show significant tissue loss in areas essential for cardiorespiratory recovery and enhanced volumes in areas that trigger hypotension or impede respiratory patterning. Those changes may shed light on SUDEP pathogenesis and prospectively detect patterns identifying those at risk.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Lobo Límbico/patologia , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Morte Súbita Inesperada na Epilepsia/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Front Neurol ; 10: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890997

RESUMO

Introduction: Peri-ictal breathing dysfunction was proposed as a potential mechanism for SUDEP. We examined the incidence and risk factors for both ictal (ICA) and post-convulsive central apnea (PCCA) and their relationship with potential seizure severity biomarkers (i. e., post-ictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) and recurrence. Methods: Prospective, multi-center seizure monitoring study of autonomic, and breathing biomarkers of SUDEP in adults with intractable epilepsy and monitored seizures. Video EEG, thoraco-abdominal excursions, capillary oxygen saturation, and electrocardiography were analyzed. A subgroup analysis determined the incidences of recurrent ICA and PCCA in patients with ≥2 recorded seizures. We excluded status epilepticus and obscured/unavailable video. Central apnea (absence of thoracic-abdominal breathing movements) was defined as ≥1 missed breath, and ≥5 s. ICA referred to apnea preceding or occurring along with non-convulsive seizures (NCS) or apnea before generalized convulsive seizures (GCS). Results: We analyzed 558 seizures in 218 patients (130 female); 321 seizures were NCS and 237 were GCS. ICA occurred in 180/487 (36.9%) seizures in 83/192 (43.2%) patients, all with focal epilepsy. Sleep state was related to presence of ICA [RR 1.33, CI 95% (1.08-1.64), p = 0.008] whereas extratemporal epilepsy was related to lower incidence of ICA [RR 0.58, CI 95% (0.37-0.90), p = 0.015]. ICA recurred in 45/60 (75%) patients. PCCA occurred in 41/228 (18%) of GCS in 30/134 (22.4%) patients, regardless of epilepsy type. Female sex [RR 11.30, CI 95% (4.50-28.34), p < 0.001] and ICA duration [RR 1.14 CI 95% (1.05-1.25), p = 0.001] were related to PCCA presence, whereas absence of PGES was related to absence of PCCA [0.27, CI 95% (0.16-0.47), p < 0.001]. PCCA duration was longer in males [HR 1.84, CI 95% (1.06-3.19), p = 0.003]. In 9/17 (52.9%) patients, PCCA was recurrent. Conclusion: ICA incidence is almost twice the incidence of PCCA and is only seen in focal epilepsies, as opposed to PCCA, suggesting different pathophysiologies. ICA is likely to be a recurrent semiological phenomenon of cortical seizure discharge, whereas PCCA may be a reflection of brainstem dysfunction after GCS. Prolonged ICA or PCCA may, respectively, contribute to SUDEP, as evidenced by two cases we report. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate these hypotheses.

11.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 39(12): 2419-2432, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182792

