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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613886

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing continues to grow in importance for researchers. Exome sequencing became a widespread tool to further study the genomic basis of Mendelian diseases. In an effort to identify pathogenic variants, reject benign variants and better predict variant effects in downstream analysis, the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) published a set of criteria in 2015. While there are multiple publicly available software's available to assign the ACMG criteria, most of them do not take into account multi-sample variant calling formats. Here we present a tool for assessment and prioritisation in exome studies (TAPES, https://github.com/a-xavier/tapes), an open-source tool designed for small-scale exome studies. TAPES can quickly assign ACMG criteria using ANNOVAR or VEP annotated files and implements a model to transform the categorical ACMG criteria into a continuous probability, allowing for a more accurate classification of pathogenicity or benignity of variants. In addition, TAPES can work with cohorts sharing a common phenotype by utilising a simple enrichment analysis, requiring no controls as an input as well as providing powerful filtering and reporting options. Finally, benchmarks showed that TAPES outperforms available tools to detect both pathogenic and benign variants, while also integrating the identification of enriched variants in study cohorts compared to the general population, making it an ideal tool to evaluate a smaller cohort before using bigger scale studies.

2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 46-51, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the results of studies in populations with low selenium status indicate an inverse correlation between body selenium levels and the risk of the lung cancer, the effect of this microelement on survival has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 302 patients diagnosed with lung cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Selenium concentration in serum was measured at the time of diagnosis and before treatment. All patients were followed for a maximum of 80 months or until death. Vital status was obtained from the Polish National Death Registry. RESULTS: Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, performed for all individuals with lung cancer, the hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.86-1.83, P = 0.99) for patients in the lowest tertile compared to those in the highest tertile of serum selenium levels. Among the patients with stage I disease this relationship was significant (HR-2.73; P = 0.01) for selenium level in tertile 1 (<57 µg/L) compared to tertile 3 (>69 µg/L, reference). The 80 months crude survival after diagnosis was 79.5% (95% CI: 68.5-92.4%) for individuals in the highest tertile and 58.1% (95% CI: 45.1-74.9%) for individuals in the lowest tertile with stage I lung cancer. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in patients undergoing treatment for stage I lung cancer, serum selenium levels at the time of diagnosis (>69 µg/L) may be associated with improved overall survival.

3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 142: 58-67, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377433

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays are commonly used for the clinical investigation of constitutional genomic disorders; however, their adoption for investigating somatic changes is being recognised. With increasing importance being placed on defining the cancer genome, a shift in technology is imperative at a clinical level. Microarray platforms have the potential to become frontline testing, replacing or complementing standard investigations such as FISH or karyotype. This 'molecular karyotype approach' exemplified by SNP-microarrays has distinct advantages in the investigation of several haematological malignancies. A growing body of literature, including guidelines, has shown support for the use of SNP-microarrays in the clinical laboratory to aid in a more accurate definition of the cancer genome. Understanding the benefits of this technology along with discussing the barriers to its implementation is necessary for the development and incorporation of SNP-microarrays in a clinical laboratory for the investigation of haematological malignancies.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 969-976, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity-cataract association has been inconsistently reported. The fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 is a major SNP associated with obesity and has been used as an instrumental variable for obesity in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. An interaction between the FTO SNP and macronutrient intake for obesity was suggested previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between obesity and cataract, using FTO SNP rs9939609 as an instrumental variable in an MR approach, and explore interactions of this SNP with macronutrient intake in relation to risk of cataract in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) is a longitudinal population-based study of common eye disease. Of 3654 baseline participants of the BMES (1992-1994), 2334 (75.8% of survivors) and 1952 (76.7% of survivors) were followed 5 and 10 y later. During the 5-y follow-up, 1174 new participants were examined. Cumulative cataract was defined as the presence of cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract at any visit, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Imputed dosage of the FTO SNP rs9939609 was used. Quintiles of macronutrient intake (carbohydrates, protein, fats) were derived from an FFQ. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, there were no associations between BMI and any cataract types in MR models using rs9939609 as an instrumental variable. However, an interaction between rs9939609 and protein intake for PSC cataract risk was suggested (P = 0.03). In analyses stratified by quintiles of protein intake, each minor allele of rs9939609 was associated with increased odds of PSC (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.60) in the lowest quintile subgroup only. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was not causally associated with age-related cataract. However, among persons in the lowest quintile of protein intake, obesity may be associated with PSC cataract.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391148

