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1.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223224

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based DNA adductomics is an emerging approach for the human biomonitoring of hazardous chemicals. A mass spectral database of DNA adducts will be created for the scientific community to investigate the associations between chemical exposures, DNA damage, and disease risk.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4722(1): zootaxa.4722.1.8, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230642

RESUMO

Setostylus xoxo spec. nov., is described and illustrated from Morelos, Mexico and southern Arizona, USA and is compared with similar Neotropical congeners. Additionally, the first records of Setostylus bellulus (Williston) are provided from Guatemala and Costa Rica and an updated key to the New World species of Setostylus is presented.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242255

RESUMO

Total mercury (THg) and selenium (TSe) levels were measured in stomach contents (SC) and twelve tissues of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) occurring in three high-elevation lakes of Colorado, USA, inhabiting watersheds absent past and current mining activities. For 32 of 36 tissues, including muscle, mean THg wet weight (ww) concentrations were greater than in the diet (SC) for all sites, indicating biomagnification. Ranges of THg (µg/kg ww) for SC and stomach tissue (ST) were 1.23-73.54 and 14.55-61.35, respectively. Selenium concentrations in fish muscle were not greater than in the SC indicating a trophic transfer factor < 1.0. However, in several other tissues, mean Se dry weight (dw) levels were greater than in SC for all three lakes. Ranges of TSe for SC and ST were 166-7544 and 797-7523 (µg/kg dw), respectively. The muscle to egg/ovary ratio for Se averaged 2.30, 4.60, and 2.68 for the three populations. The variability of SC (planktonic vs. benthic) and differential distributions of THg and TSe in SC and organ-tissues generated questions focusing on the seasonal, physiological, and genetic drivers of these organometal(loid)s in subalpine trout.

6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are common causes of healthcare-associated infections and are often multidrug resistant with limited therapeutic options. Additionally, CRE can spread within and between healthcare facilities, amplifying potential harms. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the burden, risk factors, and source of acquisition of carbapenemase genes in clinical Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolates from patients in Washington to guide prevention efforts. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective surveillance study. METHODS: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolates meeting the Washington state CRE surveillance case definition were solicited from clinical laboratories and tested at Washington Public Health Laboratories using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 5 most common carbapenemase genes: blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48. Case patients positive by PCR were investigated by the public health department. RESULTS: From October 2012 through December 2017, 363 carbapenem-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp isolates were tested. Overall, 45 of 115 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (39%), 1 of 8 K. oxytoca (12.5%), and 28 of 239 carbapenem-resistant E. coli (11.7%) were carbapenemase positive. Of 74 carbapenemase-positive isolates, blaKPC was most common (47%), followed by blaNDM (30%), blaOXA-48 (22%), and blaIMP (1%). Although all cases had healthcare exposure, blaKPC acquisition was associated with US health care, whereas non-blaKPC acquisition was associated with international health care or travel. CONCLUSIONS: We report that blaKPC, the most prevalent carbapenemase in the United States, accounts for nearly half of carbapenemase cases in Washington state and that most KPC-cases are likely acquired through in-state health care.

7.
Fertil Steril ; 113(3): 653-660.e1, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine research interests of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) physicians and assess their academic productivity. DESIGN: A questionnaire composed by the Society for REI (SREI) board members was e-mailed to members. PubMed was queried to quantify peer-reviewed publications. SETTING: An internal SREI questionnaire to members and online publication search. PATIENT(S): Not applicable. INTERVENTION(S): Questions involving research being performed, funding, relevance to fellow thesis, and important areas of future research. Publications were ascertained in the past 3 years, past 10 years, and total publications for SREI members. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Question responses and number of peer-reviewed publications. RESULT(S): Most respondents currently conduct research, which was predominantly clinical. One-third have current research funding and two-thirds were ever funded. One-third had a National Institutes of Health grant and about half were principal investigators. Two-thirds had a basic science fellow thesis and 44% of respondents perform research related to their fellowship thesis. Important research areas included infertility outcomes, implantation, preimplantation genetic testing, and genetics. In the past 3 years, SREI members published 3,408 peer-reviewed articles (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 4.4 ± 9.0). In the past 10 years, SREI members had 10,162 peer-reviewed publications (mean±SD, 13.0 ± 24.3). When all publications were considered, SREI members published 24,088 peer-reviewed articles (mean±SD, 30.9 ± 53.0). CONCLUSION(S): The REI fellows have learned to construct scientific articles, which will help them to better interpret the literature in the care of patients. The SREI members continue to pursue scientific investigation, commonly related to their fellowship thesis. Respondents support SREI funding research; the success of which should be judged by publications. Overall, SREI members have demonstrated significant academic productivity and published about 1,000 articles/year for the past 10 years, affirming the importance of research training.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187417

