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1.
Cancer Genet ; 242: 8-14, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058318

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy with the majority of patients being classified as B-cell lineage (B-ALL). The sub-classification of B-ALL is based on genomic architecture. Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of SNP-microarrays to detect genomic changes in B-ALL which cannot be observed by conventional cytogenetic methods. In current clinical trials, B-ALL patients at high risk of relapse are mainly identified by adverse cancer genomics and/or poor response to early therapy. To test the hypothesis that inclusion of SNP-microarrays in frontline diagnostics could more efficiently and accurately identify adverse genomic factors than conventional techniques, we evaluated the Australian high-risk B-ALL cohort enrolled on AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 study (n = 33). SNP-microarray analysis identified additional aberrations in 97% of patients (32/33) compared to conventional techniques. This changed the genomic risk category of 24% (8/33) of patients. Additionally, 27% (9/33) of patients exhibited a 'hyperdiploid' genome, which is generally associated with a good genomic risk and favourable outcomes. An enrichment of IKZF1 deletions was observed with one third of the cohort affected. Our findings suggest the current classification system could be improved and highlights the need to use more sensitive techniques such as SNP-microarray for cytogenomic risk stratification in B-ALL.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2130-2138, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5334, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767869

RESUMO

Protein products of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) gene family are important regulators of many cellular processes. Here we functionally characterise a non-protein coding product of the family, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) REG1CP that is transcribed from a DNA fragment at the family locus previously thought to be a pseudogene. REG1CP forms an RNA-DNA triplex with a homopurine stretch at the distal promoter of the REG3A gene, through which the DNA helicase FANCJ is tethered to the core promoter of REG3A where it unwinds double stranded DNA and facilitates a permissive state for glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα)-mediated REG3A transcription. As such, REG1CP promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenicity and its upregulation is associated with poor outcome of patients. REG1CP is also transcriptionally inducible by GRα, indicative of feedforward regulation. These results reveal the function and regulation of REG1CP and suggest that REG1CP may constitute a target for cancer treatment.

4.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419885443, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Large-scale genetic analysis of common variation in schizophrenia has been a powerful approach to understanding this complex but highly heritable psychotic disorder. To further investigate loci, genes and pathways associated more specifically in the well-characterized Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank cohort, we applied genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in these three annotation categories. METHODS: We performed a case-control genome-wide association study in 429 schizophrenia samples and 255 controls. Post-genome-wide association study analyses were then integrated with genomic annotations to explore the enrichment of variation at the gene and pathway level. We also examine candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms with potential function within expression quantitative trait loci and investigate overall enrichment of variation within tissue-specific functional regulatory domains of the genome. RESULTS: The strongest finding (p = 2.01 × 10-6, odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval = [1.42, 2.33]) in genome-wide association study was with rs10252923 at 7q21.13, downstream of FZD1 (frizzled class receptor 1). While this did not stand alone after correction, the involvement of FZD1 was supported by gene-based analysis, which exceeded the threshold for genome-wide significance (p = 2.78 × 10-6). CONCLUSION: The identification of FZD1, as an independent association signal at the gene level, supports the hypothesis that the Wnt signalling pathway is altered in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may be an important target for therapeutic development.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007453, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613886

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing continues to grow in importance for researchers. Exome sequencing became a widespread tool to further study the genomic basis of Mendelian diseases. In an effort to identify pathogenic variants, reject benign variants and better predict variant effects in downstream analysis, the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) published a set of criteria in 2015. While there are multiple publicly available software's available to assign the ACMG criteria, most of them do not take into account multi-sample variant calling formats. Here we present a tool for assessment and prioritisation in exome studies (TAPES, https://github.com/a-xavier/tapes), an open-source tool designed for small-scale exome studies. TAPES can quickly assign ACMG criteria using ANNOVAR or VEP annotated files and implements a model to transform the categorical ACMG criteria into a continuous probability, allowing for a more accurate classification of pathogenicity or benignity of variants. In addition, TAPES can work with cohorts sharing a common phenotype by utilising a simple enrichment analysis, requiring no controls as an input as well as providing powerful filtering and reporting options. Finally, benchmarks showed that TAPES outperforms available tools to detect both pathogenic and benign variants, while also integrating the identification of enriched variants in study cohorts compared to the general population, making it an ideal tool to evaluate a smaller cohort before using bigger scale studies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Software
7.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391148