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetic modelling on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data is a quantitative technique. However, the long acquisition time is prohibitive for routine clinical use. Instead, the semi-quantitative standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) from a shorter static acquisition is used, despite its sensitivity to blood flow confounding longitudinal analysis. A method has been proposed to reduce the dynamic acquisition time for quantification by incorporating cerebral blood flow (CBF) information from arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the pharmacokinetic modelling. In this work, we optimise and validate this framework for a study of ageing and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. This methodology adapts the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) for a reduced acquisition time (RT-SRTM) and is applied to [18F]-florbetapir PET data for amyloid-ß quantification. Evaluation shows that the optimised RT-SRTM can achieve amyloid burden estimation from a 30-min PET/MR acquisition which is comparable with the gold standard SRTM applied to 60 min of PET data. Conversely, SUVR showed a significantly higher error and bias, and a statistically significant correlation with tracer delivery due to the influence of blood flow. The optimised RT-SRTM produced amyloid burden estimates which were uncorrelated with tracer delivery indicating its suitability for longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Etilenoglicóis , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/farmacocinética , Etilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Etilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
12.
Neurology ; 92(3): e171-e182, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize peri-ictal apnea and postictal asystole in generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) of intractable epilepsy. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter epilepsy monitoring study of autonomic and breathing biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in patients ≥18 years old with intractable epilepsy and monitored GCS. Video-EEG, thoracoabdominal excursions, nasal airflow, capillary oxygen saturation, and ECG were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied 148 GCS in 87 patients. Nineteen patients had generalized epilepsy; 65 had focal epilepsy; 1 had both; and the epileptogenic zone was unknown in 2. Ictal central apnea (ICA) preceded GCS in 49 of 121 (40.4%) seizures in 23 patients, all with focal epilepsy. Postconvulsive central apnea (PCCA) occurred in 31 of 140 (22.1%) seizures in 22 patients, with generalized, focal, or unknown epileptogenic zones. In 2 patients, PCCA occurred concurrently with asystole (near-SUDEP), with an incidence rate of 10.2 per 1,000 patient-years. One patient with PCCA died of probable SUDEP during follow-up, suggesting a SUDEP incidence rate 5.1 per 1,000 patient-years. No cases of laryngospasm were detected. Rhythmic muscle artifact synchronous with breathing was present in 75 of 147 seizures and related to stertorous breathing (odds ratio 3.856, 95% confidence interval 1.395-10.663, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: PCCA occurred in both focal and generalized epilepsies, suggesting a different pathophysiology from ICA, which occurred only in focal epilepsy. PCCA was seen in 2 near-SUDEP cases and 1 probable SUDEP case, suggesting that this phenomenon may serve as a clinical biomarker of SUDEP. Larger studies are needed to validate this observation. Rhythmic postictal muscle artifact is suggestive of post-GCS breathing effort rather than a specific biomarker of laryngospasm.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita , Epilepsia/complicações , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/diagnóstico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
13.
PeerJ ; 6: e5761, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324030

RESUMO

Viruses encoding a replication-associated protein (Rep) within a covalently closed, single-stranded (ss)DNA genome are among the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotic organisms, including economically valuable agricultural crops and livestock. Although circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS DNA) viruses are a widespread group for which our knowledge is rapidly expanding, biased sampling toward vertebrates and land plants has limited our understanding of their diversity and evolution. Here, we screened terrestrial arthropods for CRESS DNA viruses and report the identification of 44 viral genomes and replicons associated with specimens representing all three major terrestrial arthropod lineages, namely Euchelicerata (spiders), Hexapoda (insects), and Myriapoda (millipedes). We identified virus genomes belonging to three established CRESS DNA viral families (Circoviridae, Genomoviridae, and Smacoviridae); however, over half of the arthropod-associated viral genomes are only distantly related to currently classified CRESS DNA viral sequences. Although members of viral and satellite families known to infect plants (Geminiviridae, Nanoviridae, Alphasatellitidae) were not identified in this study, these plant-infecting CRESS DNA viruses and replicons are transmitted by hemipterans. Therefore, members from six out of the seven established CRESS DNA viral families circulate among arthropods. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of Reps, including endogenous viral sequences, reported to date from a wide array of organisms revealed that most of the known CRESS DNA viral diversity circulates among invertebrates. Our results highlight the vast and unexplored diversity of CRESS DNA viruses among invertebrates and parallel findings from RNA viral discovery efforts in undersampled taxa.

15.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 6(2)2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772759

RESUMO

Human babesiosis caused by Babesia duncani is an emerging infectious disease in Canada. This malaria-like illness is brought about by a protozoan parasite infecting red blood cells. Currently, controversy surrounds which tick species are vectors of B. duncani. Since the availability of a serological or molecular test in Canada for B. duncani has been limited, we conducted a seven-year surveillance study (2011⁻2017) to ascertain the occurrence and geographic distribution of B. duncani infection country-wide. Surveillance case data for human B. duncani infections were collected by contacting physicians and naturopathic physicians in the United States and Canada who specialize in tick-borne diseases. During the seven-year period, 1119 cases were identified. The presence of B. duncani infections was widespread across Canada, with the highest occurrence in the Pacific coast region. Patients with human babesiosis may be asymptomatic, but as this parasitemia progresses, symptoms range from mild to fatal. Donors of blood, plasma, living tissues, and organs may unknowingly be infected with this piroplasm and are contributing to the spread of this zoonosis. Our data show that greater awareness of human babesiosis is needed in Canada, and the imminent threat to the security of the Canadian blood supply warrants further investigation. Based on our epidemiological findings, human babesiosis should be a nationally notifiable disease in Canada. Whenever a patient has a tick bite, health practitioners must watch for B. duncani infections, and include human babesiosis in their differential diagnosis.

