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1.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520464

RESUMO

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and behavioral problems. It is caused by a loss of B0 AT1, a neutral amino acid transporter in the kidney and intestine. CLTRN encodes the protein collectrin that functions in the transportation and activation of B0 AT1 in the renal apical brush bordered epithelium. Collectrin deficient mice have severe aminoaciduria. However, the phenotype associated with collectrin deficiency in humans has not been reported. Here we report two patients, an 11-year-old male who is hemizygous for a small, interstitial deletion on Xp22.2 that encompasses CLTRN and a 22-year-old male with a deletion spanning exons 1 to 3 of CLTRN. Both of them present with neuropsychiatric phenotypes including autistic features, anxiety, depression, compulsions, and motor tics, as well as neutral aminoaciduria leading to a clinical diagnosis of Hartnup disease and treatment with niacin supplementation. Plasma amino acids were normal in both patients. One patient had low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, a serotoninergic metabolite. We explored the expression of collectrin in the murine brain and found it to be particularly abundant in the hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum. We propose that collectrin deficiency in humans can be associated with aminoaciduria and a clinical picture similar to that seen in Hartnup disease. Further studies are needed to explore the role of collectrin deficiency in the neurological phenotypes.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have systematically evaluated birth defect co-occurrence patterns, perhaps, in part, due to the lack of software designed to implement large-scale, complex analytic methods. METHODS: We created an R-based platform, "co-occurring defect analysis" (CODA), designed to implement analyses of birth defect co-occurrence patterns in birth defect registries. CODA uses an established algorithm for calculating the observed-to-expected ratio of a given birth defect combination, accounting for the known tendency of birth defects to co-occur nonspecifically. To demonstrate CODA's feasibility, we evaluated the computational time needed to assess 2- to 5-way combinations of major birth defects in the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) (1999-2014). We report on two examples of pairwise patterns, defects co-occurring with trisomy 21 or with non-syndromic spina bifida, to demonstrate proof-of-concept. RESULTS: We evaluated combinations of 175 major birth defects among 206,784 infants in the TBDR. CODA performed efficiently in the data set, analyzing 1.5 million 5-way combinations in 18 hr. As anticipated, we identified large observed-to-expected ratios for the birth defects that co-occur with trisomy 21 or spina bifida. CONCLUSIONS: CODA is available for application to birth defect data sets and can be used to better understand co-occurrence patterns. Co-occurrence patterns elucidated by using CODA may be helpful for identifying new birth defect associations and may provide etiological insights regarding potentially shared pathogenic mechanisms. CODA may also have wider applications, such as assessing patterns of additional types of co-occurrence patterns in other large data sets (e.g., medical records).

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1376-1382, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069960

RESUMO

The myelin regulatory factor gene (MYRF) encodes a transcription factor that is widely expressed. There is increasing evidence that heterozygous loss-of-function variants in MYRF can lead to abnormal development of the heart, genitourinary tract, diaphragm, and lungs. Here, we searched a clinical database containing the results of 12,000 exome sequencing studies. We identified three previously unreported males with putatively deleterious variants in MYRF: one with a point mutation predicted to affect splicing and two with frameshift variants. In all cases where parental DNA was available, these variants were found to have arisen de novo. The phenotypes identified in these subjects included a variety of congenital heart defects (CHD) (hypoplastic left heart syndrome, scimitar syndrome, septal defects, and valvular anomalies), genitourinary anomalies (ambiguous genitalia, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism), congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. The phenotypes seen in our subjects overlap those described in individuals diagnosed with PAGOD syndrome [MIM# 202660], a clinically defined syndrome characterized by pulmonary artery and lung hypoplasia, agonadism, omphalocele, and diaphragmatic defects that can also be associated with hypoplastic left heart and scimitar syndrome. These cases provide additional evidence that haploinsufficiency of MYRF causes a genetic syndrome whose cardinal features include CHD, urogenital anomalies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. We also conclude that consideration should be given to screening individuals with PAGOD for pathogenic variants in MYRF, and that individuals with MYRF deficiency who survive the neonatal period should be monitored closely for developmental delay and intellectual disability.

