Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Health Promot Int ; 35(1): 27-41, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916577

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

3.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 166: 107086, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491555

RESUMO

Age-related reductions in slow wave activity (SWA) and increased fragmentation during sleep play a key role in memory impairment. As the prefrontal cortex is necessary for the control processes relevant to memory encoding, including utilisation of internal heuristics such as semantic clustering, and is preferentially vulnerable to sleep disturbance, our study examined how SWA and sleep fragmentation relates to memory performance in individuals with Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD). Thirty older adults with SCD (Mean Age = 69.34, SD = 5.34) completed a neurocognitive test battery, including the California Verbal Learning Test, which was used to assess semantic clustering. One week later, participants were admitted to the laboratory for a two night visit. SWA and sleep fragmentation were captured using sleep polysomnography. Next-day memory performance was tested using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Poorer sleep (reduced SWA; increased arousals) was associated with reduced semantic clustering, which mediated impairment on verbal memory and learning tests conducted both the day after sleep was recorded (for both SWA and arousals), and a week prior (for arousals only). We demonstrate semantic clustering mediated the well described associations between sleep and verbal memory. As these strategies are a component of cognitive training interventions, future research may examine the role of simultaneous sleep interventions for improving cognitive training outcomes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939787

RESUMO

Both gender and employment are critical and intersecting social determinants of mental and physical health. This paper describes the protocol used to conduct a systematic literature review of the relationship between "gendered working environments" and mental health. Gendered working environments (GWE) are conceptualised as involving: (1) differences in selection into work, and more specifically, occupations; (2) variation in employment arrangements and working hours; (3) disparities in psychosocial exposures at work, and; (4) differences in selection out of work. Methods/design: The review will adhere to a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) search procedure. Key words will be identified that are specific to each of the four domains of GWE. The databases used for the search will be Scopus, Pubmed, Proquest, and Web of Science. Keywords will be adapted for the specific requirements of each electronic database. Inclusion criteria are: Using a validated scale to measure mental health (outcome); including exposures related to the four domains of GWE; reporting estimates for both men and women; and use of a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design. Studies will be excluded if they were published more than 10 years ago, are not in English or do not present extractable data on the relationship between GWE and mental health. Discussion: The proposed review will provide evidence about the numerous and complex ways in which employment and gender intersect (and are reinforced) to influence mental health over the life course.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Fatores Sexuais , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(6): 569-576, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that job stressors are prospectively related to mental health problems, particularly depressive symptoms. This review aimed to examine whether job stressors were also related to use of psychotropic medications. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses approach, we examined seven electronic databases that indexed literature from a wide range of disciplines. Inclusion criteria were (1) the study included a job stressor or psychosocial working condition as an exposure, and (2) psychotropic medication was an outcome. All effect-size estimates were considered but needed to present either a SE or 95% CIs to be included in meta-analyses. Data were pooled between studies using the relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: There were 18 unique studies with non-overlapping exposures eligible for inclusion in the quantitative meta-analysis. High job demands were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of psychotropic medication use (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31). There was also an elevated RR in relation to work-family conflict (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.48). In studies reporting OR, high job demands were associated with an OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.71). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review highlight the need for policy and programme attention to reduce harmful exposure to psychosocial job stressors. Health-service use measures should be considered as outcomes and may represent more severe mental health conditions.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 247: 73-80, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Phobic anxiety is a risk factor for poor prognosis following Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). A psychophysiological marker of vagal function, autonomic dysfunction may play a critical role in this relationship. The aim of the study was two-fold: to assess whether phobic anxiety was characterised by autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variability) in the short (1-month) and longer term (12-months) following ACS, and (ii) to quantify the extent to which HRV parameters modified the effect of phobic anxiety on all-cause hospital readmission over 2 years. METHODS: The ADVENT study followed 416 ACS patients. At 1-month following discharge (T0), phobic anxiety and autonomic functioning were assessed using the Crown Crisp Index (CCI) and 11 indices of heart rate variability (HRV), respectively. HRV was measured again at 12-months (T1) (n = 359). Hospital readmission (all cause) was derived from an audit of hospital records by two medically trained research fellows. Generalised linear modelling (GLM) was used to first determine the association between CCI score at T0 and HRV parameters at T0 and T1. Binary logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between CCI scores and readmission (yes/no) and the extent to which HRV parameters modified this effect. RESULTS: CCI scores were associated with 7 of the 11 indices of HRV: Average RR (ms), SDRR (ms), RMSSD (ms), SDSD (ms), pRR50 (%), LF Powers (ms2) and HF Powers (ms2) at T0 but not T1. CCI scores at T0 significantly predicted likelihood of readmission to hospital in the subsequent 2 year period. No parameter of HRV at T0 modified this effect. LIMITATIONS: We were unable to provide adjudicated major adverse coronary events outcome data, or account for changes in medication adherence, diet or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: While phobic anxiety is associated with both reduced vagal function in the short term after an ACS event and 2 year all cause readmission, HRV does not appear to be the pathway by which phobic anxiety drives this outcome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Fatores de Risco
7.
Health Promot Int ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534989

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 66(2): 565-577, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased sleep fragmentation and advanced circadian timing are hallmark phenotypes associated with increased age-related cognitive decline. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is considered a prodromal stage of neurodegeneration and dementia; however, little is known about how sleep and circadian timing impact on memory complaints in SCD. OBJECTIVE: To determine how sleep and circadian timing impact on memory complaint subtypes in older adults with SCD. METHODS: Twenty-five older adults with SCD (mean age = 69.97, SD = 5.33) completed the Memory Functioning Questionnaire to characterize their memory complaints. They also underwent neuropsychological assessment, and completed 1 week of at-home monitoring of sleep with actigraphy and sleep diaries. This was followed by a two-night laboratory visit with overnight polysomnography and a dim light melatonin onset assessment to measure circadian timing. RESULTS: Advanced circadian timing was associated with greater memory complaints, specifically poorer memory of past events (r = -0.688, p = 0.002), greater perceived decline over time (r = -0.568, p = 0.022), and increased reliance on mnemonic tools (r = -0.657, p = 0.004). Increased sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced self-reported memory decline (r = 0.529, p = 0.014), and reduced concern about everyday forgetfulness (r = 0.435, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Advanced circadian timing was associated with a number of subjective memory complaints and symptoms. By contrast, sleep fragmentation was linked to lowered perceptions of cognitive decline, and less concern about memory failures. As circadian disruption is apparent in both MCI and Alzheimer's disease, and plays a key role in cognitive function, our findings further support a circadian intervention as a potential therapeutic tool for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polissonografia , Saliva/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Prev Med Rep ; 10: 15-19, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868353

RESUMO

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetration may induce cardiovascular reactivity and risk markers thereby precipitating early onset cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this relationship has been largely under-researched in comparison to the health impacts of IPV victimisation. We therefore aimed to systematically review the current evidence investigating the relationship between IPV perpetration and CV risk. Six databases (CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar) were searched between August 2016 and August 2017 using a predefined search strategy. Inclusion criteria were studies of cross sectional and longitudinal design published since 2010, presenting IPV status by perpetrators (as distinct from victims) and an outcome of CVD (e.g. cardiac disease, stroke), CV risk markers (e.g. blood pressure) and/or a composite CV risk score. Twenty two potentially eligible studies were identified and full texts recovered. After ineligible studies were excluded, four remained (total n = 10,665). Positive relationships were observed between IPV perpetration and (i) short term CV reactivity markers (higher heart rate, lower vagal ratios, shorter pre-ejection periods) and (ii) longer term CV risk factors and outcomes including greater systolic blood pressure, incident hypertension, elevated 30 year CV risk score and self-report cardiac disease. Despite being a neglected area of research characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, the early evidence suggests that IPV perpetration may be associated with elevated risk of CVD. We discuss these findings in the context of CVD prevention from the individual, family and inter-generational perspectives and directions for future studies.

11.
Circulation ; 137(8): 854-864, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459471

RESUMO

The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes. It is disappointing that the role of gender has been largely neglected despite being a critical determinant of cardiovascular health. It is clear that trajectories and outcomes of CVD differ by biological sex, yet the tendency for sex and gender to be conflated has contributed to the idea that both are constant or fixed with little room for intervention. Rather, as distinct from biological sex, gender is socially produced. Overlaid on biological sex, gender is a broad term that shapes and interacts with one's cognition to guide norms, roles, behaviors, and social relations. It is a fluid construct that varies across time, place, and life stage. Gender can interact with biological sex and, indeed, other social determinants, such as ethnicity and socioeconomic position, to shape cardiovascular health from conception, through early life when health behaviors and risk factors are shaped, into adolescence and adulthood. This article will illustrate how gender shapes the early adoption of health behaviors in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood by focusing on physical activity, drinking, and smoking behaviors (including the influence of role modeling). We will also discuss the role of gender in psychosocial stress with a focus on trauma from life events (childhood assault and intimate partner violence) and work, home, and financial stresses. We conclude by exploring potential biological pathways, with a focus on autonomic functioning, which may underpin gender as a social determinant of cardiovascular health. Finally, we discuss implications for cardiovascular treatment and awareness campaigns and consider whether gender equality strategies could reduce the burden of CVD for men and women at the population level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA