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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instability constitutes over 20% of revisions after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Dual mobility (DM) designs were introduced as a solution to this problem. However, the few publications that have reported promising results for monobloc DM constructs have been limited by sample size or length of follow-up. The purpose of this study is to evaluate mid-term outcomes (minimum 5-year follow-up) of a single-surgeon series utilizing a monobloc DM acetabular component in patients with high risk for dislocation. METHODS: This is a single-surgeon consecutive series of 207 primary THAs implanted with a monobloc DM component in patients who were considered at high risk for dislocation. Patient demographics and case-specific data were collected retrospectively. All patients had a minimum of 5-year follow-up. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess continuous variables, whereas categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-square test. Survival probability was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Radiographic analysis did not reveal acetabular radiolucency in any patients, and there were no revisions for aseptic loosening. In addition, there were no dislocations. Seven of 205 patients (3.4%) were revised, 5 on the femoral side due to periprosthetic fracture and the remaining two for infection. Survivorship of the acetabular component from revision was 99%. The mean Veteran RAND (VR-12) physical score improved from 7 (standard deviation [SD]: 13.7) preoperatively to 9.5 (SD: 17.6) at the final follow-up. Similarly, the hip disability osteoarthritis score improved from 8 (SD: 17.9) preoperatively to 21.2 (SD: 37). CONCLUSION: Monobloc DM components reliably prevent dislocation after primary THA in high-risk patients. At mid-term follow-up, this DM monobloc component demonstrates excellent implant survivorship, radiographic fixation, and improved functional outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although various papers have reported on the clinical performance of cup retention with cementation of a new liner and bone grafting in the management of well-fixed cups with polyethylene wear and periacetabular osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty (THA), no systematic review of this topic has been published to date. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from January 1999 to January 2019 using "osteolysis" AND "well-fixed", "osteolysis" AND "retro-acetabular", "bone graft" AND ("retention" OR "retained" OR "stable") AND "cup", and "cemented liner" AND "well-fixed". RESULTS: Nine articles were selected for review (186 cases, 76.1 months mean follow-up). The overall revision rate was 11.3% (21 hips) most commonly due to aseptic loosening (9/186 hips), dislocation (8/186 hips), and liner wear progression (2/186 cases). The reported square size of osteolytic lesions ranged from a mean of 465.84 mm2 to a max of 4,770 mm2. Almost all reported lesions treated with bone grafts resolved or did not progress 97% (72/74). All studies indicated improved pain and functional scores at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Cementation of a new liner with periacetabular bone grafting provides an alternative option to isolated liner exchange and cup revision for the management of periacetabular osteolysis in well-fixed cups with a disrupted locking mechanism or unavailable exchange liner. Further higher quality studies are required in order to examine if the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene, highly porous-coated cups, hydroxyapatite-coated cups, and small-diameter cups influence the clinical outcome of liner cementation in well-fixed cups with periacetabular osteolysis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early aseptic revision within 90 days after primary TKA is a devastating complication. The causes, complications, and rerevision risks of aseptic revision TKA performed during this period are poorly described. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the likelihood of re-revision within 2 years after early aseptic TKA revision within 90 days compared with that of a control group of patients undergoing primary TKA? (2) What are the indications for early aseptic TKA revision within 90 days? (3) What are the differences in revision risk between different indications for early aseptic revision TKA? METHODS: Patients who underwent unilateral aseptic revision TKA within 90 days of the index procedure were identified in a national insurance claims database (PearlDiver Technologies) using administrative codes. The exclusion criteria comprised revision for infection, history of bilateral TKA, and age younger than 18 years. The PearlDiver database was selected for its large and geographically diverse patient base and the availability of outpatient follow-up data that are unavailable in other databases focused on inpatient care. A total of 481 patients met criteria for early aseptic revision TKA, with 14% (67) loss to follow-up at 2 years. This final cohort of 414 patients was compared with a control group of patients who underwent primary TKA without revision within 90 days. For the control group, 137,661 patients underwent primary TKA without early revision, with 13% (18,138) loss to follow-up at 2 years. Among these patients, 414 controls were matched using a one-to-one propensity score method; no differences in age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index score were observed between the groups. Indications for initial revision and 2-year re-revision were recorded. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess survival between the early revision and control groups. RESULTS: Two-year survivorship free from additional revision surgery was lower in the early aseptic revision cohort compared with the control (78% [95% confidence interval 77% to 79%] versus 98% [95% CI 96% to 99%]; p < 0.001). Among early revisions, 10% (43 of 414) of the patients underwent re-revision for periprosthetic infection with an antibiotic spacer within 2 years. The reasons for early aseptic revision TKA were instability/dislocation (37% [153 of 414]), periprosthetic fracture (23% [96 of 414]), aseptic loosening (23% [95 of 414]), pain (11% [45 of 414]), and arthrofibrosis (6% [25 of 414]). Early revision for pain was associated with higher odds of re-revision than early revisions performed for other all other reasons (44% [20 of 45] versus 29% [100 of 344]; odds ratio 2.0 [95% CI 1.0 to 3.7]; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Acute early aseptic revision TKA carries a high risk of re-revision at 2 years and a high risk of subsequent periprosthetic joint infection. Patients who undergo an early revision should be carefully counseled regarding the very high risk of repeat revision and discouraged from having early revision unless the indications are absolutely clear and compelling. Early aseptic revision for pain alone carries an unacceptably high risk of repeat revision and should not be performed. Adjunctive measures for infection prophylaxis should be strongly considered. Specific interventions to reduce surgical complications in this subset of patients have not been adequately studied; additional investigation of strategies to minimize the risk of reoperation or infection is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

