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1.
Child Obes ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826417

RESUMO

Objective: To identify an efficacious intervention on treating adolescents with overweight and obesity, this might result in health benefits. Methods: Adolescents with overweight or obesity aged 10-17 years with BMI percentile ≥85th were included in this historical observational analysis. Subjects used an entirely remote weight loss program combining mobile applications, frequent self-weighing, and calorie restriction with meal replacement. Body weight changes were evaluated at 42, 60, 90, and 120 days using different metrics including absolute body weight, BMI, and BMI z-score. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-test (continuous variables) were used to compare subjects. Results: In total, 2,825 participants, mean age 14.4 ± 2.2 years, (54.8% girls), were included from October 27, 2016, to December 31, 2017, in mainland China; 1355 (48.0%) had a baseline BMI percentile ≥97th. Mean BMI and BMI z-score were 29.20 ± 4.44 kg/m2 and 1.89 ± 0.42, respectively. At day 120, mean reduction in body weight, BMI, and BMI z-score was 8.6 ± 0.63 kg, 3.13 ± 0.21 kg/m2, and 0.42 ± 0.03; 71.4% had lost ≥5% body weight, 69.4% of boys and 73.2% of girls, respectively. Compared with boys, girls achieved greater reduction on BMI z-score at all intervals (p < 0.004 for all comparisons). Higher BMI percentile at baseline and increased frequency of use of the mobile application were directly associated with more significant weight loss. Conclusions: An entirely remote digital weight loss program is effective in facilitating weight loss in adolescents with overweight or obesity in the short term and mid term.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare aortic stenosis (AS) progression rates, AS-related cardiac damage (AS-CD) indicator incidence and determinants, and survival between patients with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV)-AS and those with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-AS. BACKGROUND: Differences in AS progression and AS-CD between patients with BAV and patients with TAV are unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients with baseline peak aortic valve velocity (peakV) ≥2.5 m/s and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%. Follow-up echocardiograms (n = 4,818) provided multiparametric AS progression rates and AS-CD. RESULTS: The study included 330 BAV (54 ± 14 years) and 581 patients with TAV (72 ± 11 years). At last echocardiogram (median: 5.9 years; interquartile range: 3.9 to 8.5 years), BAV-AS exhibited similar peakV and mean pressure gradient (MPG) as TAV-AS, but larger calculated aortic valve area due to larger aortic annulus (p < 0.0001). Multiparametric progression rates were similar between BAV-AS and TAV-AS (all p ≥ 0.08) and did not predict age-/sex-adjusted survival (p ≥ 0.45). Independent determinants of rapid progression were male sex and baseline AS severity for TAV (all p ≤ 0.024), and age, baseline AS severity, and cardiac risk factors (age interaction: p = 0.02) for BAV (all p ≤ 0.005). At 12 years, patients with TAV-AS had a higher incidence of AS-CD than BAV-AS patients (p < 0.0001), resulting in significantly worse survival compared to BAV-AS (p < 0.0001). AS-CD were independently determined by multiple factors (MPG, age, sex, comorbidities, cardiac function; all p ≤ 0.039), and BAV was independently protective of most AS-CD (all p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, TAV-AS and BAV-AS progression rates were similar. Rapid progression did not affect survival and was determined by cardiac risk factors for BAV-AS (particularly in patients with BAV <60 years of age) and unmodifiable factors for TAV-AS. AS-CD and mortality were significantly higher in TAV-AS. Independent determinants of AS-CD were multifactorial, and BAV morphology was AS-CD protective. Therefore, the totality of AS burden (cardiac damage) is clinically crucial for TAV-AS, whereas attention to modifiable risk factors may be preventive for BAV-AS.