5.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

8.
J Pediatr Genet ; 7(4): 164-173, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430034

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by dysmorphic facies, congenital heart defects, intellectual/developmental disability, and increased risk for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this report, we describe a stillborn girl with WHS and a large CDH. A literature review revealed 15 cases of WHS with CDH, which overlap a 2.3-Mb CDH critical region. We applied a machine-learning algorithm that integrates large-scale genomic knowledge to genes within the 4p16.3 CDH critical region and identified FGFRL1 , CTBP1 , NSD2 , FGFR3 , CPLX1 , MAEA , CTBP1-AS2 , and ZNF141 as genes whose haploinsufficiency may contribute to the development of CDH.

9.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(9)2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061196

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 1p36 are associated with a high incidence of congenital heart defects (CHDs). The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (RERE) is located in a critical region for CHD on chromosome 1p36 and encodes a cardiac-expressed nuclear receptor co-regulator. Mutations affecting RERE cause atrial and ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in humans, and RERE-deficient mice also develop VSDs. During cardiac development, mesenchymal cells destined to form part of the atrioventricular (AV) septum are generated when endocardial cells in the AV canal undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate into the space between the endocardium and the myocardium. These newly generated mesenchymal cells then proliferate to fill the developing AV endocardial cushions. Here, we demonstrate that RERE-deficient mouse embryos have reduced numbers of mesenchymal cells in their AV endocardial cushions owing to decreased levels of EMT and mesenchymal cell proliferation. In the endocardium, RERE colocalizes with GATA4, a transcription factor required for normal levels of EMT and mesenchymal cell proliferation. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that Rere and Gata4 interact genetically in the development of CHDs, RERE positively regulates transcription from the Gata4 promoter and GATA4 levels are reduced in the AV canals of RERE-deficient embryos. Tissue-specific ablation of Rere in the endocardium leads to hypocellularity of the AV endocardial cushions, defective EMT and VSDs, but does not result in decreased GATA4 expression. We conclude that RERE functions in the AV canal to positively regulate the expression of GATA4, and that deficiency of RERE leads to the development of VSDs through its effects on EMT and mesenchymal cell proliferation. However, the cell-autonomous role of RERE in promoting EMT in the endocardium must be mediated by its effects on the expression of proteins other than GATA4.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(12): 2064-2075, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618029

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been reported twice in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Fraser syndrome, a genetic disorder that can be caused by recessive mutations affecting FREM2 and FRAS1. In the extracellular matrix, FREM2 and FRAS1 form a self-stabilizing complex with FREM1, a protein whose deficiency causes sac CDH in humans and mice. By sequencing FREM2 and FRAS1 in a CDH cohort, and searching online databases, we identified five individuals who carried recessive or double heterozygous, putatively deleterious variants in these genes which may represent susceptibility alleles. Three of these alleles were significantly enriched in our CDH cohort compared with ethnically matched controls. We subsequently demonstrated that 8% of Frem2ne/ne and 1% of Fras1Q1263*/Q1263* mice develop the same type of anterior sac CDH seen in FREM1-deficient mice. We went on to show that development of sac hernias in FREM1-deficient mice is preceded by failure of anterior mesothelial fold progression resulting in the persistence of an amuscular, poorly vascularized anterior diaphragm that is abnormally adherent to the underlying liver. Herniation occurs in the perinatal period when the expanding liver protrudes through this amuscular region of the anterior diaphragm that is juxtaposed to areas of muscular diaphragm. Based on these data, we conclude that deficiency of FREM2, and possibly FRAS1, are associated with an increased risk of developing CDH and that loss of the FREM1/FREM2/FRAS1 complex, or its function, leads to anterior sac CDH development through its effects on mesothelial fold progression.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 666-675, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330883

RESUMO

Heterozygous variants in the arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (RERE) have been shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH). Here, we report nine individuals with NEDBEH who carry partial deletions or deleterious sequence variants in RERE. These variants were found to be de novo in all cases in which parental samples were available. An analysis of data from individuals with NEDBEH suggests that point mutations affecting the Atrophin-1 domain of RERE are associated with an increased risk of structural eye defects, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss when compared with loss-of-function variants that are likely to lead to haploinsufficiency. A high percentage of RERE pathogenic variants affect a histidine-rich region in the Atrophin-1 domain. We have also identified a recurrent two-amino-acid duplication in this region that is associated with the development of a CHARGE syndrome-like phenotype. We conclude that mutations affecting RERE result in a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist and can be used to guide medical decision making. Consideration should also be given to screening for RERE variants in individuals who fulfill diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome but do not carry pathogenic variants in CHD7.