4.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate trends in the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the United States in patients under 21 years of age. Specifically, we examined the frequency of THA in this patient population over the past 2 decades, the epidemiologic characteristics of patients under 21 who underwent THA, and the characteristics of the hospitals where these procedures were performed. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Kids' Inpatient Database, an inpatient US national weighted sample of hospital admissions in patients under 21 from approximately 4200 hospitals in 46 states. We queried the database using Current Procedural Terminology codes for elective and non-elective primary THA for the years 2000-2016. We utilized the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes to determine primary diagnoses. RESULTS: The weighted total number of THAs performed in patients under 21 in the Kids' Inpatient Database increased from 347 in 2000 to 551 in 2016. The most common diagnoses were osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The frequency of THA for osteonecrosis increased from 24% in 2000 to 38% in 2016, while the frequency of THA for inflammatory arthritis decreased from 27% in 2000 to 4% in 2016. CONCLUSION: The number of THAs in patients under 21 in the United States has increased over the past 2 decades and these procedures are increasingly performed in urban teaching hospitals. The decrease in THA for inflammatory arthritis in this population likely reflects improvements in medical management during the study period.

5.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with morbid obesity may require both bariatric surgery and total knee/hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA). How to sequence these two procedures with better outcomes remains largely unstudied. METHODS: This cohort study extracted claims data on patients with an obesity diagnosis that received both bariatric surgery and TKA/THA surgery within 5 years of each other (Premier Healthcare database 2006-2019). Overall, 1894 patients received bariatric surgery before TKA or THA, while 1000 patients underwent TKA or THA before bariatric surgery. Main outcomes and measures include major complications (acute renal failure, acute myocardial infarction, other cardiovascular complications, sepsis/septic shock, pulmonary complications, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and central nervous system-related adverse events), postoperative intensive care unit utilization, ventilator utilization, 30-day readmission, 90-day readmission, 180-day readmission and total hospital length of stay after the second surgery. Regression models measured the association between the complications and sequence of TKA/THA and bariatric surgery. RESULTS: Undergoing TKA/THA before bariatric surgery (compared with the reverse) was associated with higher odds of major complications (7.0% vs 1.9%; adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.1, 7.6, p<0.001). Similar patterns were also observed for intensive care unit admission, ventilator use postoperatively, 30-day, and 90-day readmissions. Patients who received a second surgery within 6 months of their first surgery exhibited worse outcomes, especially among the TKA/THA first patient cohort. Major complication incidences occurred at 20.5%, 12.5%, 5.1%, 5.0%, 5.8% and 8.5% with time between TKA/THA and bariatric surgery at <6 months, 6 months-1 year, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who require both bariatric surgery and TKA/THA should consider bariatric surgery before TKA/THA as it is associated with improved outcomes. Procedures should be staged beyond 6 months.