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 932-942, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and transthoracic echocardiographic features and 30-day outcomes of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study that included consecutive inpatients with COVID-19 infection who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography at 10 sites in the Mayo Clinic Health System between March 10 and August 5, 2020. Echocardiography was performed at bedside by cardiac sonographers according to an abbreviated protocol. Echocardiographic results, demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 179 patients, aged 59.8±16.9 years and 111 (62%) men; events within 30 days occurred in 70 (39%) patients, including prolonged hospitalization in 43 (24%) and death in 27 (15%). Echocardiographic abnormalities included left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50% in 29 (16%), regional wall motion abnormalities in 26 (15%), and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of 35 or greater mm Hg in 44 (44%) of 101 in whom it was measured. Myocardial injury, defined as the presence of significant troponin level elevation accompanied by new ventricular dysfunction or electrocardiographic abnormalities, was present in 13 (7%). Prior echocardiography was available in 36 (20%) patients and pre-existing abnormalities were seen in 28 (78%) of these. In a multivariable age-adjusted model, area under the curve of 0.81, prior cardiovascular disease, troponin level, D-dimer level, and RVSP were related to events at 30 days. CONCLUSION: Bedside Doppler assessment of RVSP appears promising for short-term risk stratification in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection undergoing clinically indicated echocardiography. Pre-existing echocardiographic abnormalities were common; caution should be exercised in attributing such abnormalities to the COVID-19 infection in this comorbid patient population.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(3): 559-570, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to: 1) develop a formula for projected transmitral gradient (TMG), expected gradient under normal heart rate (HR), and stroke volume (SV); and 2) assess the prognostic value of projected TMG. BACKGROUND: In mitral stenosis (MS), TMG is highly dependent on hemodynamics, often leading to discordance between TMG and mitral valve area. METHODS: All patients with suspected MS based on echocardiography from 2001 to 2017 were analyzed. Data were randomly split (2:1); projected TMG was modeled in the derivation cohort, then tested in the validation cohort. The composite endpoint was death or mitral valve intervention. RESULTS: Of 4,973 patients with suspected MS, severe and moderate MS, defined as mitral valve area ≤1.5 and >1.5 to 2.0 cm2, were present in 437 (9%) and 936 (19%), respectively. In the derivation cohort (n = 3,315; age 73 ± 12 years; 34% male), corresponding gradients were TMG ≥6 and 4 to <6 mm Hg, respectively, under normal hemodynamics. Based on the impact of hemodynamics on TMG, the formula was projected TMG = TMG - 0.07 (HR - 70) - 0.03 (SV - 97) in men and projected TMG = TMG - 0.08 (HR - 72) - 0.04 (SV - 84) in women. In the validation cohort (n = 1,658), projected TMG had better agreement with MS severity than TMG (kappa 0.61 vs. 0.28). Among 281 patients with TMG ≥6 mm Hg, projected TMG ≥6 mm Hg, present in 171 patients (61%), was associated with higher probability of the endpoint versus projected TMG <6 mm Hg (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 2.6; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The novel concept of projected TMG, constructed using the observed impact of HR and SV on TMG, significantly improved the concordance of gradient and valve area in MS and provided better risk stratification than TMG.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of percent mammographic density (PMD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) with risk of "intrinsic" molecular breast cancer (BC) subtypes. METHODS: We pooled 3492 invasive BC and 10,148 controls across six studies with density measures from prediagnostic, digitized film-screen mammograms. We classified BC tumors into subtypes [63% Luminal A, 21% Luminal B, 5% HER2 expressing, and 11% as triple negative (TN)] using information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and tumor grade. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for density measures (per SD) across the subtypes compared to controls, adjusting for age, body mass index and study, and examined differences by age group. RESULTS: All density measures were similarly associated with BC risk across subtypes. Significant interaction of PMD by age (P = 0.001) was observed for Luminal A tumors, with stronger effect sizes seen for younger women < 45 years (OR = 1.69 per SD PMD) relative to women of older ages (OR = 1.53, ages 65-74, OR = 1.44 ages 75 +). Similar but opposite trends were seen for NDA by age for risk of Luminal A: risk for women: < 45 years (OR = 0.71 per SD NDA) was lower than older women (OR = 0.83 and OR = 0.84 for ages 65-74 and 75 + , respectively) (P < 0.001). Although not significant, similar patterns of associations were seen by age for TN cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Mammographic density measures were associated with risk of all "intrinsic" molecular subtypes. However, findings of significant interactions between age and density measures may have implications for subtype-specific risk models.