13.
Stem Cell Reports ; 9(4): 1139-1151, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943254

RESUMO

Satellite cells are skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells that are activated by injury to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to enable repair. SOX7, a member of the SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors is expressed in quiescent satellite cells. To elucidate SOX7 function in skeletal muscle, we knocked down Sox7 expression in embryonic stem cells and primary myoblasts and generated a conditional knockout mouse in which Sox7 is excised in PAX3+ cells. Loss of Sox7 in embryonic stem cells reduced Pax3 and Pax7 expression. In vivo, conditional knockdown of Sox7 reduced the satellite cell population from birth, reduced myofiber caliber, and impaired regeneration after acute injury. Although Sox7-deficient primary myoblasts differentiated normally, impaired myoblast fusion and increased sensitivity to apoptosis in culture and in vivo were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that SOX7 is dispensable for myogenesis but is necessary to promote satellite cell development and survival.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Regeneração
14.
Mech Dev ; 146: 31-41, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577909

RESUMO

The transcriptional program that regulates the differentiation of endothelial precursor cells into a highly organized vascular network is still poorly understood. Here we explore the role of SOX7 during this process, performing a detailed analysis of the vascular defects resulting from either a complete deficiency in Sox7 expression or from the conditional deletion of Sox7 in FLK1-expressing cells. We analysed the consequence of Sox7 deficiency from E7.5 onward to determine from which stage of development the effect of Sox7 deficiency can be observed. We show that while Sox7 is expressed at the onset of endothelial specification from mesoderm, Sox7 deficiency does not impact the emergence of the first endothelial progenitors. However, by E8.5, clear signs of defective vascular development are already observed with the presence of highly unorganised endothelial cords rather than distinct paired dorsal aorta. By E10.5, both Sox7 complete knockout and FLK1-specific deletion of Sox7 lead to widespread vascular defects. In contrast, while SOX7 is expressed in the earliest specified blood progenitors, the VAV-specific deletion of Sox7 does not affect the hematopoietic system. Together, our data reveal the unique role of SOX7 in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during embryonic development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Morfogênese/genética , Gravidez
15.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175962, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414775