6.
Int Orthop ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate acetabular component placement may reduce the risk of complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). While surgeon experience and volume may reduce outliers, little is known how cup positioning accuracy and consistency relates to level of training (resident, fellow, attending) and whether trainee level impacts the magnitude and direction of cup placement errors. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing posterolateral computer-assisted navigation THA were included for analysis. All surgery was performed by two fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons and assisted by a trainee (orthopedic resident (PGY 1-5) or fellow in adult reconstruction). In order to determine accuracy of cup placement in trainees and attendings, we used computer navigation to determine freehand cup placement by the trainee, then by the attending surgeon. Final cup inclination and version were determined and recorded by computer-assisted surgical navigation. Comparison of consistency in cup inclination and anteversion was made on values obtained by residents, fellows, and attendings and final values provided by the navigation system. In addition, to assess the role of training and repetition, acetabular cup inclination and version were compared between fellows during the first half and the second half of their training year. All comparisons were performed with the Student t-test except for comparison of rate of deviation from the safe zone, which were performed with the chi-square test. The level of significance was defined as p values ≤ 0.05 with 95% confidence interval, and trend toward significance was defined as p values ≤ 0.1. RESULTS: Inclination deviation from the final position and cup version deviation from the final position were statistically significant between resident vs attendings (p < 0.001 (inclination), p < 0.001 (version)), fellow vs attendings (p < 0.001 (inclination), p < 0.001 (version)), and all trainee vs attendings (p < 0.001 (inclination), p < 0.001 (version)). In all comparisons, the attending surgeons placed the cup closer to the final cup position than both resident and fellows. Proportion of inclination deviation from the safe zone of residents was significantly higher than of attendings (p < 0.001) but no significant difference was observed between fellows and attending (p = 1.00). Compared to residents, fellows demonstrated lower proportion of inclination deviation from the safe zone of 3.3% vs 23.3% for fellows vs residents (p = 0.002) and tended to implant the cups in a more horizontal position (45.6 ± 6.6° [SD] and 42.7 ± 4.3°, respectively, p = 0.04). Compared to fellow, residents tended to implant the cup in a more anteverted position than the final cup version (9.6 ± 6.7° and 6.74 ± 5.6° [SD], p = 0.034). There was no statistically significant difference in cup position between attendings' free-hand and final (computer assisted) cup placement. CONCLUSION: Accurate and consistent acetabular cup placement improves with level of training. Accurate and consistent acetabular cup version is harder to master as compared to acetabular cup inclination.

7.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO) safely addresses femoral component removal during challenging revision total hip arthroplasty. However, no prior study has evaluated whether a difference in axial stability exists between ETO closure performed before (reconstitution) or after (scaffolding) canal preparation and stem impaction. We hypothesized that given the absence of clinical reports of outcome differences despite the wide use of both practices, no significant difference in the initial axial stability would exist between the 2 fixation techniques. METHODS: ETOs were performed and repaired using the reconstitution technique for the 6 right-sided femora and the scaffolding technique for the six left-sided femora. The 195-mm long, 3.5°-tapered splined titanium monobloc stems were impacted into 6 matched pairs of human fresh cadaveric femora. Three beaded cables were placed in a standardized fashion on each specimen, 1 for prophylaxis against osteotomy propagation during reaming/impaction and 2 to close the ETO. Stepwise axial loading was performed to 2600 N or until failure, which was defined as subsidence >5 mm or femoral/cable fracture. RESULTS: All specimens successfully resisted axial testing, with no stem in either ETO repair group subsiding >2 mm. The mean subsidence for the reconstitution group was 0.9 ± 0.4 mm, compared to 1.2 ± 0.5 mm for the scaffolding group (P = .2). CONCLUSION: In this cadaveric model with satisfactory proximal bone stock, no difference existed between the reconstitution and scaffolding ETO repair techniques, and both provide sufficient immediate axial stability in a simulated revision total hip arthroplasty setting under physiologic loads.

