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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 174: 103684, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462031

RESUMO

Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has traditionally been controversial and challenging: multidisciplinary approach is mandatory and defining resectability is a critical issue; furthermore, patients are often frail due to age or comorbidities. After PACIFIC trial publication, a new therapeutic path has been defined for patients with unresectable NSCLC, with a prominent prognostic advantage. A trimodality treatment, with chemo-radiotherapy followed by maintenance durvalumab is now the standard of care, recommended by international guidelines. However, despite an impressive activity, the use of consolidative immunotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy is highly debated in some clinically-relevant situations, including patients harboring EGFR mutations, older and/or frail patients not suitable for combined treatment, PD-L1 tumor expression. Here we report an expert virtual Italian meeting summary, where six medical oncologists and six radiation oncologists discussed all these aspects trying to underline the critical aspects and to find the possible clinical solutions.

2.
Mediastinum ; 6: 4, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340837

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the principal studies investigating the role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to discuss the recent major breakthroughs deriving from the Lung ART trial, in order to provide a real-world scenario of the management of resected NSCLC patients. Background: Surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy remains the mainstay of adjuvant treatments for completely resected stage II and IIIA NSCLC. Less consistent is the employment of PORT, as no significant benefit was clearly identified from the previous published meta-analysis. Furthermore, the recent results of Lung ART trial questioned for the first time the efficacy of PORT for pathological N2 (pN2) NSCLC patients. Hence, the need to define if PORT still has a role for resected NSCLC and which subgroup of patients could benefit most from this treatment. Methods: A literature search of PubMed was performed to identify publications, including prospective and retrospective clinical studies, meta-analysis and systematic review of PORT for NSCLC. No limit concerning years of publication or publication status were applied. Only papers using the English language were selected. The ESMO 2020 and ESMO 2021 online resources were used to analyze the Lung ART trial results. The authors provide a narrative summary of the findings and implications of these studies and how they improve the clinical practice. Conclusions: PORT was considered the standard of care for patients with completely resected pN2 NSCLC based on the results of an old meta-analysis that did not demonstrate a detrimental effect. The more recent randomized phase III Lung ART trial concluded that PORT could not anymore be recommended for pN2 NSCLC as a significant benefit in terms of 3 years disease-free survival (DFS) was not reached and an increased rate of radiotherapy related toxicity was observed. Retrospective studies suggest a possible role of PORT for incompletely resected NSCLC patients and those with an extranodal extension (ENE), but this issue needs to be reinforced from randomized prospective trials. The extensive publication of Lung ART trial is largely awaited to define if there is a role of PORT for resected NSCLC patients.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 661-674, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with thoracic malignancies are at increased risk for mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and a large number of intertwined prognostic variables have been identified so far. METHODS: Capitalizing data from the Thoracic Cancers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT) registry, a global study created with the aim of describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with thoracic malignancies, we used a clustering approach, a fast-backward step-down selection procedure, and a tree-based model to screen and optimize a broad panel of demographics and clinical COVID-19 and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: As of April 15, 2021, a total of 1491 consecutive eligible patients from 18 countries were included in the analysis. With a mean observation period of 42 days, 361 events were reported with an all-cause case fatality rate of 24.2%. The clustering procedure screened 73 covariates in 13 clusters. A further multivariable logistic regression for the association between clusters and death was performed, resulting in five clusters significantly associated with the outcome. The fast-backward step-down selection procedure then identified the following seven major determinants of death: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) (OR = 2.47, 1.87-3.26), neutrophil count (OR = 2.46, 1.76-3.44), serum procalcitonin (OR = 2.37, 1.64-3.43), development of pneumonia (OR = 1.95, 1.48-2.58), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.90, 1.43-2.51), tumor stage at COVID-19 diagnosis (OR = 1.97, 1.46-2.66), and age (OR = 1.71, 1.29-2.26). The receiver operating characteristic analysis for death of the selected model confirmed its diagnostic ability (area under the receiver operating curve = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.81). The nomogram was able to classify the COVID-19 mortality in an interval ranging from 8% to 90%, and the tree-based model recognized ECOG-PS, neutrophil count, and c-reactive protein as the major determinants of prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: From 73 variables analyzed, seven major determinants of death have been identified. Poor ECOG-PS was found to have the strongest association with poor outcome from COVID-19. With our analysis, we provide clinicians with a definitive prognostication system to help determine the risk of mortality for patients with thoracic malignancies and COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Torácicas , Proteína C-Reativa , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias Torácicas/diagnóstico
4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 623-636, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer (LC) remains a disease with poor prognosis despite recent advances in treatments. Here, we aimed at summarizing the current scientific evidence on whether quitting smoking at or around diagnosis has a beneficial effect on the survival of LC patients. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published until 31st October, 2021, that quantified the impact on LC patients' survival of quitting smoking at or around diagnosis or during treatment. Study-specific data were pooled into summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effect meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles published between 1980 and 2021 were included, which encompassed a total of over 10,000 LC patients. There was substantial variability across studies in terms of design, patients' characteristics, treatments received, criteria used to define smoking status (quitters or continued), and duration of follow-up. Quitting smoking at or around diagnosis was significantly associated with improved overall survival (SRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80), consistently among patients with non-small cell LC (SRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90, n studies = 8), small cell LC (SRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, n studies = 4), or LC of both or unspecified histological type (SRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.96, n studies = 6). CONCLUSIONS: Quitting smoking at or around diagnosis is associated with a beneficial effect on the survival of LC patients. Treating physicians should educate LC patients about the benefits of quitting smoking even after diagnosis and provide them with the necessary smoking cessation support.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 744956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the standard therapy consists of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by durvalumab maintenance for responding patients. The present study reports on the safety and outcome of durvalumab use after CRT in a real-world, multicenter, retrospective cohort. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight patients have been included. We collected data on systemic therapy, radiation therapy, the timing between CRT and durvalumab, number of durvalumab cycles, reasons for non-starting or discontinuation, incidence and grade of adverse events (AEs), and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five patients out of 238 (65.1%) received at least one durvalumab dose: 91 (58.7%) after concomitant CRT (cCRT) and 64 (41.3%) after sequential CRT (sCRT). Programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status was unknown in 7/155 (4.5%), negative in 14 (9.1%), and positive ≥1% in 134/155 (86.4%). The main reasons for non-starting durvalumab were progression (10.1%), PD-L1 negativity (7.5%), and lung toxicity (4.6%). Median follow-up time was 14 months (range 2­29); 1-year PFS and OS were 65.5% (95%CI: 57.6-74.4) and 87.9% (95%CI: 82.26.6-93.9), respectively. No significant differences in PFS or OS were detected for cCRT vs. sCRT, but the median PFS was 13.5 months for sCRT vs. 23 months for cCRT. Potentially immune-related AEs were recorded in 76/155 patients (49.0%). Pneumonitis was the most frequent, leading to discontinuation in 11/155 patients (7.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Durvalumab maintenenace after concurrent or sequential chemoradiation for unresectable, stage III NSCLC showed very promising short-term survival results in a large, multicenter, restrospective, real-world study. Durvalumab was the first drug obtaining a survival benefit over CRT within the past two decades, and the present study contributes to validating its use in clinical practice.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1544-1549, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436523

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Several studies have evaluated cardioprotective strategies to prevent myocardial dysfunction in patients who are receiving cardiotoxic therapies. However, the optimal approach still represents a controversial issue. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pharmacological cardioprevention could reduce subclinical heart damage in patients with breast cancer who are being treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The SAFE trial was a 4-arm, randomized, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, national multicentric study conducted at 8 oncology departments in Italy. It was a prespecified interim analysis on the first 174 patients who had completed cardiac assessment at 12 months. The study recruitment was conducted between July 2015 and June 2020. The interim analysis was performed in 2020. Patients were eligible for trial inclusion if they had indication to receive primary or postoperative systemic therapy using an anthracycline-based regimen. Patients with a prior diagnosis of cardiovascular disease were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: Cardioprotective therapy (bisoprolol, ramipril, or both drugs compared with placebo) was administered for 1 year from the initiation of chemotherapy or until the end of trastuzumab therapy in case of ERBB2-positive patients. Doses for all groups were systematically up-titrated up to the daily target dose of bisoprolol (5 mg, once daily), ramipril (5 mg, once daily), and placebo, if tolerated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was defined as detection of any subclinical impairment (worsening ≥10%) in myocardial function and deformation measured with standard and 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and global longitudinal strain (GLS). RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 174 women (median age, 48 years; range, 24-75 years) who had completed a cardiological assessment at 12 months and reached the end of treatment. At 12 months, 3D-LVEF worsened by 4.4% in placebo arm and 3.0%, 1.9%, 1.3% in the ramipril, bisoprolol, ramipril plus bisoprolol arms, respectively (P = .01). Global longitudinal strain worsened by 6.0% in placebo arm and 1.5% and 0.6% in the ramipril and bisoprolol arms, respectively, whereas it was unchanged (0.1% improvement) in the ramipril plus bisoprolol arm (P < .001). The number of patients showing a reduction of 10% or greater in 3D-LVEF was 8 (19%) in the placebo arm, 5 (11.5%) in the ramipril arm, 5 (11.4%) in the bisoprolol, arm and 3 (6.8%) in the ramipril plus bisoprolol arm; 15 patients (35.7%) who received placebo showed a 10% or greater worsening of GLS compared with 7 (15.9; ramipril), 6 (13.6%; bisoprolol), and 6 (13.6%; ramipril plus bisoprolol) (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The interim analysis of this randomized clinical trials suggested that cardioprotective pharmacological strategies in patients who were affected by breast cancer and were receiving an anthracycline-based chemotherapy are well tolerated and seem to protect against cancer therapy-related LVEF decline and heart remodeling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT2236806.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas , Neoplasias da Mama , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, without activating mutations and with PD-L1≥50%, Pembrolizumab monotherapy is the therapeutic standard in Europe. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of this drug and to investigate potential prognostic factors in daily clinical practice. METHODS: From September 2017 to September 2019, 205 consecutive patients from 14 Italian Medical Oncology Units were enrolled in the study. Gender, Age (> or <70 years), ECOG-PS (0-1 or 2), histology (squamous or non-squamous), presence of brain, bone and liver metastases at baseline, PD-L1 score (>90% or <90%), smoking status (never or former or current) were applied to the stratified log-rank. Cox's proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 15.2 months, median progression-free and overall survival (mPFS and mOS) were 9.2 months (95% C.I., 4.8-13.5) and 15.9 months (95% C.I., not yet evaluable), respectively. Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) 2 had mPFS of 2.8 months (95% C.I., 2.1-3.4) and mOS of 3.9 months (95% C.I., 2.5-5.3). Patients with liver metastases at diagnosis had an mPFS of 3.2 months (95% C.I., 0.6-5.8) and an mOS of 6.0 months (95% C.I., 3.7-8.4). At multivariate analysis for OS gender, ECOG-PS 2, and presence of liver metastases were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with ECOG-PS 2 derived little benefit from the use of first-line pembrolizumab. In patients with liver metastases the association of pembrolizumab with platinum-based chemotherapy could be a better option than pembrolizumab alone.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuro Oncol ; 23(10): 1750-1764, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To define efficacy and toxicity of Immunotherapy (IT) with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) including radiosurgery (RS) or hypofractionated SRT (HFSRT) for brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a multicentric retrospective study from AIRO (Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology). METHODS: NSCLC patients with BM receiving SRT + IT and treated in 19 Italian centers were analyzed and compared with a control group of patients treated with exclusive SRT. RESULTS: One hundred patients treated with SRT + IT and 50 patients treated with SRT-alone were included. Patients receiving SRT + IT had a longer intracranial Local Progression-Free Survival (iLPFS) (propensity score-adjusted P = .007). Among patients who, at the diagnosis of BM, received IT and had also extracranial progression (n = 24), IT administration after SRT was shown to be related to a better overall survival (OS) (P = .037). A multivariate analysis, non-adenocarcinoma histology, KPS = 70 and use of HFSRT were associated with a significantly worse survival (P = .019, P = .017 and P = .007 respectively). Time interval between SRT and IT ≤7 days (n = 90) was shown to be related to a longer OS if compared to SRT-IT interval >7 days (n = 10) (propensity score-adjusted P = .008). The combined treatment was well tolerated. No significant difference in terms of radionecrosis between SRT + IT patients and SRT-alone patients was observed. The time interval between SRT and IT had no impact on the toxicity rate. CONCLUSIONS: Combined SRT + IT was a safe approach, associated with a better iLPFS if compared to exclusive SRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Radiol Med ; 126(8): 1117-1128, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Almost 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have locally advanced-stage disease. In this setting, definitive radiotherapy concurrent to chemotherapy plus adjuvant immunotherapy (cCRT + IO) is the standard of care, although only 40% of these patients