RESUMO

It is suggested that changes in echo-intensity (EI) measured through ultrasound can detect muscle swelling. However, changes in EI have never been examined relative to a non-exercise control following naïve exposure to exercise. PURPOSE: Examine the changes in muscle thickness (MT), EI and isometric strength (ISO) before, immediately after, and 24, and 48 hr following biceps curls. METHODS: 27 non-resistance trained individuals visited the laboratory 4 times. During visit 1, paperwork was completed and strength was measured. During visit 2 MT and ISO were measured before 4 sets of curls. Additional measures were taken immediately after exercise, as well as 24 and 48 hr post. Results are displayed as means (SD). RESULTS: For MT there was an interaction (p < .001). For the experimental condition, MT increased from pre [2.88(0.64)cm] to post [3.27(0.67)cm] and remained elevated 48 hr post. There were no changes for MT in the control arm. In the experimental arm EI increased from pre [22.9(9.6)AU] to post [29.1(12.3)AU] exercise and returned to baseline by 24 hr. For the control condition, EI was different between pre [24.8(10.2)AU] and 48 hr [21.5(10.7)AU]. The change in EI in the experimental condition was greater than the control condition immediately post (p = .039) and at 48 hr (p = .016). For ISO, there was an interaction (p < .001). In the experimental condition ISO decreased from pre [40.6(14.7)Nm)] to post [24.8(9.4)Nm] and remained depressed. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise produced a swelling response, which was elevated 48 hr post. Despite a sustained increase in MT, EI was only elevated immediately post exercise.

9.
Spine Deform ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189230

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the impact of MCGR proximal anchor location and density on radiographic outcomes and complications. Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs) reduce the need for repeat operations for lengthening when treating spinal deformity in children. The evidence behind choosing the location and density of proximal anchors comes from the traditional growing rod and rib-based distraction technique literature. Thus, there is much debate regarding the optimal quantity and location of proximal anchors. METHODS: This study included early-onset scoliosis patients treated with MCGR with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Comparisons of 2-year correction in the coronal and sagittal planes, complication rates, and patient-reported outcomes were made based on proximal fixation type, proximal anchor density, and type of case (primary, conversion). RESULTS: This study included 155 MCGR patients. Spinal deformity correction at 2 years was significantly higher in spine-based than rib-based constructs, in terms of both the major (23.9° vs. 17.1°, p = 0.05) and minor curves (10.0° vs. 4.5°, p = 0.03). Greater proximal anchor density, regardless of location, was also associated with better major curve correction at 2 years (25.0° vs. 18.2°, p < 0.05). There was a trend towards higher risk of device migration with rib-based fixation (13.8% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.06) and rod breakage with spine-based fixation (10.3% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.21). Having 5+ proximal anchors did not significantly decrease the risk of complication, including device migration (8.4% vs. 7.7%). CONCLUSIONS: When using the MCGR, proximal spine anchors and greater anchor density impart superior deformity correction but do not significantly impact the risk of device complications. Although rib-based constructs afford less rigidity than spine-based constructs, there is a similar risk of rod breakage and device migration. This study suggests that having 5+ MCGR proximal anchors does not protect against proximal anchor complication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-therapeutic.