8.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(8): 1358-1366, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334050

RESUMO

AIMS: This study used an artificial neural network (ANN) model to determine the most important pre- and perioperative variables to predict same-day discharge in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from the year 2018. Patients who received a primary, elective, unilateral TKA with a diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis were included. Demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative variables were analyzed. The ANN model was compared to a logistic regression model, which is a conventional machine-learning algorithm. Variables collected from 28,742 patients were analyzed based on their contribution to hospital length of stay. RESULTS: The predictability of the ANN model, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.801, was similar to the logistic regression model (AUC = 0.796) and identified certain variables as important factors to predict same-day discharge. The ten most important factors favouring same-day discharge in the ANN model include preoperative sodium, preoperative international normalized ratio, BMI, age, anaesthesia type, operating time, dyspnoea status, functional status, race, anaemia status, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Six of these variables were also found to be significant on logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Both ANN modelling and logistic regression analysis revealed clinically important factors in predicting patients who can undergo safely undergo same-day discharge from an outpatient TKA. The ANN model provides a beneficial approach to help determine which perioperative factors can predict same-day discharge as of 2018 perioperative recovery protocols. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(8):1358-1366.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Artroplastia do Joelho , Redes Neurais de Computação , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Alta do Paciente , Idoso , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Período Pré-Operatório
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine postoperative complications associated with rotator cuff repair (RCR) in HIV-positive patients ages 65 and older. METHODS: Data were collected from the Medicare Standardized Analytic Files between 2005 and 2015 using the PearlDiver Patient Records Database. Subjects were selected using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Demographics including age, sex, medical comorbidities, and smoking status were collected. Complications were examined at 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day postoperative time points. Data were examined with univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The study included 152,114 patients who underwent RCR, with 24,486 (16.1%) patients who were HIV-positive. Following univariate analysis, patients with HIV were observed to be more likely to develop 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day postoperative complications. However, the absolute risk of each complication was quite low for HIV-positive patients. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that within 7 days following surgery, patients with HIV were more likely to develop myocardial infarction (OR 2.5, AR 0.1%) and sepsis (OR 2.5, AR 0.04%). Within 30 days, HIV-positive patients were at increased risk for postoperative anemia (OR 2.8, AR 0.1%), blood transfusion (OR 3.3, AR 0.1%), heart failure (OR 2.3, AR 0.8%), and sepsis (OR 2.7, AR 0.1%). Within 90 days, mechanical complications (OR 2.1, AR 0.1%) were increased in the HIV-positive group. CONCLUSION: Postoperative complications of RCR occurred at increased rates in the HIV-positive group compared to the HIV-negative group in patients ages 65 and older. In particular, increased risk for myocardial infarction, sepsis, heart failure, anemia, and mechanical complications was noted in HIV-positive patients. However, the actual percentage of patients who experienced each complication was low, indicating RCR is likely safe to perform even in older HIV-positive patients. As more older adults living with HIV present for elective orthopedic procedures, the results of the present study may reassure physicians who are considering RCR as an option for patients in this particular population, while also informing providers about potential complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4813, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376664

RESUMO

Differences in immune responses to viruses and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can show sexual dimorphism. Age-associated B cells (ABC) are a population of CD11c+T-bet+ B cells critical for antiviral responses and autoimmune disorders. Absence of DEF6 and SWAP-70, two homologous guanine exchange factors, in double-knock-out (DKO) mice leads to a lupus-like syndrome in females marked by accumulation of ABCs. Here we demonstrate that DKO ABCs show sex-specific differences in cell number, upregulation of an ISG signature, and further differentiation. DKO ABCs undergo oligoclonal expansion and differentiate into both CD11c+ and CD11c- effector B cell populations with pathogenic and pro-inflammatory function as demonstrated by BCR sequencing and fate-mapping experiments. Tlr7 duplication in DKO males overrides the sex-bias and further augments the dissemination and pathogenicity of ABCs, resulting in severe pulmonary inflammation and early mortality. Thus, sexual dimorphism shapes the expansion, function and differentiation of ABCs that accompanies TLR7-driven immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígeno CD11c/imunologia , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
11.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a rare, yet devastating complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Chronic infection is generally considered a contraindication to debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR); however, outcomes stratified by chronicity have not been well documented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all DAIR cases performed at a single institution from 2008 to 2015 was performed. Chronicity of PJI was categorized as acute postoperative, chronic, or acute hematogenous. Failure after DAIR, defined as re-revision for infection recurrence with the same organism, was evaluated between the 3 chronicity groups at 90 days as well as at a minimum 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 248 patients undergoing DAIR for total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty PJI were included. Categorization of PJI was acute (acute postoperative) in 59 cases (24%), chronic in 54 (22%), and acute hematogenous in 135 (54%). DAIR survivorship was 47% (range 0.3-10 years). Overall, there were 118 (47.6%) treatment failures after DAIR with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. There was no difference in failure rate between total hip or total knee arthroplasty patients (P = .07). Patients infected with Staphylococcus conferred a higher risk of failure for all DAIR procedures regardless of chronicity category. CONCLUSION: Identification of microbial species prior to undertaking DAIR may be more clinically relevant than stratification according to chronicity category when considering treatment options.