are eligible for this approach. AIMS: A comparison between cCRT and hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens (hypo-fx RT) with the addition of sequential chemotherapy (sCHT) could be useful for future combinations with immunotherapy. We developed a recommendation about the clinical question of whether CHT and moderately hypo-fx RT are comparable to cCRT for locally advanced NSCLC MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panel used GRADE methodology and the Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework. After a systematic literature search, five studies were eligible. We identified the following outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), freedom from locoregional recurrence (FFLR), deterioration of quality of life (QoL), treatment-related deaths, severe G3-G4 toxicity, late pulmonary toxicity G3-G4, and acute esophageal toxicity G3-G4. RESULTS: The probability of OS and G3-G4 late lung toxicity seems to be worse in patients submitted to sCHT and hypo-fx RT. The panel judged unfavorable the balance benefits/harms. CONCLUSIONS: The final recommendation was that sCHT followed by moderately hypo-fx RT should not be considered as an alternative to cCRT in unresectable stage III NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
Radiol Med ; 126(5): 717-721, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 constitutes a worldwide threat, prompting Italian Government to implement specific measures on March 8, 2020, to protect patients and health workers from disease transmission. The impact of preventive measures on daily activity of a radiotherapy facility may hamper the ability to fulfill normal workload burden. Thus, we assessed the number of delivered treatments in a specific observation period after the adoption of preventive measures (since March 11 to April 24, 2020) and compared it with the corresponding period of the year 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall number of delivered fractions was related to actual time of platform daily activity and reported as a ratio between number of delivered fractions and activity hours (Fr/Hrs). Fr/Hrs were calculated and compared for two different periods of time, March 11-April 24, 2019 (Fr/Hrs1), and March 11-April 24, 2020 (Fr/Hrs2). RESULTS: Fr/Hrs1 and Fr/Hrs2 were 2.66 and 2.54 for year 2019 and 2020, respectively, for a Fr/Hrsratio of 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.12, p = 0.0005). Fr/Hrs1 was significantly higher than Fr/Hrs2 for SliR and PreciseR, with Fr/Hrsratio of 1.92 (95% CI 1.66-2.23, p < 0.0001) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.03-1.2, p = 0.003), respectively. No significant difference was reported for SynergyR and CyberknifeR with Fr/Hrsratio of 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08, p = 0.8) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.77-1.06, p = 0.2), respectively. Fr/Hrs1 was significantly lower than Fr/Hrs2 for TomotherapyR, with Fr/Hrsratio of 0.88 (95% CI 0.8-0.96, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Preventive measures did not influence workload burden performed. Automation in treatment delivery seems to compensate effectively for health workers number reduction.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(5): e767-e773, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this observational, retrospective, multicenter study, we aimed to assess the safety of the combination of local metastasis-directed radiotherapy (RT) and immunotherapy (IT) in a cohort of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected clinical data of aNSCLC patients who received concomitant RT and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in seven Italian centers from September 2015 to June 2019. Concomitant RT was defined as delivered ≤4 weeks before or after the first or last administration of immunotherapy, or within two consecutive cycles of ICI. All adverse events apparently related to RT and/or IT were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, and reported in terms of incidence and severity as immune related or RT related, or combined. RESULTS: We analyzed the clinical charts of 187 patients. Median follow-up time was 23 months, and median overall survival was 16.5 months (range, 3-162). Thirteen patients developed pure RT-related side effects, and 43 patients (23.9%) developed immune-related side effects. No additive toxic effects were observed. A case of grade 5 pulmonary toxicity was recorded as a possible consequence of a combined effect. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that the combination of concomitant RT and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents is safe, and the two toxicity profiles are independent.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Segurança do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 123-131, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the most of cases, for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed to previous immune checkpoint inhibitors (CKI) administered as first- or as second-line therapy, chemotherapy (CT) remains the only viable options in the absence of "druggable" mutations. We aimed to explore the efficacy of salvage chemotherapy after immunotherapy (SCAI) in advanced NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicenter study, involving 20 Italian centers, with the primary objective of describing the clinical outcome of advanced NSCLC patients treated with SCAI at the participating institutions from November 2013 to July 2019. The primary endpoint of the study was represented by overall survival (OS), defined as the time from CT initiation to death. Secondary outcome endpoints of the SCAI (progression free survival, PFS, objective response rate, ORR and toxicity) and explorative biomarkers (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, NLR during immunotherapy) were also analyzed. RESULTS: In our study population of 342 NSCLC patients, SCAI obtained a median OS of 6.8 months (95 % confidence interval, CI 5.5-8.1), median PFS of 4.1 months (95 % CI 3.4-4.8) and ORR of 22.8 %. A "Post-CKI score" was constructed by combining significant predictors of OS at the multivariate analyses (sex, ECOG PS, disease control with prior immunotherapy), Harrell'C was 0.65, (95 % CI:0.59-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the late-line settings, our findings support the hypothesis that previous immunotherapy might increase the sensitivity of the tumor to the subsequent chemotherapy. The "Post-CKI score" was clinically effective in successfully discriminating three distinct prognostic subgroups of patients after the failure of CKI, representing a possibly useful tool for the tailored decision-making process of advanced treatment-line settings in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. RESULTS: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(35): 4175-4183, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the long-term results of external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) Florence phase III trial comparing whole-breast irradiation (WBI) to APBI in early-stage breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary end point was to determine the 5-year difference in ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) between 30 Gy in 5 once-daily fractions (APBI arm) and 50 Gy in 25 fractions with a tumor bed boost (WBI arm) after breast-conserving surgery. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty patients, more than 90% of whom had characteristics associated with low recurrence risk, were randomly assigned (WBI, n = 260; APBI, n = 260) between 2005 and 2013. Median follow-up was 10.7 years. The 10-year cumulative incidence of IBTR was 2.5% (n = 6) in the WBI and 3.7% (n = 9) in the APBI arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% CI, 0.55 to 4.37; P = .40). Overall survival at 10 years was 91.9% in both arms (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.79; P = .86). Breast cancer-specific survival at 10 years was 96.7% in the WBI and 97.8% in the APBI arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.99; P = .45). The APBI arm showed significantly less acute toxicity (P = .0001) and late toxicity (P = .0001) and improved cosmetic outcome as evaluated by both physician (P = .0001) and patient (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: The 10-year cumulative IBTR incidence in early breast cancer treated with external APBI using IMRT technique in 5 once-daily fractions is low and not different from that after WBI. Acute and late treatment-related toxicity and cosmesis outcomes were significantly in favor of APBI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 914-922, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports on patients with cancer and COVID-19 have suggested a high mortality rate compared with the general population. Patients with thoracic malignancies are thought to be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 given their older age, smoking habits, and pre-existing cardiopulmonary comorbidities, in addition to cancer treatments. We aimed to study the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on patients with thoracic malignancies. METHODS: The Thoracic Cancers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT) registry is a multicentre observational study composed of a cross-sectional component and a longitudinal cohort component. Eligibility criteria were the presence of any thoracic cancer (non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], small-cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, thymic epithelial tumours, and other pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms) and a COVID-19 diagnosis, either laboratory confirmed with RT-PCR, suspected with symptoms and contacts, or radiologically suspected cases with lung imaging features consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia and symptoms. Patients of any age, sex, histology, or stage were considered eligible, including those in active treatment and clinical follow-up. Clinical data were extracted from medical records of consecutive patients from Jan 1, 2020, and will be collected until the end of pandemic declared by WHO. Data on demographics, oncological history and comorbidities, COVID-19 diagnosis, and course of illness and clinical outcomes were collected. Associations between demographic or clinical characteristics and outcomes were measured with odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, with sex, age, smoking status, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease included in multivariable analysis. This is a preliminary analysis of the first 200 patients. The registry continues to accept new sites and patient data. FINDINGS: Between March 26 and April 12, 2020, 200 patients with COVID-19 and thoracic cancers from eight countries were identified and included in the TERAVOLT registry; median age was 68·0 years (61·8-75·0) and the majority had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 (142 [72%] of 196 patients), were current or former smokers (159 [81%] of 196), had non-small-cell lung cancer (151 [76%] of 200), and were on therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis (147 [74%] of 199), with 112 (57%) of 197 on first-line treatment. 152 (76%) patients were hospitalised and 66 (33%) died. 13 (10%) of 134 patients who met criteria for ICU admission were admitted to ICU; the remaining 121 were hospitalised, but were not admitted to ICU. Univariable analyses revealed that being older than 65 years (OR 1·88, 95% 1·00-3·62), being a current or former smoker (4·24, 1·70-12·95), receiving treatment with chemotherapy alone (2·54, 1·09-6·11), and the presence of any comorbidities (2·65, 1·09-7·46) were associated with increased risk of death. However, in multivariable analysis, only smoking history (OR 3·18, 95% CI 1·11-9·06) was associated with increased risk of death. INTERPRETATION: With an ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19, our data suggest high mortality and low admission to intensive care in patients with thoracic cancer. Whether mortality could be reduced with treatment in intensive care remains to be determined. With improved cancer therapeutic options, access to intensive care should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting based on cancer specific mortality and patients' preference. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Torácicas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/patologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia
18.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 23: 16-19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368625

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent a recently introduced class of agents active in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For a subgroup of patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, long-term benefit can be achieved: maintaining a sustained response to immunotherapy is therefore a critical factor for its efficacy at an individual level. In analogy to targeted agents, a limited pattern of progression, or "oligoprogression", can occur. For locally recurrent HNSCC, the potential biologic interplay between the efficacy of ICIs and the design of radiation fields chosen for primary treatment is currently unknown. Here, we report on a patient who presented two subsequent oligoprogressions successfully treated with re-irradiation without interrupting Nivolumab. Both oligoprogressive lesions developed in previously unirradiated areas. We hypothesize the existence of a synergistic effect with optimal spatial cooperation between ICIs and re-irradiation for oligoprogressive disease under immunotherapy.

19.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 20(5): 387-402, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321330

RESUMO

Introduction: Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic strategy in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In recent decades, technological implementations and the introduction of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) have significantly increased the accuracy and tolerability of radiation therapy.Area covered: In this review, we provide an overview of technological opportunities and future prospects in NSCLC management.Expert opinion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is now considered the standard approach in patients ineligible for surgery, while in operable cases, it is still under debate. Additionally, in combination with systemic treatment, SBRT is an innovative option for managing oligometastatic patients and features encouraging initial results in clinical outcomes. To date, in inoperable locally advanced NSCLC, the radical dose prescription has not changed (60 Gy in 30 fractions), despite the median overall survival progressively increasing. These results arise from technological improvements in precisely hitting target treatment volumes and organ at risk sparing, which are associated with better treatment qualities. Finally, for the management of NSCLC, proton and carbon ion therapies and the recent development of MR-Linac are new, intriguing technological approaches under investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Doses de Radiação , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 155-167, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is the first-line standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a PD-L1 tumour proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50%. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) 2 patients may receive pembrolizumab, despite the absence of sustaining evidence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: GOIRC-2018-01 is a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. PS 2 NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 TPS ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab from June 2017 to December 2018 at 21 Italian institutions were included. Clinical-pathological characteristics were correlated with disease response and survival outcomes; adverse events were recorded. The primary objective was 6-months progression-free rate (6-months PFR). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients (median age 70 years) were enrolled. At a median follow-up of 18.2 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.6-2.5) and 3.0 months (95% CI 2.4-3.5), respectively. 6-months PFR was 27% (95% CI 21-35%). Patients with a PS 2 determined by comorbidities (n = 41) had significantly better outcomes compared with disease burden-induced PS 2 (n = 112). Indeed, 6-months PFR was 49% versus 19%, median PFS 5.6 versus 1.8 months and OS 11.8 versus 2.8 months, respectively. Additional potential prognostic factors (radiotherapy, antibiotics, steroids received before pembrolizumab) correlated with clinical outcomes. The determinant of PS 2 resulted the only factor independently impacting on both PFS and OS. No toxicity issues emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of PS 2 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab were globally dismal but strongly dependent on the reason conditioning the poor PS itself.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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