Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 153
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cell ; 180(5): 829-831, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142676

RESUMO

Prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis by vaccination has proven an elusive goal. In a recent study, Darrah et al. show that prevention of infection and disease can be achieved in non-human primates by intravenous administration of the century-old vaccine BCG. This finding heralds a step-change in the approach to TB vaccine development.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(528)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996462

RESUMO

One quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Although most infected individuals successfully control or clear the infection, some individuals will progress to TB disease. Immune correlates identified using animal models are not always effectively translated to human TB, thus resulting in a slow pace of translational discoveries from animal models to human TB for many platforms including vaccines, therapeutics, biomarkers, and diagnostic discovery. Therefore, it is critical to improve our poor understanding of immune correlates of disease and protection that are shared across animal TB models and human TB. In this study, we have provided an in-depth identification of the conserved and diversified gene/immune pathways in TB models of nonhuman primate and diversity outbred mouse and human TB. Our results show that prominent differentially expressed genes/pathways induced during TB disease progression are conserved in genetically diverse mice, macaques, and humans. In addition, using gene-deficient inbred mouse models, we have addressed the functional role of individual genes comprising the gene signature of disease progression seen in humans with Mtb infection. We show that genes representing specific immune pathways can be protective, detrimental, or redundant in controlling Mtb infection and translate into identifying immune pathways that mediate TB immunopathology in humans. Together, our cross-species findings provide insights into modeling TB disease and the immunological basis of TB disease progression.

5.
JCI Insight ; 4(23)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697647

RESUMO

Immune activation is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease in infants. We performed a case-control analysis to identify drivers of immune activation and disease risk. Among 49 infants who developed TB disease over the first 2 years of life, and 129 healthy matched controls, we found the cytomegalovirus-stimulated (CMV-stimulated) IFN-γ response to be associated with CD8+ T cell activation (Spearman's rho, P = 6 × 10-8). A CMV-specific IFN-γ response was also associated with increased risk of developing TB disease (conditional logistic regression; P = 0.043; OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.02-4.83) and shorter time to TB diagnosis (Log Rank Mantel-Cox, P = 0.037). CMV+ infants who developed TB disease had lower expression of NK cell-associated gene signatures and a lower frequency of CD3-CD4-CD8- lymphocytes. We identified transcriptional signatures predictive of TB disease risk among CMV ELISpot-positive (area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC], 0.98, accuracy, 92.57%) and -negative (AUROC, 0.9; accuracy, 79.3%) infants; the CMV- signature was validated in an independent infant study (AUROC, 0.71; accuracy, 63.9%). A 16-gene signature that previously identified adolescents at risk of developing TB disease did not accurately classify case and control infants in this study. Understanding the microbial drivers of T cell activation, such as CMV, could guide new strategies for prevention of TB disease in infants.

6.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 33(1)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666281