10.
J Cell Sci ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184260

RESUMO

The specification of organs, tissues and cell types results from cell fate restrictions enacted by nuclear transcription factors under the control of conserved signaling pathways. The progenitor epithelium of the Drosophila compound eye, the eye imaginal disc, is a premier model for the study of such processes. Early in development, apposing cells of the eye disc are established as either retinal progenitors or support cells of the peripodial epithelium (PE), in a process whose genetic and mechanistic determinants are poorly understood. We have identified Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and specifically a STRIPAK-PP2A complex that includes the scaffolding and substrate-specificity components Cka, Strip and SLMAP, as a critical player in the retina-PE fate choice. We show that these factors suppress ectopic retina formation in the presumptive PE and do so via the Hippo signaling axis. STRIPAK-PP2A negatively regulates Hpo kinase, and consequently its substrate Wts, to release the transcriptional co-activator Yki into the nucleus. Thus, a modular higher-order PP2A complex refines the activity of this general phosphatase to act in a precise specification of cell fate.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185378

RESUMO

We applied whole genome sequencing to identify putative transmission clusters among clinical multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 131-H30 isolates from 4 United States children's hospitals. Of 126 isolates, 17 were involved in 8 putative transmission clusters; 4 clusters showed evidence of healthcare-associated epidemiologic linkages. Geographic clustering analyses showed weak geographic clustering.

12.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212743

RESUMO

Affect regulation models of eating disorder behavior, which predict worsening of affect prior to binge-eating episodes and improvement in affect following such episodes, have received support in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, limited work has examined the trajectories of affect surrounding binge eating in binge-eating disorder (BED). In the current study, ecological momentary assessment data from 112 men and women with BED were used to examine the trajectories of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), guilt, fear, hostility, and sadness relative to binge-eating episodes. Prior to binge episodes, PA significantly decreased, whereas NA and guilt significantly increased. Following binge episodes, levels of NA and guilt significantly decreased and PA stabilized. Overall, results indicate improvements in affect following binge-eating episodes, suggesting that binge eating may function to alleviate unpleasant emotional experiences among individuals with BED, which is consistent with affect regulation models of eating pathology. Because improvements in negative affect were primarily driven by change in guilt, findings also highlight the relative importance of understanding the relationship between guilt and binge-eating behavior within this population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

13.
Respir Care ; 65(4): 545-557, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213602

RESUMO

Many high-quality clinical trials and meta-analyses on the utilization of high-flow nasal cannula for adult patients have been published in the last 2 years. This review summarizes the recent clinical evidence, with the aim to provide the currently available evidence regarding the utilization of high-flow nasal cannula for the adult patient.

14.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220334

RESUMO

Nonapoptotic cell death is important for human health and disease. Here, we show how various tools and techniques drawn from the chemical biology field have played a central role in the discovery and characterization of nonapoptotic cell death pathways. Focusing on the example of ferroptosis, we describe how phenotypic screening, chemoproteomics, chemical genetic analysis, and other methods enabled the elucidation of this pathway. Synthetic small-molecule inducers and inhibitors of ferroptosis identified in early studies have now been leveraged to identify an even broader set of compounds that affect ferroptosis and to validate new chemical methods and probes for various ferroptosis-associated processes. A number of limitations associated with specific chemical biology tools or techniques have also emerged and must be carefully considered. Nevertheless, the study of ferroptosis provides a roadmap for how chemical biology methods may be used to discover and characterize nonapoptotic cell death mechanisms.

15.
Bone ; 135: 115311, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156664

RESUMO

Mechanical loads exerted on the skeleton during activities such as walking are important regulators of bone repair, but dynamic biomechanical signals are difficult to measure inside the body. The inability to measure the mechanical environment in injured tissues is a significant barrier to developing integrative regenerative and rehabilitative strategies that can accelerate recovery from fracture, segmental bone loss, and spinal fusion. Here we engineered an implantable strain sensor platform and longitudinally measured strain across a bone defect in real-time throughout rehabilitation. The results showed that load-sharing permitted by a load-sharing fixator initially delivered a two-fold increase in deformation magnitude, subsequently increased mineralized bridging by nearly three-fold, and increased bone formation by over 60%. These data implicate a critical role for early mechanical cues on the long term healing response as strain cycle magnitude at 1 week (before appreciable healing occurred) had a significant positive correlation with the long-term bone regeneration outcomes. Furthermore, we found that sensor readings correlated with the status of healing, suggesting a role for strain sensing as an X-ray-free healing assessment platform. Therefore, non-invasive strain measurements may possess diagnostic potential to evaluate bone repair and reduce clinical reliance on current radiation-emitting imaging methods. Together, this study demonstrates a promising framework to quantitatively develop and exploit mechanical rehabilitation strategies that enhance bone repair.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5615, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221410

RESUMO

Caterpillars of the silk moth genus Hyalophora (Lepidoptera; Saturniidae) construct multilayered cocoons that function as overwintering housing during the pupal to adult developmental period. While all cocoons share the primary function of protecting the developing moth, cocoons spun by different Hyalophora silk moth species vary significantly in architectural features and in the level of intraspecific cocoon-type polymorphism. We compared the cocoons of Hyalophora species found throughout North America and investigated the evolution of architectural variation. We first characterized and compared the architectural features of cocoons at all three cocoon sections (outer envelope, inner envelope, and the intermediate section that separates them), and found that variation in the outer envelope underlies the differences in architecture between cocoons. Phylogenetic analysis indicates ancestral polymorphic architecture (both "baggy" and "compact" morphs), with diversification within Hyalophora for both monomorphic "compact" cocoons, and increased intermediate space and silk in "baggy" lineages. The evolution of these traits suggests a potential functional role for the different cocoon architectural forms.

17.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 36, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer worldwide and represents a major health concern within and outside the United States. Mitigating exposure to radon is especially critical in places with high rates of tobacco smoking (e.g., Kentucky, USA), as radon-induced lung cancer is markedly greater among people exposed to tobacco smoke. Despite homes being a common source of radon exposure, convincing homeowners to test and mitigate for radon remains a challenge. A new communication strategy to increase radon testing among Kentucky homeowners utilizes fine-scale geologic map data to create detailed radon risk potential maps. We assessed the health benefits of this strategy via avoided lung cancer and associated premature mortality and quantified the economic value of these benefits to indicate the potential utility of using geologic map data in radon communication strategies. METHODS: We estimated the change in radon testing among all 120 counties in Kentucky following a new communication strategy reliant on geologic maps. We approximated the resultant potential change in radon mitigation rates and subsequent expected lung cancer cases and mortality avoided among smokers and non-smokers exposed to 4 pCi/L of radon in the home. We then applied the value of a statistical life to derive the economic value of the expected avoided mortality. RESULTS: The new communication strategy is estimated to help 75 Kentucky residents in 1 year avoid exposure to harmful radon levels via increased testing and mitigation rates. This equated to the potential avoidance of approximately one premature death due to lung cancer, with a net present value of $3.4 to $8.5 million (2016 USD). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis illustrates the potential economic value of health benefits associated with geologic map data used as part of a communication strategy conveying radon risk to the public. Geologic map data are freely available in varying resolutions throughout the United States, suggesting Kentucky's radon communication strategy using geologic maps can be employed in other states to educate the public about radon. As this is only a single application, in a single state, the economic and health benefits of geologic map data in educating the public about radon are likely to exceed our estimates.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 267: 258-263, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. However, few studies systematically examine which disorders are more likely to occur pre- or post-BD onset. We examine the prevalence and Age At Onset (AAO) of psychiatric conditions in adults with BD. METHODS: A structured clinical interview was used to assess lifetime history and AAO of alcohol and cannabis misuse, suicide attempts, anxiety and eating disorders in a French sample of euthymic patients with BD (n = 739). Regression analyses were used to test for statistically significant associations between rates and AAO of comorbidities in BD groups stratified by sex or subtype. RESULTS: Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis misuse was associated with male sex and BD-I subtype; whilst most anxiety and eating disorders were associated with female sex. The AAO of most comorbid conditions preceded that of BD, except for panic disorder, agoraphobia and alcohol misuse. Few variations were observed in AAO of comorbidities according to groups. LIMITATIONS: All assessments were retrospective, so estimates of prevalence rates and especially exact AAO of some comorbidities are at risk of recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: Sex and BD subtype are associated with different rates of comorbid disorders. However, there were minimal between group differences in median AAO of comorbidities. By describing the chronological sequence of comorbidities in BD we were able to demonstrate that a minority of comorbidities typically occurred post-onset of BD. This is noteworthy as these disorders might be amenable to interventions aimed at early secondary prevention.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181452