7.
Echocardiography ; 38(2): 183-188, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Practice guidelines endorse use of a risk calculator, which requires entry of left atrial (LA) diameter. However, American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines recommend the use of LA volume index (LAVI) for routine quantification of LA size. The aims of this study were to (a) develop a model to estimate LA diameter from LAVI and (b) evaluate whether substitution of measured LA diameter by estimated LA diameter derived from LAVI reclassifies HCM-SCD risk. METHODS: The study cohort was comprised of 500 randomly selected HCM patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). LA diameter and LAVI were measured offline using digital clips from TTE. Linear regression models were developed to estimate LA diameter from LAVI. A European Society of Cardiology endorsed equation estimated SCD risk, which was measured using LA diameter and estimated LA diameter derived from LAVI. RESULTS: The mean LAVI was 48.5 ± 18.8 mL/m2 . The derived LA diameter was 45.1 mm (SD: 5.5 mm), similar to the measured LA diameter (45.1 mm, SD: 7.1 mm). Median SCD risk at 5 years estimated by measured LA diameter was 2.22% (interquartile range (IQR): 1.39, 3.56), while median risk calculated by estimated LA diameter was 2.18% (IQR: 1.44, 3.52). 476/500 (95%) patients maintained the same risk classification regardless of whether the measured or estimated LA diameter was used. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of measured LA diameter by estimated LA diameter in the HCM-SCD calculator did not reclassify risk.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(7): 776-785, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377479

RESUMO

AIMS : Cardiac power is a measure of cardiac performance that incorporates both pressure and flow components. Prior studies have shown that cardiac power predicts outcomes in patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). We sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of peak exercise cardiac power and power reserve in patients with normal EF. METHODS AND RESULTS : We performed a retrospective analysis in 24 885 patients (age 59 ± 13 years, 45% females) with EF ≥50% and no significant valve disease or right ventricular dysfunction, undergoing exercise stress echocardiography between 2004 and 2018. Cardiac power and power reserve (developed power with stress) were normalized to LV mass and expressed in W/100 g of LV myocardium. Endpoints at follow-up were all-cause mortality and diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Patients in the higher quartiles of power/mass (rest, peak stress, and power reserve) were younger and had higher peak blood pressure and heart rate, lower LV mass, and lower prevalence of comorbidities. During follow-up [median 3.9 (0.6-8.3) years], 929 patients died. After adjusting for age, sex, metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved, ischaemia/infarction on stress test results, medication, and comorbidities, peak stress power/mass was independently associated with mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), highest vs. lowest quartile, 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.6, P < 0.001] and HF at follow-up [adjusted HR, highest vs. lowest quartile, 0.4, 95% CI (0.3, 0.5), P < 0.001]. Power reserve showed similar results. CONCLUSION : The assessment of cardiac power during exercise stress echocardiography in patients with normal EF provides valuable prognostic information, in addition to stress test findings on inducible myocardial ischaemia and exercise capacity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical use of breast cancer risk prediction requires simplified models. We evaluate a simplified version of the validated Rosner-Colditz model and add percent mammographic density (MD) and polygenic risk score (PRS), to assess performance from ages 45-74. We validate using prospective data from the Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS). METHODS: We derived the model in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) based on: MD, 77SNP PRS and a questionnaire score (QS) (lifestyle and reproductive factors). 2799 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed from 1990-2000. MD (using Cumulus software) and PRS were assessed in a nested case-control study. We assess model performance using this case-control data set and evaluate 10-year absolute breast cancer risk. The prospective MMHS validation dataset includes 21.8% of women age <50, and 434 incident cases identified over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the NHS, MD has the highest odds ratio (OR) for 10-year risk prediction: OR per SD =1.48 (95% CI 1.31 - 1.68), followed by PRS, OR per SD = 1.37 (95% CI 1.21 - 1.55) and QS, OR per SD = 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 - 1.41). In MMHS, the AUC adjusted for age was 0.595; for age+MD 0.636; for age+MD+QS 0.650; for age+MD+QS+PRS 0.687. CONCLUSIONS: A simplified assessment of QS, MD and PRS performs consistently to discriminate those at high 10-year breast cancer risk. IMPACT: This simplified model provides accurate estimation of 10-year risk of invasive breast cancer that can be used in a clinic setting to identify women who may benefit from chemopreventive intervention.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a common valvular lesion associated with increased mortality once the left ventricle (LV) enlarges significantly or develops systolic dysfunction (EF <50%). Valve guidelines recommend aortic valve repair or replacement (AVR) for LV linear end-systolic dimension (LVESD) ≥ 50 mm or end-diastolic dimension ≥ 65 mm. However, chamber quantification guidelines recommend using LV volume for LV size determination as linear measurements may not accurately reflect LV remodeling. We sought to evaluate the correlation of LV volumes with linear dimensions, inter-observer variability in estimation of volumes, and association of volumes with outcomes in patients with AR. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1100 consecutive patients with chronic moderate-severe and severe AR by echocardiography between 2004 and 2019. Modified Simpson's disc summation method was used for LV volume estimation. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; secondary outcome was mortality censored at AVR. RESULTS: Patients' age was 60 ± 17 years and 198 (18%) were women. Volumes were measured by biplane method in 939 (85%) patients and monoplane in 161 (15%); end-systolic volume was normal in 169 (11%). Correlations between volumes and linear dimensions were 0.5 for end-diastolic and 0.6 for end-systolic. At median follow up of 5.4 (2.4-10.0) years, 216 patients died and 539 underwent AVR. Indexed LV end-systolic volume (iLVESV) and iLVESD were both associated with mortality and symptoms, but association of iLVESV was stronger. iLVESV, age, male gender, Charlson comorbidity index, NYHA class III-IV, and time dependent AVR were independently associated with all-cause mortality. The inter-observer variability in estimation of LV volumes in 200 patients included intra-class coefficient 0.94 (0.92-0.95) for end-diastolic and 0.88 (0.78-0.93) for end-systolic volume. Patients with iLVESV≥45ml/m2 had lower survival and higher prevalence of symptoms than those with volumes <45 ml/m2. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic LV volume assessment had good reproducibility in patients with moderate-severe and severe AR. The correlation between linear dimensions and volumes was limited. Both iLVESV and iLVESD were associated with worse outcomes, but association of iLVESV was stronger. iLVESV ≥45ml/m2 was associated with worse outcomes.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146680