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer among all infectious diseases worldwide despite extensive use of the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. A safer and more effective vaccine than BCG is urgently required. More than a dozen TB vaccine candidates are under active evaluation in clinical trials aimed to prevent infection, disease, and recurrence. After decades of extensive research, renewed promise of an effective vaccine against this ancient airborne disease has recently emerged. In two innovative phase 2b vaccine clinical trials, one for the prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy adolescents and another for the prevention of TB disease in M. tuberculosis-infected adults, efficacy signals were observed. These breakthroughs, based on the greatly expanded knowledge of the M. tuberculosis infection spectrum, immunology of TB, and vaccine platforms, have reinvigorated the TB vaccine field. Here, we review our current understanding of natural immunity to TB, limitations in BCG immunity that are guiding vaccinologists to design novel TB vaccine candidates and concepts, and the desired attributes of a modern TB vaccine. We provide an overview of the progress of TB vaccine candidates in clinical evaluation, perspectives on the challenges faced by current vaccine concepts, and potential avenues to build on recent successes and accelerate the TB vaccine research-and-development trajectory.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2429-2439, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of an earlier analysis of a trial of the M72/AS01E candidate vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that in infected adults, the vaccine provided 54.0% protection against active pulmonary tuberculosis disease, without evident safety concerns. We now report the results of the 3-year final analysis of efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS: From August 2014 through November 2015, we enrolled adults 18 to 50 years of age with M. tuberculosis infection (defined by positive results on interferon-γ release assay) without evidence of active tuberculosis disease at centers in Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of either M72/AS01E or placebo, administered 1 month apart. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of M72/AS01E to prevent active pulmonary tuberculosis disease according to the first case definition (bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis not associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection). Participants were followed for 3 years after the second dose. Participants with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis provided sputum samples for polymerase-chain-reaction assay, mycobacterial culture, or both. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated until month 36 in a subgroup of 300 participants. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of M72/AS01E or placebo. RESULTS: A total of 3575 participants underwent randomization, of whom 3573 received at least one dose of M72/AS01E or placebo, and 3330 received both planned doses. Among the 3289 participants in the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, 13 of the 1626 participants in the M72/AS01E group, as compared with 26 of the 1663 participants in the placebo group, had cases of tuberculosis that met the first case definition (incidence, 0.3 vs. 0.6 cases per 100 person-years). The vaccine efficacy at month 36 was 49.7% (90% confidence interval [CI], 12.1 to 71.2; 95% CI, 2.1 to 74.2). Among participants in the M72/AS01E group, the concentrations of M72-specific antibodies and the frequencies of M72-specific CD4+ T cells increased after the first dose and were sustained throughout the follow-up period. Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults infected with M. tuberculosis, vaccination with M72/AS01E elicited an immune response and provided protection against progression to pulmonary tuberculosis disease for at least 3 years. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and Aeras; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01755598.).


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Tuberculose Latente/terapia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Immunol ; 203(11): 2917-2927, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611259

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality from a single infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Relevant immune targets of the partially efficacious TB vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remain poorly defined. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted T cells, which are reactive against M. tuberculosis, and underexplored as potential TB vaccine targets. We sought to determine whether BCG vaccination activated mycobacteria-specific MAIT cell responses in humans. We analyzed whole blood samples from M. tuberculosis-infected South African adults who were revaccinated with BCG after a six-month course of isoniazid preventative therapy. In vitro BCG stimulation potently induced IFN-γ expression by phenotypic (CD8+CD26+CD161+) MAIT cells, which constituted the majority (75%) of BCG-reactive IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. BCG revaccination transiently expanded peripheral blood frequencies of BCG-reactive IFN-γ+ MAIT cells, which returned to baseline frequencies a year following vaccination. In another cohort of healthy adults who received BCG at birth, 53% of mycobacteria-reactive-activated CD8 T cells expressed CDR3α TCRs, previously reported as MAIT TCRs, expressing the canonical TRAV1-2-TRAJ33 MAIT TCRα rearrangement. CD26 and CD161 coexpression correlated with TRAV1-2+CD161+ phenotype more accurately in CD8+ than CD4-CD8- MAIT cells. Interestingly, BCG-induced IFN-γ expression by MAIT cells in vitro was mediated by the innate cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 more than MR1-induced TCR signaling, suggesting TCR-independent activation. Collectively, the data suggest that activation of blood MAIT cells by innate inflammatory cytokines is a major mechanism of responsiveness to vaccination with whole cell vaccines against TB or in vitro stimulation with mycobacteria (Clinical trial registration: NCT01119521).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508378

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and a lack of understanding of basic disease pathogenesis is hampering development of new vaccines and treatments. Multiple studies have previously established a role for type I interferon (IFN) in TB disease. Type I IFNs are critical immune mediators for host responses to viral infection, yet their specific influence in bacterial infection remains unclear. As IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune function, clarifying the role of type I interferon in TB remains an important question. The quantification of interferon proteins in the circulation of patients has been restricted until the recent development of digital ELISA. To test the hypothesis that patients with active TB disease have elevated circulating type I IFN we quantified plasma IFNα and ß proteins with Simoa digital ELISA in patients with active disease and asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection. Strikingly no differences were observed between these two groups, while plasma from acute influenza infection revealed significantly higher plasma levels of both IFNα and IFNß proteins. These results suggest a discordance between ISG mRNA expression by blood leukocytes and circulating type I IFN in TB.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 757-770, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants are a key target population for new tuberculosis vaccines. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate MTBVAC in adults and infants in a region where transmission of tuberculosis is very high. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, BCG-controlled, dose-escalation trial at the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative site near Cape Town, South Africa. Healthy adult community volunteers who were aged 18-50 years, had received BCG vaccination as infants, were HIV negative, had negative interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) results, and had no personal history of tuberculosis or current household contact with someone with tuberculosis were enrolled in a safety cohort. Infants born to HIV-negative women with no personal history of tuberculosis or current household contact with a person with tuberculosis and who were 96 h old or younger, generally healthy, and had not yet received routine BCG vaccination were enrolled in a separate infant cohort. Eligible adults were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either BCG Vaccine SSI (5 × 105 colony forming units [CFU] of Danish strain 1331 in 0·1 mL diluent) or MTBVAC (5 × 105 CFU in 0·1 mL) intradermally in the deltoid region of the arm. After favourable review of 28-day reactogenicity and safety data in the adult cohort, infants were randomly assigned (1:3) to receive either BCG Vaccine SSI (2·5 × 105 CFU in 0·05 mL diluent) or MTBVAC in three sequential cohorts of increasing MTBVAC dose (2·5 × 103 CFU, 2·5 × 104 CFU, and 2·5 × 105 CFU in 0·05 mL) intradermally in the deltoid region of the arm. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube IGRA was done on days 180 and 360. For both randomisations, a pre-prepared block randomisation schedule was used. Participants (and their parents or guardians in the case of infant participants), investigators, and other clinical and laboratory staff were masked to intervention allocation. The primary outcomes, which were all measured in the infant cohort, were solicited and unsolicited local adverse events and serious adverse events until day 360; non-serious systemic adverse events until day 28 and vaccine-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses on days 7, 28, 70, 180, and 360. Secondary outcomes measured in adults were local injection-site and systemic reactions and haematology and biochemistry at study day 7 and 28. Safety analyses and immunogenicity analyses were done in all participants who received a dose of vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02729571. FINDINGS: Between Sept 29, 2015, and Nov 16, 2015, 62 adults were screened and 18 were enrolled and randomly assigned, nine each to the BCG and MTBVAC groups. Between Feb 12, 2016, and Sept 21, 2016, 36 infants were randomly assigned-eight to the BCG group, nine to the 2·5 × 103 CFU MTBVAC group, nine to the 2·5 × 104 CFU group, and ten to the 2·5 × 105 CFU group. Mild injection-site reactions occurred only in infants in the BCG and the 2·5 × 105 CFU MTBVAC group, with no evidence of local or regional injection-site complications. Systemic adverse events were evenly distributed across BCG and MTBVAC dose groups, and were mostly mild in severity. Eight serious adverse events were reported in seven vaccine recipients (one adult MTBVAC recipient, one infant BCG recipient, one infant in the 2·5 × 103 CFU MTBVAC group, two in the 2·5 × 104 CFU MTBVAC group, and two in the 2·5 × 105 CFU MTBVAC group), including one infant in the 2·5 × 103 CFU MTBVAC group treated for unconfirmed tuberculosis and one in the 2·5 × 105 CFU MTBVAC group treated for unlikely tuberculosis. One infant died as a result of possible viral pneumonia. Vaccination with all MTBVAC doses induced durable antigen-specific T-helper-1 cytokine-expressing CD4 cell responses in infants that peaked 70 days after vaccination and were detectable 360 days after vaccination. For the highest MTBVAC dose (ie, 2·5 × 105 CFU), these responses exceeded responses induced by an equivalent dose of the BCG vaccine up to 360 days after vaccination. Dose-related IGRA conversion was noted in three (38%) of eight infants in the 2·5 × 103 CFU MTBVAC group, six (75%) of eight in the 2·5 × 104 CFU MTBVAC group, and seven (78%) of nine in the 2·5 × 105 CFU MTBVAC group at day 180, compared with none of seven infants in the BCG group. By day 360, IGRA reversion had occurred in all three infants (100%) in the 2·5 × 103 CFU MTBVAC group, four (67%) of the six in the 2·5 × 104 CFU MTBVAC group, and three (43%) of the seven in the 2·5 × 105 CFU MTBVAC group. INTERPRETATION: MTBVAC had acceptable reactogenicity, and induced a durable CD4 cell response in infants. The evidence of immunogenicity supports progression of MTBVAC into larger safety and efficacy trials, but also confounds interpretation of tests for M tuberculosis infection, highlighting the need for stringent endpoint definition. FUNDING: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, TuBerculosis Vaccine Initiative, UK Department for International Development, and Biofabri.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11126, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366947