12.
J Orthop Res ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231249

RESUMO

Component alignment in total knee arthroplasty is a determining factor for implant longevity. Mechanical alignment, which provides balanced load transfer, is the most common alignment strategy. However, a retrospective review found that varus alignment, which could lead to unbalanced loading, can happen in up to 18% of tibial baseplates. This may be particularly burdensome for cementless tibial baseplates, which require low bone-implant micromotion and avoidance of bone overload to obtain bone ingrowth. Our aim was to assess the effect of varus alignment on the bone-implant interaction of cementless baseplates. We virtually implanted 11 patients with knee OA with a modern cementless tibial baseplate in mechanical alignment and in 2° of tibial varus alignment. We performed finite element simulations throughout gait, with loading conditions derived from literature. Throughout the stance phase, varus alignment had greater micromotion and percentage of bone volume at risk of failure than mechanical alignment. At mid-stance, when the most critical conditions occurred, the average increase in peak micromotion and amount of bone at risk of failure due to varus alignment were 79% and 59%, respectively. Varus alignment also resulted in the decrease of the surface area with micromotion compatible with bone ingrowth. However, for both alignments, this surface area was larger than the average area of ingrowth reported for well-fixed implants retrieved post-mortem. Our findings suggest that small varus deviations from mechanical alignment can adversely impact the biomechanics of the bone-implant interaction for cementless tibial baseplates during gait; however, the clinical implications of such changes remain unclear.

13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(18): 1705-1712, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing. METHODS: In this prospective observational study performed at a musculoskeletal specialty hospital in the U.S., we enrolled 53 adults with validated hip or knee periprosthetic joint infections. Participants had peripheral blood drawn immediately prior to surgical treatment. Microbial cfDNA from plasma was sequenced and aligned to a genome database with >1,000 microbial species. Intraoperative tissue and synovial fluid cultures were performed per the standard of care. The primary outcome was accuracy in organism identification with use of blood cfDNA sequencing, as measured by agreement with tissue-culture results. RESULTS: Intraoperative and preoperative joint cultures identified an organism in 46 (87%) of 53 patients. Microbial cfDNA sequencing identified the joint pathogen in 35 cases, including 4 of 7 culture-negative cases (57%). Thus, as an adjunct to cultures, cfDNA sequencing increased pathogen detection from 87% to 94%. The median time to species identification for cases with genus-only culture results was 3 days less than standard-of-care methods. Circulating cfDNA sequencing in 14 cases detected additional microorganisms not grown in cultures. At postoperative encounters, cfDNA sequencing demonstrated no detection or reduced levels of the infectious pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: Microbial cfDNA from pathogens causing local periprosthetic joint infections can be detected in peripheral blood. These circulating biomarkers can be sequenced from noninvasive venipuncture, providing a novel source for joint pathogen identification. Further development as an adjunct to tissue cultures holds promise to increase the number of cases with accurate pathogen identification and improve time-to-speciation. This test may also offer a novel method to monitor infection clearance during the treatment period. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

14.
JBJS Rev ; 9(7)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297704

RESUMO

¼: Mental health and psychosocial factors play a critical role in clinical outcomes in orthopaedic surgery. ¼: The biopsychosocial model of disease defines health as a product of physiology, psychology, and social factors and, traditionally, has not been as emphasized in the care of musculoskeletal disease. ¼: Improvement in postoperative outcomes and patient satisfaction is incumbent upon the screening, recognition, assessment, and possible referral of patients with high-risk psychosocial factors both before and after the surgical procedure.

15.
J Arthroplasty ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preoperative opioid use has been associated with poor postoperative patient-reported outcome measures and delayed return to work in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty, direct surgery-related complications in patients on chronic opioids are still not clear. Thus, we sought to perform a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the influence of preoperative opioid use on postoperative complications and revision following primary total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: Following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, we queried PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Science for studies investigating the influence of preoperative opioid use on postoperative complications following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty up to May 2020. RESULTS: After applying exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included in the analysis which represented 87,165 opioid users (OU) and 5,214,010 nonopioid users (NOU). The overall revision rate in the OU group was 4.79% (3846 of 80,303 patients) compared to 1.21% in the NOU group (43,719 of 3,613,211 patients). There was a higher risk of aseptic loosening (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.53, P = .002), periprosthetic fractures (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.53-2.34, P < .00001), and dislocations (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39, P < .00001) in the OU group compared to the NOU group. Overall, 5 of 6 studies reporting on periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates showed statistically significant correlation between preoperative opioid use and higher PJI rates. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that preoperative opioid use is associated with a higher overall revision rate for aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fractures, and dislocation, and an increased risk for PJI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, systematic review.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is abnormal growth of ectopic bone and negatively affects the outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to characterize the prevalence and severity of HO after primary TKA. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Patient demographics, publication year, and HO prevalence after a primary TKA were recorded. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall prevalence of HO formation, and a subanalysis compared the studies published in different timeframes to determine whether a temporal effect exists for HO prevalence. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients underwent primary TKA across the included studies. Fourteen percent of patients (9% to 20%; I2: 93.68%) developed HO postoperatively during a mean follow-up of 40.1 months (11 to 108 months). HO rates seemed to decrease in studies published in more recent years, with a pooled HO prevalence of 5% (0% to 13%; I2: 92.26%) among studies published in the past 15 years compared with 18% (12% to 25%; I2: 92.49%) among studies published before then. CONCLUSION: Although studies reported a relatively low overall rate of HO after a primary TKA, the absence of a single, standardized classification system precludes the comparisons of HO severity between studies. Overall, HO prevalence seems to have decreased over time, likely reflecting the changes in perioperative medication protocols.

17.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(10): 3485-3489, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With improved materials and bearing surfaces, the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young patients is increasing. Functional outcomes and activity level are particularly relevant in this higher-demand patient population. There is a paucity of data on patient-reported outcomes and activity levels after THA in extremely young (<21 years old) patients. METHODS: We identified 196 patients (222 hips) who underwent THA at age <21 years at our institution from 1982 to 2018. After applying exclusion criteria, 113 of 160 (70.6%) patients (129 hips) were available for follow-up. Patient activity levels and functional outcomes were evaluated using the UCLA activity score, Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement, and a validated 5-question satisfaction survey. Survivorship and reasons for revision were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 17.0 ± 2.8 years, and the mean follow-up was 13.2 years (range 2-38 years). The most common indications for THA were osteonecrosis (34%) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (30%). The mean UCLA activity score was 5.9 ± 2.0, and 64% of patients reported a score ≥6. The mean FJS was 57.9 ± 31.0. The mean Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement score was 84.6 ± 16.6. Ninety percent of patients reported that they were very or somewhat satisfied with their surgery. At final follow-up, 27 of 129 (20.9%) hips had undergone revision surgery. CONCLUSION: THA performed in patients under 21 years of age with end-stage hip disease allows for high levels of activity and satisfaction postoperatively, with most patients being able to participate in moderate recreational activities. These data may be useful for surgeons in planning for and counseling extremely young patients indicated for THA.

18.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(10): 3527-3533, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imageless computer navigation improves component placement accuracy in total hip arthroplasty (THA), but variations in the registration process are known to impact final accuracy measurements. We sought to evaluate the registration accuracy of an imageless navigation device during THA performed in the lateral decubitus position. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 94 patients undergoing a primary THA with imageless navigation assistance was conducted. Patient position was registered using 4 planes of reference: the patient's coronal plane (standard method), the long axis of the surgical table (longitudinal plane), the lumbosacral spine (lumbosacral plane), and the plane intersecting the greater trochanter and glenoid fossa (hip-shoulder plane). Navigation measurements of cup position for each plane were compared to measurements from postoperative radiographs. RESULTS: Mean inclination from radiographs (41.5° ± 5.6°) did not differ significantly from inclination using the coronal plane (40.9° ± 3.9°, P = .39), the hip-shoulder plane (42.4° ± 4.7°, P = .26), or the longitudinal plane (41.2° ± 4.3°, P = .66). Inclination measured using the lumbosacral plane (45.8° ± 4.3°) differed significantly from radiographic measurements (P < .0001). Anteversion measured from radiographs (mean: 26.1° ± 5.4°) did not differ significantly from the hip-shoulder plane (26.6° ± 5.2°, P = .50). All other planes differed significantly from radiographs: coronal (22.6° ± 6.8°, P = .001), lumbosacral (32.5° ± 6.4°, P < .0001), and longitudinal (23.7° ± 5.2°, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patient registration using any plane approximating the long axis of the body provided a frame of reference that accurately measured intraoperative cup position. Registration using a plane approximating the hip-shoulder axis, however, provided the most accurate and consistent measurement of acetabular component position.

19.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(8): 3028-3041, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have evaluated the survivorship and clinical outcomes of constrained acetabular liners (CALs) in complex primary and revision total hip arthroplasty with hip instability; however, there remains no consensus on the overall performance of this constrained implant. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to examine survivorship and complication rate of CAL usage. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted for English articles using various combinations of keywords. RESULTS: In all, 37 articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 4152 CALs were implanted. The all-cause reoperation-free survivorship was 79.9%. The overall complication rate was 22.2%. Dislocation was the most common complications observed and the most frequent reason for reoperation with an incidence of 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Infection after CAL placement had an incidence of 4.6%. The reoperation rate for aseptic acetabular component loosening was 2.9%. Overall, patients had improved outcomes as documented by postoperative hip scores. CONCLUSION: CALs usage have a relatively high complication rate, particularly when compared with current bearing alternatives (dual mobility cups and large diameter femoral heads), however, it remains a valuable salvage procedure in complex patients affected by recurrent dislocation and implant instability. Newer designs have shown reduced impingement and higher survivorship free from dislocation. However, CALs should only be used when the reasons of instability have been correctly recognized and optimized.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevivência
20.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(9): 3333-3339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Titanium tapered stems (TTS) achieve fixation in the femoral diaphysis and are commonly used in revision total hip arthroplasty. The initial stability of a TTS is critical, but the minimum contact length needed and impact of implant-specific taper angles on axial stability are unknown. This biomechanical study was performed to better guide operative decision-making by addressing these clinical questions. METHODS: Two TTS with varying conical taper angles (2° spline taper vs 3.5° spline taper) were implanted in 9 right and left matched fresh human femora. The proximal femur was removed, and the remaining femoral diaphysis was prepared to allow for either a 2 cm (n = 6), 3 cm (n = 6), or 4 cm (n = 6) cortical contact length with each implanted stem. Stepwise axial load was then applied to a maximum of 2600N or until the femur fractured. Failure was defined as either subsidence >5 mm or femur fracture. RESULTS: All 6 femora with 2 cm of stem-cortical contact length failed axial testing, a significantly higher failure rate (P < .02) than the 4 out of 6 femora and all 6 femora that passed testing at 3 cm and 4 cm, respectively, which were not statistically different from each other (P = .12). Taper angle did not influence success rates, as each matched pair either succeeded or failed at the tested contact length. CONCLUSION: 4 cm of cortical contact length with a TTS demonstrates reliable initial axial stability, while 2 cm is insufficient regardless of taper angle. For 3 cm of cortical contact, successful initial fixation can be achieved in most cases with both taper angle designs.

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