RESUMO

We performed a transcriptome-wide meta-analysis and gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes and gene networks dysregulated in the peripheral blood of bipolar disorder (BD) cases relative to unaffected comparison subjects, and determined the specificity of the transcriptomic signatures of BD and schizophrenia (SZ). Nineteen genes and 4 gene modules were significantly differentially expressed in BD cases. Thirteen gene modules were shown to be differentially expressed in a combined case-group of BD and SZ subjects called "major psychosis", including genes biologically linked to apoptosis, reactive oxygen, chromatin remodeling, and immune signaling. No modules were differentially expressed between BD and SZ cases. Machine-learning classifiers trained to separate diagnostic classes based solely on gene expression profiles could distinguish BD cases from unaffected comparison subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.724, as well as BD cases from SZ cases with AUC = 0.677 in withheld test samples. We introduced a novel and straightforward method called "polytranscript risk scoring" that could distinguish BD cases from unaffected subjects (AUC = 0.672) and SZ cases (AUC = 0.607) significantly better than expected by chance. Taken together, our results highlighted gene expression alterations common to BD and SZ that involve biological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and chromatin regulation, and highlight disorder-specific changes in gene expression that discriminate the major psychoses.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e850, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) represents around 50% of the patients fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria II/revised Bethesda Guidelines, characterized by a strong family history of Lynch Syndrome (LS) associated cancer, where a causative variant was not identified during genetic testing for LS. METHODS: Using data extracted from a larger gene panel, we have analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 22 mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH3, PMS1, MLH3, EXO1, POLD1, POLD3 RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4, RFC5, PCNA, LIG1, RPA1, RPA2, RPA3, POLD2, POLD4, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in 274 LLS patients. Detected variants were annotated and filtered using ANNOVAR and FILTUS software. RESULTS: Thirteen variants were revealed in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, all genes previously linked to LS. Five additional genes (EXO1, POLD1, RFC1, RPA1, and MLH3) were found to harbor 11 variants of unknown significance in our sample cohort, two of them being frameshift variants. CONCLUSION: We have shown that other genes associated with the process of DNA MMR have a high probability of being associated with LLS families. These findings indicate that the spectrum of genes that should be tested when considering an entity like Lynch-like syndrome should be expanded so that a more inclusive definition of this entity can be developed.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 112: 89-98, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870714

RESUMO

The aetiology of schizophrenia is complex, heterogeneous, and involves interplay of many genetic and environmental influences. While significant progress has been made in the understanding the common heritable component, we are still grappling with the genomic encoding of environmental risk. One class of molecule that has tremendous potential is miRNA. These molecules are regulated by genetic and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia and have a very significant impact on temporospatial patterns of gene expression. To better understand the relationship between miRNA and gene expression in the disorder we analysed these molecules in RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from an Australian cohort of 36 individuals with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls using next-generation RNA sequencing. Significant changes in both mRNA and miRNA expression profiles were observed implicating important interaction networks involved in immune activity and development. We also observed sexual dimorphism, particularly in relation to variation in mRNA, with males showing significantly more differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, while we explored expression in lymphocytes, the systems biology of miRNA-mRNA interactions was suggestive of significant pleiotropy with enrichment of networks related to neuronal activity.

9.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889929

RESUMO

Studies investigating exceptionally long-lived (ELL) individuals, including genetic studies, have linked cardiovascular-related pathways, particularly lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, with longevity. This study explored the genetic profiles of ELL individuals (cases: n = 294, 95⁻106 years; controls: n = 1105, 55⁻65 years) by assessing their polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on a genome wide association study (GWAS) threshold of p < 5 × 10-5. PRS were constructed using GWAS summary data from two exceptional longevity (EL) analyses and eight cardiovascular-related risk factors (lipids) and disease (myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, stroke) analyses. A higher genetic risk for exceptional longevity (EL) was significantly associated with longevity in our sample (odds ratio (OR) = 1.19⁻1.20, p = 0.00804 and 0.00758, respectively). Two cardiovascular health PRS were nominally significant with longevity (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides), with higher PRS associated with EL, but these relationships did not survive correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, ELL individuals did not have significantly lower polygenic risk for the majority of the investigated cardiovascular health traits. Future work in larger cohorts is required to further explore the role of cardiovascular-related genetic variants in EL.