RESUMO

We performed a transcriptome-wide meta-analysis and gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes and gene networks dysregulated in the peripheral blood of bipolar disorder (BD) cases relative to unaffected comparison subjects, and determined the specificity of the transcriptomic signatures of BD and schizophrenia (SZ). Nineteen genes and 4 gene modules were significantly differentially expressed in BD cases. Thirteen gene modules were shown to be differentially expressed in a combined case-group of BD and SZ subjects called "major psychosis", including genes biologically linked to apoptosis, reactive oxygen, chromatin remodeling, and immune signaling. No modules were differentially expressed between BD and SZ cases. Machine-learning classifiers trained to separate diagnostic classes based solely on gene expression profiles could distinguish BD cases from unaffected comparison subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.724, as well as BD cases from SZ cases with AUC = 0.677 in withheld test samples. We introduced a novel and straightforward method called "polytranscript risk scoring" that could distinguish BD cases from unaffected subjects (AUC = 0.672) and SZ cases (AUC = 0.607) significantly better than expected by chance. Taken together, our results highlighted gene expression alterations common to BD and SZ that involve biological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and chromatin regulation, and highlight disorder-specific changes in gene expression that discriminate the major psychoses.

8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 142: 58-67, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377433

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays are commonly used for the clinical investigation of constitutional genomic disorders; however, their adoption for investigating somatic changes is being recognised. With increasing importance being placed on defining the cancer genome, a shift in technology is imperative at a clinical level. Microarray platforms have the potential to become frontline testing, replacing or complementing standard investigations such as FISH or karyotype. This 'molecular karyotype approach' exemplified by SNP-microarrays has distinct advantages in the investigation of several haematological malignancies. A growing body of literature, including guidelines, has shown support for the use of SNP-microarrays in the clinical laboratory to aid in a more accurate definition of the cancer genome. Understanding the benefits of this technology along with discussing the barriers to its implementation is necessary for the development and incorporation of SNP-microarrays in a clinical laboratory for the investigation of haematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 46-51, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the results of studies in populations with low selenium status indicate an inverse correlation between body selenium levels and the risk of the lung cancer, the effect of this microelement on survival has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 302 patients diagnosed with lung cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Selenium concentration in serum was measured at the time of diagnosis and before treatment. All patients were followed for a maximum of 80 months or until death. Vital status was obtained from the Polish National Death Registry. RESULTS: Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, performed for all individuals with lung cancer, the hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.86-1.83, P = 0.99) for patients in the lowest tertile compared to those in the highest tertile of serum selenium levels. Among the patients with stage I disease this relationship was significant (HR-2.73; P = 0.01) for selenium level in tertile 1 (<57 µg/L) compared to tertile 3 (>69 µg/L, reference). The 80 months crude survival after diagnosis was 79.5% (95% CI: 68.5-92.4%) for individuals in the highest tertile and 58.1% (95% CI: 45.1-74.9%) for individuals in the lowest tertile with stage I lung cancer. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in patients undergoing treatment for stage I lung cancer, serum selenium levels at the time of diagnosis (>69 µg/L) may be associated with improved overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 969-976, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity-cataract association has been inconsistently reported. The fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 is a major SNP associated with obesity and has been used as an instrumental variable for obesity in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. An interaction between the FTO SNP and macronutrient intake for obesity was suggested previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between obesity and cataract, using FTO SNP rs9939609 as an instrumental variable in an MR approach, and explore interactions of this SNP with macronutrient intake in relation to risk of cataract in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) is a longitudinal population-based study of common eye disease. Of 3654 baseline participants of the BMES (1992-1994), 2334 (75.8% of survivors) and 1952 (76.7% of survivors) were followed 5 and 10 y later. During the 5-y follow-up, 1174 new participants were examined. Cumulative cataract was defined as the presence of cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract at any visit, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Imputed dosage of the FTO SNP rs9939609 was used. Quintiles of macronutrient intake (carbohydrates, protein, fats) were derived from an FFQ. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, there were no associations between BMI and any cataract types in MR models using rs9939609 as an instrumental variable. However, an interaction between rs9939609 and protein intake for PSC cataract risk was suggested (P = 0.03). In analyses stratified by quintiles of protein intake, each minor allele of rs9939609 was associated with increased odds of PSC (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.60) in the lowest quintile subgroup only. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was not causally associated with age-related cataract. However, among persons in the lowest quintile of protein intake, obesity may be associated with PSC cataract.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e850, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) represents around 50% of the patients fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria II/revised Bethesda Guidelines, characterized by a strong family history of Lynch Syndrome (LS) associated cancer, where a causative variant was not identified during genetic testing for LS. METHODS: Using data extracted from a larger gene panel, we have analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 22 mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH3, PMS1, MLH3, EXO1, POLD1, POLD3 RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4, RFC5, PCNA, LIG1, RPA1, RPA2, RPA3, POLD2, POLD4, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in 274 LLS patients. Detected variants were annotated and filtered using ANNOVAR and FILTUS software. RESULTS: Thirteen variants were revealed in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, all genes previously linked to LS. Five additional genes (EXO1, POLD1, RFC1, RPA1, and MLH3) were found to harbor 11 variants of unknown significance in our sample cohort, two of them being frameshift variants. CONCLUSION: We have shown that other genes associated with the process of DNA MMR have a high probability of being associated with LLS families. These findings indicate that the spectrum of genes that should be tested when considering an entity like Lynch-like syndrome should be expanded so that a more inclusive definition of this entity can be developed.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338130

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are the most prevalent diseases of the digestive system, and their association is unequivocal. A long-standing inflammatory process is one of the causes of sporadic as well as inherited cancers as it impacts on malignant transformation in a wide variety of neoplastic diseases, including colorectal cancer. Methods: An extensive publication search was performed in Medline and PubMed database. The keywords: colorectal carcinoma, inflammation, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis and inflammatory bowel disease were used. Results: The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and toll like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are clearly involved in the inflammatory process and are therefore implicated in the transformation of normal colonic mucosa to premalignant and malignant disease. Focal sites of inflammation could significantly increase the risk of initiation and development of cancer. Altered inflammatory activity is likely to be a result of either a disturbance of intestinal bacterial flora or an inadequate cellular response to it. Additionally, increasing the level of inflammation-related factors may also interfere with the control of cellular proliferation. Conclusions: This review shows an overview of the genetic and environmental factors that appear to influence both the occurrence of IBD and CRC with particular reference to NOD2 and TLRs as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with tumor initiation and progression (encompassing both tumor invasion and metastases), as they constitute potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

13.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2219-2222, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238828

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Psychosocial factors can have implications for ischemic stroke risk and recovery. This study investigated the effect of genetically determined risk of depression on these outcomes using the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework. Methods- Genetic instruments for risk of depression were identified in a discovery genome-wide association study of 246 363 cases and 561 190 controls and further replicated in a separate population of 474 574 cases and 1 032 579 controls. Corresponding genetic association estimates for risk of ischemic stroke were taken from 60 341 cases and 454 450 controls, with those for functional outcome 3 months after ischemic stroke taken from an analysis of 6021 patients. Following statistical power calculation, inverse-variance weighted MR was performed to pool estimates across different instruments. The Cochran Q heterogeneity test, weighted median MR, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier were used to explore possible bias relating to inclusion of pleiotropic variants. Results- There was no MR evidence for an effect of genetically determined risk of depression on ischemic stroke risk. Although suffering low statistical power, the main inverse-variance weighted MR analysis was suggestive of a detrimental effect of genetically determined risk of depression on functional outcome after ischemic stroke (odds ratio of poor outcome [modified Rankin Scale, ≥3] per 1-SD increase in genetically determined risk of depression, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.98-3.35; P=0.06). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between MR estimates produced by different instruments (Q P=0.26). Comparable MR estimates were obtained with weighted median MR (odds ratio, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05-6.25; P=0.04) and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.95-3.46; P=0.08). Conclusions- We found no MR evidence of genetically determined risk of depression affecting ischemic stroke risk but did find consistent MR evidence suggestive of a possible effect on functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Given the widespread prevalence of depression-related morbidity, these findings could have implications for prognostication and personalized rehabilitation after stroke.

14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 112: 89-98, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870714

RESUMO

The aetiology of schizophrenia is complex, heterogeneous, and involves interplay of many genetic and environmental influences. While significant progress has been made in the understanding the common heritable component, we are still grappling with the genomic encoding of environmental risk. One class of molecule that has tremendous potential is miRNA. These molecules are regulated by genetic and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia and have a very significant impact on temporospatial patterns of gene expression. To better understand the relationship between miRNA and gene expression in the disorder we analysed these molecules in RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from an Australian cohort of 36 individuals with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls using next-generation RNA sequencing. Significant changes in both mRNA and miRNA expression profiles were observed implicating important interaction networks involved in immune activity and development. We also observed sexual dimorphism, particularly in relation to variation in mRNA, with males showing significantly more differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, while we explored expression in lymphocytes, the systems biology of miRNA-mRNA interactions was suggestive of significant pleiotropy with enrichment of networks related to neuronal activity.

15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889929

RESUMO

Studies investigating exceptionally long-lived (ELL) individuals, including genetic studies, have linked cardiovascular-related pathways, particularly lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, with longevity. This study explored the genetic profiles of ELL individuals (cases: n = 294, 95⁻106 years; controls: n = 1105, 55⁻65 years) by assessing their polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on a genome wide association study (GWAS) threshold of p < 5 × 10-5. PRS were constructed using GWAS summary data from two exceptional longevity (EL) analyses and eight cardiovascular-related risk factors (lipids) and disease (myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, stroke) analyses. A higher genetic risk for exceptional longevity (EL) was significantly associated with longevity in our sample (odds ratio (OR) = 1.19⁻1.20, p = 0.00804 and 0.00758, respectively). Two cardiovascular health PRS were nominally significant with longevity (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides), with higher PRS associated with EL, but these relationships did not survive correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, ELL individuals did not have significantly lower polygenic risk for the majority of the investigated cardiovascular health traits. Future work in larger cohorts is required to further explore the role of cardiovascular-related genetic variants in EL.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Longevidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (144)2019 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774141