RESUMO

Achieving the WHO End-Tuberculosis (TB) targets requires approaches to prevent progression to TB among individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. Effective preventive therapy (PT) exists, but current tests have low specificity for identifying who, among those infected, is at risk of developing TB. Using mathematical models, we assessed the potential population-level impact on TB incidence of using a new more specific mRNA expression signature (COR) to target PT among HIV-uninfected adults in South Africa. We compared the results to the use of the existing interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). With annual screening coverage of 30% COR-targeted PT could reduce TB incidence in 2035 by 20% (95% CI 15-27). With the same coverage, IGRA-targeted PT could reduce TB incidence by 39% (31-48) but would require greater use of PT resulting in a higher number needed to treat per TB case averted (COR: 49 (29-77); IGRA: 84 (59-123)). The relative differences between COR and IGRA were not sensitive to screening coverage. COR-targeted PT could contribute to reducing total TB burden in high incidence countries like South Africa by allowing more efficient targeting of treatment. To maximise impact, COR-like tests may be best utilised in the highest burden regions, or sub-populations, within these countries.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297103

RESUMO

HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of tuberculosis disease and those with prior tuberculosis episodes are at even higher risk of disease recurrence. A non-sputum biomarker that identifies individuals at highest tuberculosis risk would allow targeted microbiological testing and appropriate treatment and also guide need for prolonged therapy. We determined the utility of a previously developed whole blood transcriptomic correlate of risk (COR) signature for (1) predicting incident recurrent tuberculosis, (2) tuberculosis diagnosis and (3) its potential utility for tuberculosis treatment monitoring in HIV-infected individuals. We retrieved cryopreserved blood specimens from three previously completed clinical studies and measured the COR signature by quantitative microfluidic real-time-PCR. The signature differentiated recurrent tuberculosis progressors from non-progressors within 3 months of diagnosis with an area under the Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.85) amongst HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Twenty-five of 43 progressors (58%) were asymptomatic at microbiological diagnosis and thus had subclinical disease. The signature showed excellent diagnostic discrimination between HIV-uninfected tuberculosis cases and controls (AUC 0.97; 95%CI 0.94-1). Performance was lower in HIV-infected individuals (AUC 0.83; 95%CI 0.81-0.96) and signature scores were directly associated with HIV viral loads. Tuberculosis treatment response in HIV-infected individuals on ART with a new recurrent tuberculosis diagnosis was also assessed. Signature scores decreased significantly during treatment. However, pre-treatment scores could not differentiate between those who became sputum negative before and after 2 months. Direct application of the unmodified blood transcriptomic COR signature detected subclinical and active tuberculosis by blind validation in HIV-infected individuals. However, prognostic performance for recurrent tuberculosis, and performance as diagnostic and as treatment monitoring tool in HIV-infected persons was inferior to published results from HIV-negative cohorts. Our results suggest that performance of transcriptomic signatures comprising interferon stimulated genes are negatively affected in HIV-infected individuals, especially in those with incompletely suppressed viral loads.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219322, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics are inadequate to meet the challenges presented by co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV, the leading cause of death for HIV-infected individuals. Improved characterization of Mtb/HIV coinfection as a distinct disease state may lead to better identification and treatment of affected individuals. METHODS: Four previously-published TB and HIV co-infection related datasets were used to train and validate multinomial machine learning classifiers that simultaneously predict TB and HIV status. Classifier predictive performance was measured using leave-one-out cross validation on the training set and blind predictive performance on multiple test sets using area under the ROC curve (AUC) as the performance metric. Linear modelling of signature gene expression was applied to systematically classify genes as TB-only, HIV-only or combined TB/HIV. RESULTS: The optimal signature discovered was a 10-gene random forest multinomial signature that robustly discriminated active tuberculosis (TB) from other non-TB disease states with improved performance compared with previously published signatures (AUC: 0.87), and specifically discriminated active TB/HIV co-infection from all other conditions (AUC: 0.88). Signature genes exhibited a variety of transcriptional patterns including both TB-only and HIV-only response genes and genes with expression patterns driven by interactions between HIV and TB infection states, including the CD8+ T-cell receptor LAG3 and the apoptosis-related gene CERKL. CONCLUSIONS: By explicitly including distinct disease states within the machine learning analysis framework, we developed a compact and highly diagnostic signature that simultaneously discriminates multiple disease states associated with Mtb/HIV co-infection. Examination of the expression patterns of signature genes suggests mechanisms underlying the unique inflammatory conditions associated with active TB in the presence of HIV. In particular, we observed that dysregulation of CD8+ effector T-cell and NK-cell associated genes may be an important feature of Mtb/HIV co-infection.

15.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 19(9): 550-562, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114037

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) vaccine research has reached a unique point in time. Breakthrough findings in both the basic immunology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the clinical development of TB vaccines suggest, for the first time since the discovery of the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine more than a century ago, that a novel, efficacious TB vaccine is imminent. Here, we review recent data in the light of our current understanding of the immunology of TB infection and discuss the identification of biomarkers for vaccine efficacy and the next steps in the quest for an efficacious vaccine that can control the global TB epidemic.

16.
PLoS Med ; 16(4): e1002781, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nonsputum blood test capable of predicting progression of healthy individuals to active tuberculosis (TB) before clinical symptoms manifest would allow targeted treatment to curb transmission. We aimed to develop a proteomic biomarker of risk of TB progression for ultimate translation into a point-of-care diagnostic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Proteomic TB risk signatures were discovered in a longitudinal cohort of 6,363 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected, HIV-negative South African adolescents aged 12-18 years (68% female) who participated in the Adolescent Cohort Study (ACS) between July 6, 2005 and April 23, 2007, through either active (every 6 months) or passive follow-up over 2 years. Forty-six individuals developed microbiologically confirmed TB disease within 2 years of follow-up and were selected as progressors; 106 nonprogressors, who remained healthy, were matched to progressors. Over 3,000 human proteins were quantified in plasma with a highly multiplexed proteomic assay (SOMAscan). Three hundred sixty-one proteins of differential abundance between progressors and nonprogressors were identified. A 5-protein signature, TB Risk Model 5 (TRM5), was discovered in the ACS training set and verified by blind prediction in the ACS test set. Poor performance on samples 13-24 months before TB diagnosis motivated discovery of a second 3-protein signature, 3-protein pair-ratio (3PR) developed using an orthogonal strategy on the full ACS subcohort. Prognostic performance of both signatures was validated in an independent cohort of 1,948 HIV-negative household TB contacts from The Gambia (aged 15-60 years, 66% female), longitudinally followed up for 2 years between March 5, 2007 and October 21, 2010, sampled at baseline, month 6, and month 18. Amongst these contacts, 34 individuals progressed to microbiologically confirmed TB disease and were included as progressors, and 115 nonprogressors were included as controls. Prognostic performance of the TRM5 signature in the ACS training set was excellent within 6 months of TB diagnosis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.99]) and 6-12 months (AUC 0.76 [0.65-0.87]) before TB diagnosis. TRM5 validated with an AUC of 0.66 (0.56-0.75) within 1 year of TB diagnosis in the Gambian validation cohort. The 3PR signature yielded an AUC of 0.89 (0.84-0.95) within 6 months of TB diagnosis and 0.72 (0.64-0.81) 7-12 months before TB diagnosis in the entire South African discovery cohort and validated with an AUC of 0.65 (0.55-0.75) within 1 year of TB diagnosis in the Gambian validation cohort. Signature validation may have been limited by a systematic shift in signal magnitudes generated by differences between the validation assay when compared to the discovery assay. Further validation, especially in cohorts from non-African countries, is necessary to determine how generalizable signature performance is. CONCLUSIONS: Both proteomic TB risk signatures predicted progression to incident TB within a year of diagnosis. To our knowledge, these are the first validated prognostic proteomic signatures. Neither meet the minimum criteria as defined in the WHO Target Product Profile for a progression test. More work is required to develop such a test for practical identification of individuals for investigation of incipient, subclinical, or active TB disease for appropriate treatment and care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteoma/análise , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Imediatos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/patologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(18): 8995-9001, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992377