10.
J Vis Exp ; (144)2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774141

RESUMO

Cancer cell mobility is crucial for the initiation of metastasis. Therefore, investigation of the cell movement and invasive capacity is of great significance. Migration assays provide basic insight of cell movement at a 2D level, whereas invasion assays are more physiologically relevant, mimicking in vivo cancer cell dislodgment from the original site and invading through the extracellular matrix. The current protocol provides a single workflow for migration and invasion assays. Together with the integrated automated microscopic camera for real-time HD images and built-in analysis module, it gives researchers a time-efficient, simple and reproducible experimental option. This protocol also includes substitutions for the consumables and alternative analysis methods for users to choose from.

11.
J Surg Res ; 236: 184-197, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as an excellent candidate for the future of liquid biopsies for many cancers. There has been growing interest in blood-based liquid biopsy because of the potential of ctDNA to produce a noninvasive test that can be used for: the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, monitoring therapy response, and providing information on overall prognosis. The aim of this review was to collate and explore the current evidence regarding ctDNA as a screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A systematic review of published articles in English over the past 20 y was performed using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases on May 23, 2017. After a full-text review, a total of 69 studies were included. Two assessment tools were used to review and compare the methodological quality of these studies. RESULTS: Among the 69 studies included, 17 studies reviewed total cfDNA, whereas six studies looked at the DNA integrity index and 15 focused on ctDNA. There were a total of 40 studies that reviewed methylated cfDNA with 19 of these focussing specifically on SEPT9. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review indicate that methylated epigenetic ctDNA markers are perhaps the most promising candidates for a blood-based CRC-screening modality using cell-free (cf) DNA. Methylated cfDNA appears to be less specific for CRC compared to ctDNA; however, they have demonstrated good sensitivity for early-stage CRC. Further research is required to determine which methylated cfDNA markers are the most accurate when applied to large cohorts of patients. In addition, reliable comparison of results across multiple studies would benefit from standardization of methodology for DNA extraction and PCR techniques in the future.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4915, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514834

RESUMO

Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer genomes creates a distinct methylation landscape encompassing clustered methylation at regulatory regions separated by large intergenic tracks of hypomethylated regions. This methylation landscape that we referred to as Methylscape is displayed by most cancer types, thus may serve as a universal cancer biomarker. To-date most research has focused on the biological consequences of DNA Methylscape changes whereas its impact on DNA physicochemical properties remains unexplored. Herein, we examine the effect of levels and genomic distribution of methylcytosines on the physicochemical properties of DNA to detect the Methylscape biomarker. We find that DNA polymeric behaviour is strongly affected by differential patterning of methylcytosine, leading to fundamental differences in DNA solvation and DNA-gold affinity between cancerous and normal genomes. We exploit these Methylscape differences to develop simple, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical or colorimetric one-step assays for the detection of cancer. These assays are quick, i.e., analysis time ≤10 minutes, and require minimal sample preparation and small DNA input.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208915, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571772

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide association studies seek to identify DNA methylation sites associated with clinical outcomes. Difference in observed methylation between specific cell-subtypes is often of interest; however, available samples often comprise a mixture of cells. To date, cell-subtype estimates have been obtained from mixed-cell DNA data using linear regression models, but the accuracy of such estimates has not been critically assessed. We evaluated linear regression performance for cell-subtype specific methylation estimation using a 450K methylation array dataset of both mixed-cell and cell-subtype sorted samples from six healthy males. CpGs associated with each cell-subtype were first identified using t-tests between groups of cell-subtype sorted samples. Subsequent reduced panels of reliably accurate CpGs were identified from mixed-cell samples using an accuracy heuristic (D). Performance was assessed by comparing cell-subtype specific estimates from mixed-cells with corresponding cell-sorted mean using the mean absolute error (MAE) and the Coefficient of Determination (R2). At the cell-subtype level, methylation levels at 3272 CpGs could be estimated to within a MAE of 5% of the expected value. The cell-subtypes with the highest accuracy were CD56+ NK (R2 = 0.56) and CD8+T (R2 = 0.48), where 23% of sites were accurately estimated. Hierarchical clustering and pathways enrichment analysis confirmed the biological relevance of the panels. Our results suggest that linear regression for cell-subtype specific methylation estimation is accurate only for some cell-subtypes at a small fraction of cell-associated sites but may be applicable to EWASs of disease traits with a blood-based pathology. Although sample size was a limitation in this study, we suggest that alternative statistical methods will provide the greatest performance improvements.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Epigenômica , Células Sanguíneas , Ilhas de CpG/genética , DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544761