RESUMO

Importance: Volumetric measurements by transthoracic echocardiogram may better reflect left ventricular (LV) remodeling than conventional linear LV dimensions. However, the association of LV volumes with mortality in patients with chronic hemodynamically significant aortic regurgitation (AR) is unknown. Objective: To assess whether LV volumes and volume-derived LV ejection fraction (Vol-LVEF) are determinants of mortality in AR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included consecutive asymptomatic patients with chronic moderately severe to severe AR from a tertiary referral center (January 2004 through April 2019). Exposures: Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Aortic regurgitation severity was graded by comprehensive integrated approach. De novo disk-summation method was used to derive LV volumes and Vol-LVEF. Main Outcome and Measures: Associations between all-cause mortality under medical surveillance and the following LV indexes: linear LV end-systolic dimension index (LVESDi), linear LVEF, LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi), and Vol-LVEF. Results: Of 492 asymptomatic patients (mean [SD] age, 60 [17] years; 425 men [86%]), ischemic heart disease prevalence was low (41 [9%]), and 453 (92.1%) had preserved linear LVEF (≥50%) with mean (SD) LVESVi of 41 (15) mL/m2. At a median (interquartile range) of 5.4 (2.5-10.1) years, 66 patients (13.4%) died under medical surveillance; overall survival was not different than the age- and sex-matched general population (P = .55). Separate multivariate models, adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and AR severity, demonstrated that in addition to linear LVEF and LVESDi, LVESVi and Vol-LVEF were independently associated with mortality under surveillance (all P < .046) with similar C statistics (range, 0.83-0.84). Spline curves showed that continuous risks of death started to rise for both linear LVEF and Vol-LVEF less than 60%, LVESVi more than 40 to 45 mL/m2, and LVESDi above 21 to 22 mm/m2. As dichotomized variables, patients with LVESVi more than 45 mL/m2 exhibited increased relative death risk (hazard ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.10-3.38; P = .02) while LVESDi more than 20 mm/m2 did not (P = .32). LVESVi more than 45 mL/m2 showed a decreased survival trend compared with expected population survival. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large asymptomatic cohort of patients with hemodynamically significant AR, LVESVi and Vol-LVEF worked equally as well as LVESDi and linear LVEF in risk discriminating patients with excess mortality. A LVESVi threshold of 45 mL/m2 or greater was significantly associated with an increased mortality risk.

12.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively explore contemporary differences between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients with chronic haemodynamically significant aortic regurgitation (AR). METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic ≥moderate-severe AR from a tertiary referral centre (2006-2017) were included. All-cause mortality, surgical indications and aortic valve surgery (AVS) were analysed. RESULTS: Of 798 patients (296 BAV-AR, age 46±14 years; 502 TAV-AR, age 67±14 years, p<0.0001) followed for 5.5 (IQR: 2.9-9.2) years, 403 underwent AVS (repair in 96) and 154 died during follow-up. The 8-year AVS incidence was 60%±3% versus 53%±3% for BAV-AR and TAV-AR, respectively (p=0.014). The unadjusted (real-life) 8-year total survival was 93%±7% versus 71%±2% for BAV-AR and TAV-AR, respectively (p<0.0001), and became statistically insignificant after sole adjustment for age (p=0.14). The within-group relative risk of death in BAV-AR patients demonstrated a large age-dependent increase (two fold at 50-55 years, up to 10-fold at 70 years). The presence of baseline symptoms was significantly associated with death for both BAV-AR (p=0.039) and TAV-AR (p<0.0001), but the strength of the association decreased with age adjustment for BAV-AR (age-adjusted HR 2.43 (0.92-6.39), p=0.07) and not for TAV-AR (age-adjusted HR, 2.3 (1.6-3.3), p<0.0001). As compared with general population, TAV-AR exhibited baseline excess risk which further increased at left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <60% and left ventricular end-systolic dimension index (LVESDi) >20 mm/m2; similar thresholds were observed for BAV-AR patients. CONCLUSION: BAV-AR patients were two decades younger than TAV-AR and underwent AVS more frequently, resulting in a considerable real-life survival advantage for BAV-AR that was determined primarily by age and not valve anatomy. Pragmatically, regardless of valve anatomy, patients with haemodynamically significant AR and age >50-55 years require a low-threshold for surgical referral to prevent symptom development where LVEF <60% and LVESDi >20 mm/m2 seem appropriate referral thresholds.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 136: 107-114, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946861

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including sudden cardiac death (SCD). Anemia is a known risk factor for mortality in patients with AS. We sought to understand the prognostic implications between anemia and SCD in severe AS. The Mayo Clinic AS database includes 8,357 adults with severe AS (mean gradient ≥40 mm Hg, aortic valve area ≤1 cm2, or peak aortic jet velocity ≥4 m/s) enrolled between January 1, 1995 and April 30, 2015. Survival and cause of death were ascertained from the National Death Index and SCD from medical records. We excluded patients with multiple valvular abnormalities, leaving 7,292 subjects. The median (interquartile range, [IQR]) age was 76 (68, 82) years with 56% male, and median (IQR) hemoglobin level was 12.9 (11.6, 14.1) g/dl. The frequency of anemia (hemoglobin <13.0g/dl for men, <12.0 g/dL for women) was 40%. During median (IQR) follow up of 4.4 (1.8, 8.1) years, 4,056 died (10-year survival 38%) including 225 with SCD (10-year cumulative incidence 5%). In a multivariate model including age, sex, body-mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and time dependent aortic valve replacement, anemia was associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratios 1.75, 95%CI 1.64, 1.87; p < 0.001) and increased SCD mortality (hazard ratios 1.42, 95%CI 1.07, 1.86; p = 0.01). In conclusions, anemia is a frequent finding in patients with severe AS and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality and SCD. Anemia may be a useful prognostic marker and a modifiable therapeutic target in managing patients with severe AS.

14.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Background parenchymal uptake (BPU) on molecular breast imaging (MBI) was identified as a breast cancer risk factor beyond mammographic density in a case-control study, but has not been confirmed in a cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To examine association of BPU with breast cancer, and to estimate absolute risk and discriminatory accuracy of BPU using a cohort study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of women having MBI from 2004-2015, without prior breast cancer, was established. Radiologists, blinded to future breast cancer diagnoses, assessed BPU at baseline MBI as low (photopenic or minimal) or elevated (mild, moderate, or marked). Associations of BPU with breast cancer were estimated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models of time to diagnosis. Five-year absolute risk was calculated for study subgroups. Discriminatory accuracy of BPU was assessed. RESULTS: Among 2992 women with mean age 56.3 years (sd 10.6) at MBI, breast cancer events occurred in 144 over 7.3 years median follow-up. Median time to diagnosis was 4.2 years (range 0.5-11.6 years) after MBI. Elevated BPU was associated with greater breast cancer risk (HR=2.39 [1.68, 3.41]; p=<0.001). This association remained in postmenopausal women (HR=3.50 [2.31, 5.31; p<0.001]) but was not significant in premenopausal women (HR=1.29 [0.72, 2.32]; p=0.39). Women with elevated BPU had five-year absolute risk of 4.3% (2.9, 5.7) vs. 2.5% (1.8, 3.1) for those with low BPU. Postmenopausal women with dense breasts and elevated BPU had five-year absolute risk of 8.1% (4.3, 11.8) vs. 2.8% (1.8, 3.8) for those with low BPU. Among postmenopausal women, discriminatory accuracy for invasive cancer was improved with addition of BPU over Gail risk score alone (C-statistic 65.1 vs. 59.1; p=0.04) and over BCSC risk score alone (66.4 vs. 60.4; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: BPU on MBI is an independent breast cancer risk factor, with the strongest association observed among postmenopausal women with dense breasts. In postmenopausal women, BPU provides incremental discrimination in breast cancer risk prediction when combined with the Gail model or BCSC model. CLINICAL IMPACT: Elevated BPU on MBI may identify a subset of women with dense breasts who would benefit most from supplemental screening or preventive options.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(3): 233-246, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Etiology, mechanisms, and survival of mitral regurgitation (MR) plus hemodynamically-significant chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) are mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, mechanisms, etiologies, and survival impact of coexistent ≥ moderate MR in AR patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ≥ moderate-severe AR were retrospectively identified between 2004 and 2019. RESULTS: Of 1,239 eligible patients (61 ± 18 years, 80% men), 1,072 (86%) had pure AR, and 167 (14%) had AR + MR (9% functional mitral regurgitation [FMR] [84% nonischemic] and 5% organic mitral regurgitation [OMR] [62% degenerative]). At baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, pure AR versus AR + OMR versus AR + FMR exhibited differences in age (59 ± 18, 62 ± 16, and 73 ± 14 years, respectively), female sex (18%, 27%, and 39%, respectively), symptoms (36%, 41%, and 64%, respectively), atrial fibrillation (5%, 17%, and 36%, respectively), left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (59%, 58%, and 46%, respectively), LV end-systolic dimension and volume index, ≥ moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (7%, 35%, and 53%, respectively), and right ventricular systolic pressure (32 ± 11, 45 ± 15, and 50 ± 14 mm Hg, respectively), all p < 0.0001. After a median follow-up of 5.2 years (interquartile range: 2.2 to 10.0 years) and adjusting for demographics, New York Heart Association functional class, aortic valve surgery, LV ejection fraction, LV end-systolic dimension and volume index, presence of FMR was independently associated with all-cause mortality (p ≤ 0.004). Compared with pure AR, AR + MR + TR exhibited the highest adjusted risk of death (2.4-fold; p < 0.0001). When compared with expected population survival, excess mortality risks of pure AR, AR + OMR, and AR + FMR were 1.25-fold, 1.76-fold, and 2.34-fold, respectively (all p ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In hemodynamically significant AR, coexistent MR is not uncommon (approximately 14%) and mostly comprises FMR and less commonly OMR. As compared with pure AR, AR + MR + TR exhibit the largest mortality risk. Both AR + OMR and AR + FMR carry a survival penalty compared with the general population, but AR + FMR is associated with the largest excess mortality and represents an advanced stage within the AR clinical spectrum.

16.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(9): 1067-1076, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and diagnostic accuracy of stress testing in anemic patients have not been well studied. Despite a lack of data, significant anemia may be considered a relative contraindication to stress testing because of safety concerns related to insufficient myocardial oxygen supply. METHODS: The authors reviewed 28,829 consecutive patients with blood hemoglobin drawn within 48 hours of stress echocardiography (15,624 exercise and 13,205 dobutamine). The associations of blood hemoglobin concentration with arrhythmia and other stress echocardiographic findings were examined. Additionally, the effect of anemia on the positive predictive value of stress echocardiography for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (≥50%) was assessed in patients who subsequently underwent coronary angiography. RESULTS: Anemia was present in 6,401 patients (22.2%) and was severe (hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL) in 52. Stress testing with either exercise or dobutamine was safe, with no significant increase in serious arrhythmia events or need for hospitalization. In the exercise cohort, worsening anemia was associated with reduced treadmill exercise time, lower peak heart rate, peak rate-pressure product, and achieved workload. In the dobutamine stress cohort, worsening anemia was associated with higher resting heart rate, more use of atropine, and fewer patients attaining target heart rate. The positive predictive value of stress echocardiography was higher in patients with moderate anemia compared with those without anemia (71.8% vs 60.2%, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that stress testing is safe in patients with mild and moderately anemia, albeit with a small increase in mild supraventricular arrhythmias with exercise. However, worsening anemia was associated with a significant reduction in exercise capacity. Additionally, worsening anemia was associated with an improvement in the positive predictive value of stress echocardiography. Extrapolation of these data to patients with severe anemia should be performed with caution given the limited number of patients with severe anemia in this study.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2589-2596, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588556