RESUMO

By searching a clinical database of over 60,000 individuals referred for array-based CNV analyses and online resources, we identified four males from three families with intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, joint hypermobility and relative macrocephaly who carried small, overlapping deletions of Xp11.22. The maximum region of overlap between their deletions spanned ~430 kb and included two pseudogenes, CENPVL1 and CENPVL2, whose functions are not known, and two protein coding genes-the G1 to S phase transition 2 gene (GSPT2) and the MAGE family member D1 gene (MAGED1). Deletions of this ~430 kb region have not been previously implicated in human disease. Duplications of GSPT2 have been documented in individuals with intellectual disability, but the phenotypic consequences of a loss of GSPT2 function have not been elucidated in humans or mouse models. Changes in MAGED1 have not been associated with intellectual disability in humans, but loss of MAGED1 function is associated with neurocognitive and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mice. In all cases, the Xp11.22 deletion was inherited from an unaffected mother. Studies performed on DNA from one of these mothers did not show evidence of skewed X-inactivation. These results suggest that deletions of an ~430 kb region on chromosome Xp11.22 that encompass CENPVL1, CENPVL2, GSPT2 and MAGED1 cause a distinct X-linked syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, joint hypermobility and relative macrocephaly. Loss of GSPT2 and/or MAGED1 function may contribute to the intellectual disability and developmental delay seen in males with these deletions.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
16.
Genet Med ; 19(4): 412-420, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) to define a molecular diagnosis for patients clinically diagnosed with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). METHODS: WES was performed in 62 families with CAKUT. WES data were analyzed for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in 35 known CAKUT genes, putatively deleterious sequence changes in new candidate genes, and potentially disease-associated copy-number variants (CNVs). RESULTS: In approximately 5% of families, pathogenic SNVs were identified in PAX2, HNF1B, and EYA1. Observed phenotypes in these families expand the current understanding about the role of these genes in CAKUT. Four pathogenic CNVs were also identified using two CNV detection tools. In addition, we found one deleterious de novo SNV in FOXP1 among the 62 families with CAKUT. The clinical database of the Baylor Miraca Genetics laboratory was queried and seven additional unrelated individuals with novel de novo SNVs in FOXP1 were identified. Six of these eight individuals with FOXP1 SNVs have syndromic urinary tract defects, implicating this gene in urinary tract development. CONCLUSION: We conclude that WES can be used to identify molecular etiology (SNVs, CNVs) in a subset of individuals with CAKUT. WES can also help identify novel CAKUT genes.Genet Med 19 4, 412-420.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX2/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Genet ; 54(1): 47-53, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The non-POU domain containing octamer-binding gene (NONO) is located on chromosome Xq13.1 and encodes a member of a small family of RNA-binding and DNA-binding proteins that perform a variety of tasks involved in RNA synthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Loss-of-function variants in NONO have been described as a cause of intellectual disability in males but have not been described in association with congenital heart defects or cardiomyopathy. In this article, we seek to further define the phenotypic consequences of NONO depletion in human subjects. METHODS: We searched a clinical database of over 6000 individuals referred for exome sequencing and over 60 000 individuals referred for CNV analysis. RESULTS: We identified two males with atrial and ventricular septal defects, left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), developmental delay and intellectual disability, who harboured de novo, loss-of-function variants in NONO. We also identified a male infant with developmental delay, congenital brain anomalies and severe LVNC requiring cardiac transplantation, who inherited a single-gene deletion of NONO from his asymptomatic mother. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in addition to global developmental delay and intellectual disability, males with loss-of-function variants in NONO may also be predisposed to developing congenital heart defects and LVNC with the penetrance of these cardiac-related problems being influenced by genetic, epigenetic, environmental or stochastic factors. Brain imaging of males with NONO deficiency may reveal structural defects with abnormalities of the corpus callosum being the most common. Although dysmorphic features vary between affected individuals, relative macrocephaly is a common feature.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(12): 3338-3342, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589475

RESUMO

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are present in over 1% of all newborns and are the leading cause of birth-defect-related deaths in the United States. We describe two male subjects with CHD, one with an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary artery stenosis; and the other with tetralogy of Fallot and a right aortic arch, who carry partially overlapping, de novo deletions of chromosome 5q33. The maximum region of overlap between these deletions encompasses HAND1 and SAP30L, two genes that have previously been shown to play a role in cardiac development. HAND1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Cardiac-specific ablation of Hand1 in mice causes septal, valvular, and outflow tract defects. SAP30L, its paralog SAP30, and other SAP proteins form part of a multi-subunit complex involved in transcriptional regulation via histone deacetylation. Morpholino knockdown of sap30L in zebrafish, which do not have a distinct sap30 gene, leads to cardiac hypoplasia and cardiac insufficiency. We subsequently identified two other individuals with chromosomal deletions involving HAND1 and SAP30L in whom cardiac-related medical problems were not described. These observations suggest that haploinsufficiency of HAND1 and/or SAP30L may contribute to the development of CHD, although the contribution of other genes on chromosome 5q33 cannot be excluded. Our findings also suggest that the penetrance of CHD associated with 5q33 deletions is incomplete and may be influenced by other genetic, environmental or stochastic factors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Associação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Hum Genet ; 135(12): 1399-1409, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681385

RESUMO

Intellectual disabilities are genetically heterogeneous and can be associated with congenital anomalies. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified five different de novo missense variants in the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB) gene in eight unrelated individuals who share an overlapping phenotype of dysmorphic features, macrocephaly, developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID), congenital heart disease, short stature, and skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of a variety of proteins. The PPP1CB gene encodes a PP1 subunit that regulates the level of protein phosphorylation. All five altered amino acids we observed are highly conserved among the PP1 subunit family, and all are predicted to disrupt PP1 subunit binding and impair dephosphorylation. Our data suggest that our heterozygous de novo PPP1CB pathogenic variants are associated with syndromic intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fosforilação/genética
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(3): 720-727, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545676

RESUMO

SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/química , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
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