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly in Asian countries, with the rapid increase likely attributable to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Recent research suggests that common genetic risk variants contribute minimally to the rapidly rising prevalence. Rather, recent changes in dietary patterns and physical activity may be more important. This nested case-control study assessed the association and predictive utility of type 2 diabetes lifestyle risk factors in participants from Malaysia, an understudied Asian population with comparatively high disease prevalence. The study sample comprised 4077 participants from The Malaysian Cohort project and included sub-samples from the three major ancestral groups: Malay (n = 1323), Chinese (n = 1344) and Indian (n = 1410). Association of lifestyle factors with type 2 diabetes was assessed within and across ancestral groups using logistic regression. Predictive utility was quantified and compared between groups using the Area Under the Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC). In predictive models including age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, location, family history of diabetes and average sleep duration, the AUC ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 across groups and was significantly higher in Chinese than Malays or Indians, likely reflecting anthropometric differences. This study suggests that obesity, advancing age, a family history of diabetes and living in a rural area are important drivers of the escalating prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206511, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379917

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is influenced by environmental factors and is associated with changes to gene expression and phenotypes. It may link environmental exposures to disease etiology or indicate important gene pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. We identified genomic regions that are differentially methylated in T cells of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to healthy controls. DNA methylation was assessed at 450,000 genomic sites in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells purified from peripheral blood of 94 women with MS and 94 healthy women, and differentially methylated regions were identified using bumphunter. Differential DNA methylation was observed near four loci: MOG/ZFP57, HLA-DRB1, NINJ2/LOC100049716, and SLFN12. Increased methylation of the first exon of the SLFN12 gene was observed in both T cell subtypes and remained present after restricting analyses to samples from patients who had never been on treatment or had been off treatment for more than 2.5 years. Genes near the regions of differential methylation in T cells were assessed for differential expression in whole blood samples from a separate population of 1,329 women with MS and 97 healthy women. Gene expression of HLA-DRB1, NINJ2, and SLFN12 was observed to be decreased in whole blood in MS patients compared to controls. We conclude that T cells from MS patients display regions of differential DNA methylation compared to controls, and corresponding gene expression differences are observed in whole blood. Two of the genes that showed both methylation and expression differences, NINJ2 and SLFN12, have not previously been implicated in MS. SLFN12 is a particularly compelling target of further research, as this gene is known to be down-regulated during T cell activation and up-regulated by type I interferons (IFNs), which are used to treat MS.

16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 143, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458865

RESUMO

Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important prognostic parameter in breast carcinoma, a crucial site for tumour-immune cell interaction and a gateway for further dissemination of tumour cells to other metastatic sites. To gain insight into the underlying molecular changes from the pre-metastatic, via initial colonisation to the fully involved LN, we reviewed transcriptional research along the evolving microenvironment of LNs in human breast cancers patients. Gene expression studies were compiled and subjected to pathway-based analyses, with an emphasis on immune cell-related genes. Of 366 studies, 14 performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons and were divided into six clinical-biological scenarios capturing different stages of the metastatic pathway in the LN, as follows: metastatically involved LNs are compared to their patient-matched primary breast carcinomas (scenario 1) or the normal breast tissue (scenario 2). In scenario 3, uninvolved LNs were compared between LN-positive patients and LN-negative patients. Scenario 4 homed in on the residual uninvolved portion of involved LNs and compared it to the patient-matched uninvolved LNs. Scenario 5 contrasted uninvolved and involved LNs, whilst in scenario 6 involved (sentinel) LNs were assessed between patients with other either positive or negative LNs (non-sentinel).Gene lists from these chronological steps of LN metastasis indicated that gene patterns reflecting deficiencies in dendritic cells and hyper-proliferation of B cells parallel to tumour promoting pathways, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodelling, cell motility and DNA repair, play key roles in the changing microenvironment of a pro-metastatic to a metastatically involved LN. Similarities between uninvolved LNs and the residual uninvolved portion of involved LNs hinted that LN alterations expose systemic tumour-related immune responses in breast cancer patients. Despite the diverse settings, gene expression patterns at different stages of metastatic colonisation in LNs were recognised and may provide potential avenues for clinical interventions to counteract disease progression for breast cancer patients.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17418, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479356