RESUMO

AIMS: Right atrial pressure (RAP) provides a composite measure of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction, right atrial compliance, and volume status, and these three variables are typically abnormal in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). RAP is a well-established prognostic metric in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and recent data suggest that RAP is associated with clinical outcomes in TOF. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of inferior vena cava (IVC) haemodynamics (size and collapsibility) for the assessment of RAP and its potential application for risk stratification and prognostication in the TOF population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult TOF patients with echocardiographic assessment of IVC haemodynamics were divided into patients with (derivation cohort, n = 256) and without (validation cohort, n = 492) cardiac catheterization data. We assessed the correlation between IVC haemodynamics, RAP, and disease severity indices [arrhythmias, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 ), and heart failure hospitalization] in derivation cohort and compared it with the correlations in the validation cohort. IVC haemodynamics correlated with RAP (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), with disease severity indices {atrial arrhythmias [area under the curve (AUC) 0.81], ventricular arrhythmias [AUC 0.67], heart failure hospitalizations [AUC 0.78], and peak VO2 [r = 0.53]}, and with transplant-free survival in the derivation cohort. Similar correlations between IVC haemodynamics, disease severity indices, and transplant-free survival were also observed in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IVC haemodynamics can potentially be used for risk stratification and prognostication in TOF patients and can complement the current risk models that are based predominately on right ventricular volumes and systolic function.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(24): 3048-3057, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of calcific mitral stenosis (MS) increases with age; however, its natural history and relation to cardiac symptoms or comorbidities are not well defined. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence of symptoms, comorbidities, and determinants of all-cause mortality in patients with severe calcific MS. METHODS: The authors retrospectively investigated adults with isolated severe calcific MS and mitral valve area ≤1.5 cm2 from July 2003 to December 2017. Inactivity was defined as requirement for assistance with activities of daily living. RESULTS: Of 491 patients with isolated severe MS, calcific MS was present in 200 (41%; age 78 ± 11 years, 18% men, 32% with atrial fibrillation). Charlson Comorbidity Index was 5.1 ± 1.7 and 14 (7%) were inactive. Mitral valve area and transmitral gradient (TMG) were 1.26 ± 0.19 cm2 and 8.1 ± 3.8 mm Hg, respectively. Symptoms were present at baseline in 120 (60%); 20 (10%) developed symptoms during follow-up of 2.8 ± 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier survival at 1 year was 72% without intervention. Inactivity (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.54 to 12.3; p < 0.01), Charlson Comorbidity Index >5 (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.26; p < 0.01), TMG ≥8 mm Hg (HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.51; p = 0.012), and right ventricular systolic pressure ≥50 mm Hg (HR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.50 to 3.43; p < 0.01) were independently associated with mortality. Symptoms were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with isolated severe calcific MS had a high burden of comorbidities, resulting in high mortality without intervention. Symptoms were reported in 60%, but not associated with mortality. TMG ≥8 mm Hg and right ventricular systolic pressure ≥50 mm Hg were independently associated with mortality.

20.
Radiology ; 296(1): 24-31, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396041

RESUMO

Background The associations of density measures from the publicly available Laboratory for Individualized Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA) software with breast cancer have primarily focused on estimates from the contralateral breast at the time of diagnosis. Purpose To evaluate LIBRA measures on mammograms obtained before breast cancer diagnosis and compare their performance to established density measures. Materials and Methods For this retrospective case-control study, full-field digital mammograms in for-processing (raw) and for-presentation (processed) formats were obtained (March 2008 to December 2011) in women who developed breast cancer an average of 2 years later and in age-matched control patients. LIBRA measures included absolute dense area and area percent density (PD) from both image formats. For comparison, dense area and PD were assessed by using the research software (Cumulus), and volumetric PD (VPD) and absolute dense volume were estimated with a commercially available software (Volpara). Density measures were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficients (r), and conditional logistic regression (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) was performed to examine the associations of density measures with breast cancer by adjusting for age and body mass index. Results Evaluated were 437 women diagnosed with breast cancer (median age, 62 years ± 17 [standard deviation]) and 1225 matched control patients (median age, 61 years ± 16). LIBRA PD showed strong correlations with Cumulus PD (r = 0.77-0.84) and Volpara VPD (r = 0.85-0.90) (P < .001 for both). For LIBRA, the strongest breast cancer association was observed for PD from processed images (OR, 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5), although the PD association from raw images was not significantly different (OR, 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4; P = .25). Slightly stronger breast cancer associations were seen for Cumulus PD (OR, 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8; processed images; P = .01) and Volpara VPD (OR, 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7; raw images; P = .004) compared with LIBRA measures. Conclusion Automated density measures provided by the Laboratory for Individualized Breast Radiodensity Assessment from raw and processed mammograms correlated with established area and volumetric density measures and showed comparable breast cancer associations. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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