RESUMO

The intriguing coupling phenomena among spin, phonon, and charge degrees of freedom in materials having magnetic, ferroelectric and/or ferroelastic order have been of research interest for the fundamental understanding and technological relevance. We report a detailed study on structure and phonons of Al0.5Ga0.5FeO3 (ALGF), a lead-free magnetoelectric material, carried out using variable temperature dependent powder neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Neutron diffraction studies suggest that Al3+ ions are distributed in one tetrahedrally (BO4) and three octahedrally (BO6) coordinated sites of the orthorhombic (Pc21n) structure and there is no structural transition in the temperature range of 7-800 K. Temperature dependent field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization studies indicate ferrimagnetic ordering below 225 K (TN), and that is reflected in the low temperature powder neutron diffraction data. An antiferromagnetic type arrangement of Fe3+ ions with net magnetic moment of 0.13 µB/Fe3+ was observed from powder neutron diffraction analysis and it corroborates the findings from magnetization studies. At the magnetic transition temperature, no drastic change in lattice strain was observed, while significant changes in phonons were observed in the Raman spectra. The deviation of several mode frequencies from the standard anharmonicity model in the ferrimagnetic phase (below 240 K) is attributed to coupling effect between spin and phonon. Spin-phonon coupling effect is discernable from Raman bands located at 270, 425, 582, 695, 738, and 841 cm-1. Their coupling strengths (λ) have been estimated using our phonon spectra and magnetization results. BOn (n = 4, 6) libration (restricted rotation) mode at 270 cm-1 has the largest coupling constant (λ ∼ 2.3), while the stretching vibrations located at 695 and 738 cm-1 have the lowest coupling constant (λ ∼ 0.5). In addition to the libration mode, several internal stretching and bending modes of polyhedral units are strongly affected by spin ordering.

20.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 149, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dopamine-replacement utilizing L-DOPA is still the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but often leads to development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), which can be as debilitating as the motor deficits. There is currently no satisfactory pharmacological adjunct therapy. The endogenous opioid peptides enkephalin and dynorphin are important co-transmitters in the direct and indirect striatofugal pathways and have been implicated in genesis and expression of LID. Opioid receptor antagonists and agonists with different selectivity profiles have been investigated for anti-dyskinetic potential in preclinical models. In this study we investigated effects of the highly-selective µ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (> 1200-fold selectivity for µ- over δ-opioid receptors) and a novel glycopeptide congener (gCTAP5) that was glycosylated to increase stability, in the standard rat LID model. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) of either 0.5 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg CTAP and gCTAP5 completely blocked morphine's antinociceptive effect (10 mg/kg; i.p.) in the warm water tail-flick test, showing in vivo activity in rats after systemic injection. Neither treatment with CTAP (10 mg/kg; i.p.), nor gCTAP5 (5 mg/kg; i.p.) had any effect on L-DOPA-induced limb, axial, orolingual, or locomotor abnormal involuntary movements. The data indicate that highly-selective µ-opioid receptor antagonism alone might not be sufficient to be anti-dyskinetic.

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