RESUMO

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The inflammatory process in MS is driven by both T and B cells and current therapies are targeted to each of these cell types. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide a valuable link between genes and environment. DNA methylation is the best studied epigenetic mechanism and is recognized as a potential contributor to MS risk. The objective of this study was to identify DNA methylation changes associated with MS in CD19+ B-cells. We performed an epigenome-wide association analysis of DNA methylation in the CD19+ B-cells from 24 patients with relapsing-remitting MS on various treatments and 24 healthy controls using Illumina 450 K arrays. A large differentially methylated region (DMR) was observed at the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) locus. This region was hypermethylated and contains 19 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) spanning 860 bp, all of which are located within the transcriptional start site. We also observed smaller DMRs at 4 MS-associated genes: SLC44A2, LTBR, CARD11 and CXCR5. These preliminary findings suggest that B-cell specific DNA-methylation may be associated with MS risk or response to therapy, specifically at the LTA locus. Development of B-cell specific epigenetic therapies is an attractive new avenue of research in MS treatment. Further studies are now required to validate these findings and understand their functional significance.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Very little is known about the genetic risk factors associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive clinical subtype characterised by the absence of ER, PR and HER2. p53, the tumour suppressor gene, is essential for maintaining genomic stability in response to cellular stress. In breast cancer, the mutation rates of TP53 vary depending on the subtype, such that ER-negative tumours have a high rate, and in ER-positive tumours they are less common. Previous studies have implicated the intronic polymorphism in TP53 (rs17878362; or PIN3) with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, although little has been discerned on its prevalence in different subtypes. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of the PIN3 genotype in the blood of cohorts with ER-positive and the ER-negative subtype TNBC, and assessed its association with outcome. METHODS: We genotyped 656 TNBC and 648 ER-positive breast cancer patients, along with 436 controls, and compared the prevalence of polymorphism rs17878362 in these cohorts. RESULTS: We found there to be no differences in the prevalence of the PIN3 genotype between the ER-positive and TNBC cohorts. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was observed in the outcome of patients in either cohort with respect to their PIN3 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results do not support an association of the PIN3 genotype with increased breast cancer risk, either in ER-positive or ER-negative patients.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204768, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286154

RESUMO

The association of BRCA1/2 mutations with melanoma is not completely determined; the interpretation of variants of unknown significance is also problematic. To evaluate these issues we explored the molecular basis of melanoma risk by performing whole-exome sequencing on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish early-onset melanoma patients and targeted sequencing of BRCA1/2 genes on additional 30 melanoma patients with familial aggregation of breast and other cancers. Sequencing was performed on peripheral blood. We evaluated MutationTaster, Polyphen2, SIFT, PROVEAN algorithms, analyzed segregation with cancer disease (in both families with identified BRCA2 variants) and in one family performed LOH (based on 2 primary tumors). We found neither pathogenic mutations nor variants of unknown significance within BRCA1. We identified two BRCA2 variants of unknown significance: c.9334G>A and c.4534 C>T. Disease allele frequency was evaluated by genotyping of 1230 consecutive melanoma cases, 5000 breast cancer patients, 3500 prostate cancers and 9900 controls. Both variants were found to be absent among unselected cancer patients and healthy controls. The MutationTaster, Polyphen2 and SIFT algorithms indicate that c.9334G>A is a damaging variant. Due to lack of tumour tissue LOH analysis could not be performed for this variant. The variant segregated with the disease. The c.4534 C>T variant did not segregate with disease, there was no LOH of the variant. The c.9334G>A variant, classified as a rare variant of unknown significance, on current evidence may predisposes to cancers of the breast, prostate and melanoma. Functional studies to describe how the DNA change affects the protein function and a large multi-center study to evaluate its penetrance are required.

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