RESUMO

Cancer cell mobility is crucial for the initiation of metastasis. Therefore, investigation of the cell movement and invasive capacity is of great significance. Migration assays provide basic insight of cell movement at a 2D level, whereas invasion assays are more physiologically relevant, mimicking in vivo cancer cell dislodgment from the original site and invading through the extracellular matrix. The current protocol provides a single workflow for migration and invasion assays. Together with the integrated automated microscopic camera for real-time HD images and built-in analysis module, it gives researchers a time-efficient, simple and reproducible experimental option. This protocol also includes substitutions for the consumables and alternative analysis methods for users to choose from.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Migração Celular/métodos , Movimento Celular , Humanos
18.
Neurology ; 92(12): e1271-e1283, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discover common genetic variants associated with poststroke outcomes using a genome-wide association (GWA) study. METHODS: The study comprised 6,165 patients with ischemic stroke from 12 studies in Europe, the United States, and Australia included in the GISCOME (Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional Outcome) network. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score after 60 to 190 days, evaluated as 2 dichotomous variables (0-2 vs 3-6 and 0-1 vs 2-6) and subsequently as an ordinal variable. GWA analyses were performed in each study independently and results were meta-analyzed. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, stroke severity (baseline NIH Stroke Scale score), and ancestry. The significance level was p < 5 × 10-8. RESULTS: We identified one genetic variant associated with functional outcome with genome-wide significance (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2 vs 3-6, p = 5.3 × 10-9). This intronic variant (rs1842681) in the LOC105372028 gene is a previously reported trans-expression quantitative trait locus for PPP1R21, which encodes a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1. This ubiquitous phosphatase is implicated in brain functions such as brain plasticity. Several variants detected in this study demonstrated suggestive association with outcome (p < 10-5), some of which are within or near genes with experimental evidence of influence on ischemic stroke volume and/or brain recovery (e.g., NTN4, TEK, and PTCH1). CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWA study on functional outcome after ischemic stroke, we report one significant variant and several variants with suggestive association to outcome 3 months after stroke onset with plausible mechanistic links to poststroke recovery. Future replication studies and exploration of potential functional mechanisms for identified genetic variants are warranted.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208610, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common adult malignancy accounting for the largest proportion of cancer related deaths. Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element and is a component of several major metabolic pathways playing an important role in many physiological processes. In this study we evaluated the association between Fe concentration in serum, iron metabolism parameters and genetic variaton in 7 genes involved in iron metabolism and anti-oxidative processes with the incidence of lung cancer in Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 200 lung cancer patients and 200 matched healthy control subjects. We analyzed serum iron concentration and iron metabolism parameters (TIBC, UIBC, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), and genotyped seven variants in seven genes: HFE, TFR1, HAMP, TF, SOD2, CAT and GPX1. RESULTS: Lung cancer patients compared to their matched controls had significantly higher mean serum iron level (p = 0.01), ferritin level (p = 0.007) and TIBC (p = 0.006). Analysis revealed that higher concentration of iron and ferritin (IVth quartile) compared to the lower concentration (Ist quartile) was associated with over 2-fold increased lung cancer incidence. We also found that higher transferrin saturation (p = 0.01) and lower TIBC (p<0.01) are associated with better survival of lung cancer patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in iron related genes did not reveal a significant difference between lung cancer patients and controls. However, rs10421768 in HAMP showed a borderline statistically significant correlation with lung cancer risk (OR = 2.83, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case control study indicate that higher body iron represented by higher Fe and ferritin levels may be associated with lung cancer incidence. Rs10421768 in HAMP may be associated with about 3-times higher lung cancer risk. Higher Fe body content may be associated with better survival of lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
J Surg Res ; 236: 184-197, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as an excellent candidate for the future of liquid biopsies for many cancers. There has been growing interest in blood-based liquid biopsy because of the potential of ctDNA to produce a noninvasive test that can be used for: the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, monitoring therapy response, and providing information on overall prognosis. The aim of this review was to collate and explore the current evidence regarding ctDNA as a screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A systematic review of published articles in English over the past 20 y was performed using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases on May 23, 2017. After a full-text review, a total of 69 studies were included. Two assessment tools were used to review and compare the methodological quality of these studies. RESULTS: Among the 69 studies included, 17 studies reviewed total cfDNA, whereas six studies looked at the DNA integrity index and 15 focused on ctDNA. There were a total of 40 studies that reviewed methylated cfDNA with 19 of these focussing specifically on SEPT9. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review indicate that methylated epigenetic ctDNA markers are perhaps the most promising candidates for a blood-based CRC-screening modality using cell-free (cf) DNA. Methylated cfDNA appears to be less specific for CRC compared to ctDNA; however, they have demonstrated good sensitivity for early-stage CRC. Further research is required to determine which methylated cfDNA markers are the most accurate when applied to large cohorts of patients. In addition, reliable comparison of results across multiple studies would benefit from standardization of methodology for DNA extraction and PCR techniques in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
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