16.
Neuroimage Clin ; 17: 943-952, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527498

RESUMO

Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs), which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
17.
J Patient Saf ; 14(1): 60-65, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current literature estimates the error rate associated with the preparation and administration of all intravenous (IV) medications to be 9.4% to 97.7% worldwide. This study aims to compare the number of observed medication preparation and administration errors between the only commercially available ready-to-administer product (Simplist) and IV push traditional practice, including a cartridge-based syringe system (Carpuject) and vials and syringes. METHODS: A prospective, multisite, observational study was conducted in 3 health systems in various states within the United States between December 2015 and March 2016 to observe IV push medication preparation and administration. Researchers observed a ready-to-administer product and IV push traditional practice using a validated observational method and a modified data collection sheet. All observations were reconciled to the original medication order to determine if any errors occurred. RESULTS: Researchers collected 329 observations (ready to administer = 102; traditional practice = 227) and observed 260 errors (ready to administer = 25; traditional practice = 235). The overall observed error rate for ready-to-administer products was 2.5%, and the observed error rate for IV push traditional practice was 10.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The ready-to-administer group demonstrated a statistically significant lower observed error rate, suggesting that use of this product is associated with fewer observed preparation and administration errors in the clinical setting. Future studies should be completed to determine the potential for patient harm associated with these errors and improve clinical practice because it relates to the safe administration of IV push medications.


Assuntos
Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/instrumentação , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Infusões Intravenosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Injeções Intravenosas/instrumentação , Injeções Intravenosas/métodos , Injeções Intravenosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Front Neurol ; 8: 544, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is common among young people with epilepsy. Individuals who are at high risk of SUDEP exhibit regional brain structural and functional connectivity (FC) alterations compared with low-risk patients. However, less is known about network-based FC differences among critical cortical and subcortical autonomic regulatory brain structures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients at high risk of SUDEP. METHODS: 32 TLE patients were risk-stratified according to the following clinical criteria: age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and presence of nocturnal seizures, resulting in 14 high-risk and 18 low-risk cases. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal time courses were extracted from 11 bilateral cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in autonomic and other regulatory processes. After computing all pairwise correlations, FC matrices were analyzed using the network-based statistic. FC strength among the 11 brain regions was compared between the high- and low-risk patients. Increases and decreases in FC were sought, using high-risk > low-risk and low-risk > high-risk contrasts (with covariates age, gender, lateralization of epilepsy, and presence of hippocampal sclerosis). RESULTS: High-risk TLE patients showed a subnetwork with significantly reduced FC (t = 2.5, p = 0.029) involving the thalamus, brain stem, anterior cingulate, putamen and amygdala, and a second subnetwork with significantly elevated FC (t = 2.1, p = 0.031), which extended to medial/orbital frontal cortex, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, subcallosal cortex, brain stem, thalamus, caudate, and putamen. CONCLUSION: TLE patients at high risk of SUDEP showed widespread FC differences between key autonomic regulatory brain regions compared to those at low risk. The altered FC revealed here may help to shed light on the functional correlates of autonomic disturbances in epilepsy and mechanisms involved in SUDEP. Furthermore, these findings represent possible objective biomarkers which could help to identify high-risk patients and enhance SUDEP risk stratification via the use of non-invasive neuroimaging, which would require validation in larger cohorts, with extension to patients with other epilepsies and subjects who succumb to SUDEP.

20.
J Trauma Stress ; 30(4): 381-388, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708283

RESUMO

The relationship between type of trauma exposure, cumulative trauma, peritraumatic distress, and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms was examined prospectively in 96 individuals presenting with acute medical injuries to a Level 1 emergency/trauma department. Common precipitating traumas included motor vehicle-related events, stabbings, shootings, and physical assaults. At 2 to 3 weeks follow-up, 22.9% of participants had developed ASD. Univariate analysis revealed no relationship between type of precipitating trauma and ASD symptoms, whereas robust path analysis indicated direct effects of gender, lifetime cumulative trauma exposure, and peritraumatic distress. Peritraumatic distress did not mediate the association between cumulative trauma and symptoms, but did mediate the association between gender and symptomatology. These results, which account for 23.1% of the variance in ASD symptoms, suggest that ASD may be more due to cumulative trauma exposure than the nature of the precipitating trauma, but that cumulative trauma does not exert its primary effect by increasing peritraumatic distress to the most recent trauma.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/etiologia , Violência/psicologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
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