RESUMO

To permit the recognition of antigens, T cells generate a vast diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences. Upon binding of the TCR to an antigen-MHC complex, T cells clonally expand to establish an immune response. To study antigen-specific T cell clonality, we have developed a method that allows selection of rare cells, based on RNA expression, before in-depth scRNA-seq (named SELECT-seq). We applied SELECT-seq to collect both TCR sequences and then transcriptomes from single cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes activated by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lysate. TCR sequence analysis allowed us to preferentially select expanded conventional CD8+ T cells as well as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The iNKT and MAIT cells have a highly similar transcriptional pattern, indicating that they carry out similar immunological functions and differ considerably from conventional CD8+ T cells. While there is no relationship between expression profiles and clonal expansion in iNKT or MAIT cells, highly expanded conventional CD8+ T cells down-regulate the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor alpha (IL2RA, or CD25) protein and show signs of senescence. This suggests inherent limits to clonal expansion that act to diversify the T cell response repertoire.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967866

RESUMO

There remains a pressing need for biomarkers that can predict who will progress to active tuberculosis (TB) after exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacterium. By analyzing cohorts of household contacts of TB index cases (HHCs) and a stringent non-human primate (NHP) challenge model, we evaluated whether integration of blood transcriptional profiling with serum metabolomic profiling can provide new understanding of disease processes and enable improved prediction of TB progression. Compared to either alone, the combined application of pre-existing transcriptome- and metabolome-based signatures more accurately predicted TB progression in the HHC cohorts and more accurately predicted disease severity in the NHPs. Pathway and data-driven correlation analyses of the integrated transcriptional and metabolomic datasets further identified novel immunometabolomic signatures significantly associated with TB progression in HHCs and NHPs, implicating cortisol, tryptophan, glutathione, and tRNA acylation networks. These results demonstrate the power of multi-omics analysis to provide new insights into complex disease processes.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(3): e1007643, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830940

RESUMO

Eradication of tuberculosis (TB), the world's leading cause of death due to infectious disease, requires a highly efficacious TB vaccine. Many TB vaccine candidates are in pre-clinical and clinical development but only a few can be advanced to large-scale efficacy trials due to limited global resources. We aimed to perform a statistically rigorous comparison of the antigen-specific T cell responses induced by six novel TB vaccine candidates and the only licensed TB vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We propose that the antigen-specific immune response induced by such vaccines provides an objective, data-driven basis for prioritisation of vaccine candidates for efficacy testing. We analyzed frequencies of antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing IFNγ, IL-2, TNF and/or IL-17 from adolescents or adults, with or without Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, who received MVA85A, AERAS-402, H1:IC31, H56:IC31, M72/AS01E, ID93+GLA-SE or BCG. Two key response characteristics were analyzed, namely response magnitude and cytokine co-expression profile of the memory T cell response that persisted above the pre-vaccination response to the final study visit in each trial. All vaccines preferentially induced antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses expressing Th1 cytokines; levels of IL-17-expressing cells were low or not detected. In M.tb-uninfected and -infected individuals, M72/AS01E induced higher memory Th1 cytokine-expressing CD4 T cell responses than other novel vaccine candidates. Cytokine co-expression profiles of memory CD4 T cells induced by different novel vaccine candidates were alike. Our study suggests that the T cell response feature which most differentiated between the TB vaccine candidates was response magnitude, whilst functional profiles suggested a lack of response diversity. Since M72/AS01E induced the highest memory CD4 T cell response it demonstrated the best vaccine take. In the absence of immunological correlates of protection, the likelihood of finding a protective vaccine by empirical testing of candidates may be increased by the addition of candidates that induce distinct immune characteristics.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/metabolismo , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias , Vacina BCG , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Citocinas , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/fisiologia , Interferon gama , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-2 , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Saponinas , Células Th1 , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA