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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS: From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.

2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical outcomes obtained in intrabony defects following regenerative periodontal surgery using the single-flap approach (SFA) in conjunction with either hyaluronic acid (HA) or enamel matrix derivative (EMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two intrabony defects in 32 healthy subjects were randomly assigned: HA (test group) or EMD (control group). Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (REC), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline,12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: At 24 months, both treatments resulted in statistically significant clinical improvements evidenced by PD-reduction and CAL-gain (p<0.001). The mean CAL-gain was 2.19±1.11 mm in the test and 2.94±1.12 mm in the control sites (p=0.067). PD-reduction was statistically significantly higher for the control group (4.5±0.97 mm) than the test group (3.31±0.70 mm), (p=0.001). CAL-gain ≤ 3 mm was observed in 87.5% and in 62.5% of the test and control sites, respectively. Test sites showed slightly lower REC values than the control sites. No statistically significant differences were found for BOP between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that both treatments led to statistically significant clinical improvements compared to baseline, although the application of EMD resulted in statistically significantly higher PD-reduction compared to the use of HA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of HA in conjunction with a SFA resulted in significant PD-reduction and CAL-gain, pointing to the potential clinical relevance of this material in regenerative periodontal surgery.

3.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 0, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In-vitro data have shown that cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) enhances the proliferative and migratory properties of cells involved in periodontal wound healing/regeneration, stabilizes the blood clot, reduces the inflammatory response, and facilitates angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effects of cross-linked HA alone or combined with a collagen matrix (CM) on the periodontal wound healing/regeneration in intrabony defects. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Two-wall intrabony defects (5 mm wide, 5 mm deep) were surgically created at the distal and mesial aspects of mandibular premolars in six beagle dogs. The 24 defects were randomly treated as follows: open flap debridement (OFD) + HA, OFD + CM, OFD + HA + CM (HA/CM), and OFD alone (control). At 2 months, the animals were euthanized for histologic evaluation. RESULTS: The HA (2.43 ±â€¯1.25 mm) and HA/CM (2.60 ±â€¯0.99 mm) groups yielded statistically significantly (P < .05) greater formation of new attachment (ie, linear length of new cementum adjacent to newly formed bone, with inserting collagen fibers) compared with the OFD (0.55 ± 0.99 mm) group. Among the four treatment groups, the HA/CM group demonstrated the highest amount of regenerated tissues, although no statistically significant differences in any of the histometric parameters were observed between the HA and HA/CM groups. CONCLUSION: Within their limits, it can be concluded that cross-linked HA alone or combined with CM promotes periodontal wound healing/regeneration in two-wall intrabony defects in dogs.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/cirurgia , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Colágeno , Cães , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada Periodontal , Ácido Hialurônico , Cicatrização
4.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 0, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transgingival probing is often used in the clinic to assess gingival thickness. However, what is not completely known is how well this method represents the true value of soft tissue thickness. The aim of this study was to assess differences and variation in gingival thickness when measured with transgingival probing or scanned with an intraoral device. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This ex vivo study evaluated gingival thickness on 20 porcine cadavers. Gingival thickness was assessed at both central and lateral mandibular incisors through transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe and also using intraoral scanning, which was considered as the method providing the 'true value' of soft tissue thickness. Intra-examiner repeatability and method error were evaluated. RESULTS: No evidence of systematic difference for any of the mandibular central or lateral incisors (mandibular right incisors: mean difference -0.17 to -0.01 mm, and mandibular left incisors: mean difference -0.11 to 0.04 mm) was observed between the periodontal probe and intraoral scanning methods. The absolute differences between the repeated measurements with intraoral scanning for each tooth type (n = 30) were calculated: the overall median was 0.089 mm and the interquartile range was 0.080 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe for assessing gingival thickness is a reliable method, with values very close to the true gingival thickness, and it can thus be considered as the clinical gold standard.


Assuntos
Gengiva , Incisivo , Animais , Humanos , Mandíbula , Exame Físico , Padrões de Referência , Suínos
6.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513277

RESUMO

AIM: To clinically and histologically evaluate in dogs the healing of gingival recessions treated with coronally advanced flap (CAF) with or without cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gingival recession defects were surgically created on the vestibular side of both maxillary canines in 8 dogs. After 8 weeks of plaque accumulation, the 16 chronic defects were randomly treated with either CAF alone or CAF and HA-gel (CAF/HA). Clinical and histological outcomes were evaluated at 10 weeks post-surgically. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, the clinical measurements at 10 weeks revealed a statistically significant decrease in gingival recession for both CAF (p < 0.01) and CAF/HA (p < 0.001) groups. Statistically significant differences were found in clinical attachment level (p < 0.05) and width of gingival recession (p < 0.01) favouring the CAF/HA group. Bone formation was statistically significantly greater in the CAF/HA group than in the CAF group (1.84 ± 1.16 mm vs., 0.72 ± 0.62 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). Formation of cementum and connective tissue attachment were statistically significantly higher in the CAF/HA group compared with the CAF group (i.e. 4.31 ± 1.78 mm versus 2.40 ± 1.35 mm and 1.69 ± 0.98 mm versus 0.74 ± 0.68 mm, respectively (p < 0.05)). CONCLUSIONS: The present data have for the first time provided histologic evidence for periodontal regeneration of gingival recession defects following treatment with CAF and HA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of HA in conjunction with CAF may represent a novel modality for treating gingival recession defects.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implant-supported restorations with cantilever extension may display high rates of biological and technical complications. PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of single-unit crowns with cantilever extension (SCCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SCCs were reevaluated after ≥10 years of loading. Radiographic marginal bone levels (mBLs) at baseline (ie, delivery of SCCs) and follow-up were calculated and compared between implant surfaces adjacent to and distant from the cantilever extension. Implant survival and success rates were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with 25 SCs supported by 25 implants were reevaluated after a mean of 13.6 ± 3.8 years (range: 10-19 years). No implants were lost. The mean overall mBLs changed from 0.99 mm ± 0.95 at baseline to 0.95 mm ± 0.99 at follow-up (p = 0.853). The mean pocket probing depths changed from 3.39 mm ± 0.62 at baseline to 3.34 mm ± 0.54 at follow-up (p = 0.635). Loss of retention occurred 3× in 2 patients (14.3%). At follow-up, peri-implant health was diagnosed in 10 (48%) and peri-implant mucositis in 11 (52%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the use of implant-supported SCs with cantilever extension in posterior areas represents a reliable long-term treatment option with a 100% implant survival rate and minimal marginal bone level changes.

9.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 19-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427214

RESUMO

The pH value of a biofilm influences the pathogenesis and therapy of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different initial pH values on the microbial composition, bacterial counts, metabolic activity, and quantity of three defined biofilms representing oral health, caries, and periodontal disease. Respective bacterial suspensions in the nutrient broth were initially adjusted to pH values between 5 and 8. Then biofilms were cultured on polystyrene surfaces coated with a proteinaceous solution for 2 h ("healthy" biofilm), 6 h ("healthy," and "cariogenic" biofilms), 24 h ("cariogenic," and "periodontitis" biofilms), and 48 h ("periodontitis" biofilm). In all biofilms, total bacterial counts were lower at an initial pH of 5 or 5.5 than at higher pH values. In the biofilm representing caries, the percentage of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus) was higher at a low pH, the metabolic activity was highest at pH 6-6.5, and biofilm mass was greatest at pH 7-7.5. In the biofilm representing periodontitis, the percentage of Porphyromonas gingivalis increased with the pH. Also, the metabolic activity was highest at pH 8, whereas mass had the highest value at pH 7. In conclusion, the initial pH value influences biofilm formation. In particular, metabolic activity and the amount of bacteria associated with disease correlated with the respective pH known to be of importance in the development of caries (relatively low pH) and periodontitis (higher pH). Modifying the pH level in oral biofilms might be an alternative concept in (primary) prevention and treatment, not only of caries but also of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilmes , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus acidophilus
10.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 133-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427227

RESUMO

During the last decade, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated for the treatment of periodontal and peri-implant infections. Nonetheless, contradicting clinical and microbiological outcomes and only results on a short-term basis have been reported so far, thus making it difficult to conclude on clinically relevant recommendations for the use of PDT. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the potential clinical and/or microbiological benefit for the use of PDT in non-surgical periodontal and peri-implant therapy, and to draw clinically relevant conclusions on the use of PDT in periodontal practice. Based on the available evidence from RCTs and recent meta-analyses, we can conclude the following: in patients with mild to moderate periodontitis, the combination of scaling and root planing (SRP) and PDT may result in significantly higher clinical improvements (bleeding on probing and probing depth reduction, clinical attachment gain) compared to SRP alone in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis; in patients with stage III and IV grade C periodontitis (previously known as AgP) the use of PDT provides clinical improvements, although PDT cannot so far be recommended as a replacement for systemic antibiotics (i.e., amoxicillin and metronidazole); PDT may be indicated as a valuable tool for treating moderate residual periodontal pockets during maintenance therapy; limited evidence on the use of PDT in medically compromised patients (i.e., diabetes mellitus, oral lichen planus) indicates that PDT may represent a possible alternative to other more invasive medication/treatment procedures; limited evidence suggests that PDT may represent a valuable tool in attaining inflammation reduction on a short-term basis in peri-implant diseases (i.e., peri-implantitis, peri-implant mucositis).


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite , Fotoquimioterapia , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Aplainamento Radicular
11.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 98-104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427228

RESUMO

The present narrative review provides a summary of the temporal and spatial reactions of the oral microbiome to the placement of a dental implant into the oral cavity, depicting the most important interactions between the oral microbiota and the host response involved in the development of peri-implant infections in humans (i.e., peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis). Starting with the formation of a pellicle to acute and rampant peri-implant inflammation, a number of steps, including biofilm formation, aggressive bacterial invasion, and host defense mechanisms, are involved. Better understanding of the factors related to the host response and changes in the composition of microbiota has led to the development of novel treatment modalities. Finally, a short outlook into the future is provided.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Microbiota , Peri-Implantite , Estomatite , Bactérias , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Estomatite/etiologia
12.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471389

RESUMO

AIM: To histologically evaluate the effect of a new collagen matrix on periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-wall intrabony defects were surgically created bilaterally distally to the maxillary first and third pre-molars in beagle dogs. The defects were randomly allocated to open flap debridement either with (test) or without (control) a volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX). After 12 weeks, the dogs were euthanized, and the specimens histologically processed. Descriptive, histomorphometrical (vertical gain of periodontal tissues) and statistical analyses were then performed. RESULTS: Healing was uneventful in most cases. Residual VCMX was still present and showed integration into new bone, new periodontal ligament, connective tissue and, in some specimens, into new cementum. Periodontal regeneration occurred to a varying extent in both groups. New continuous cementum and new bone formation were statistically significantly greater in the test group (4.12 mm and 3.28 mm, respectively) than in the control group (1.54 mm and 2.47 mm, respectively) (p = .009 and p = .037, respectively). The junctional epithelium was longer in the control group (2.21 mm) than in the test group (1.49 mm, p = .16). CONCLUSION: The present results have for the first time provided histologic evidence for the potential of this novel VCMX to facilitate periodontal regeneration thus warranting further pre-clinical and clinical testing.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how scaling affects the penetration of microorganisms into dentinal tubules, how pulpal cells seeded into the pulp cavity respond to bacterial challenge, and how penetration and inflammatory response may depend on the bacterial composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root canals of 102 extracted human teeth underwent shaping and cleaning. Half of the teeth were subjected to scaling and root planing, the other half remained untreated. Teeth were exposed to either Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces oris or S. gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis for 10 weeks. Bacterial invasion was assessed in a depth of 1 mm to the root surface. Human pulpal cells were seeded into the cavities to assess the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoassay. RESULTS: The percentage of teeth with bacteria detected in dentine was higher when teeth received scaling than when they were untreated: 66.6% versus 44.4% when exposed to A. oris/S. gordonii, and 50% versus 25% when exposed to P. gingivalis/S. gordonii (p = 0.043). Scaling had no impact on IL-8 and MMP-3 expression in pulpal cells. P. gingivalis/S. gordonii caused higher levels of IL-8, MCP-1, and MMP-3 than A. oris/S. gordonii (p = 0.003, p = 0.011, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Scaling supports the penetration of bacteria into the dentine of extracted human teeth. P. gingivalis may affect the immune response in pulpal cells. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Root surface debridement with hand instruments may facilitate bacterial penetration. Other kinds of mechanical instrumentation in this experimental setting should be investigated.

14.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have established the short-term improvements of periodontal regenerative/reconstructive procedures compared to conventional surgical treatment in intrabony defects. However, a hierarchy of periodontal regenerative/reconstructive procedures regarding the medium- to long-term results of treatment does not exist. AIM: To systematically assess the literature to answer the focused question "In periodontitis patients with intrabony defects, what are the medium- and long-term benefits of periodontal regenerative/reconstructive procedures compared with open flap debridement (OFD), in terms of clinical and/or radiographic outcome parameters and tooth retention?" MATERIAL & METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), reporting on clinical and/or radiographic outcome parameters of periodontal regenerative/reconstructive procedures ≥ 3 years post-operatively were systematically assessed. Clinical [residual probing pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, tooth loss] and radiographic [residual defect depth (RDD), bone gain (RBL)] outcome parameters, were assessed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed where possible. RESULTS: Thirty RCTs, presenting data 3 to 20 years after treatment with grafting, GTR, EMD, as monotherapies, combinations thereof, and/or adjunctive use of blood derived growth factor constructs, or with OFD only, were included. NMA based on 21 RCTs showed that OFD was clearly the least efficacious treatment; regenerative/reconstructive treatments resulted in significantly shallower residual PD in 4 out 8 comparisons [range of mean differences (MD): -2.37 to -0.60 mm] and larger CAL gain in 6 out 8 comparisons (range of MD: 1.26 to 2.66 mm), and combination approaches appeared as the most efficacious. Tooth loss after regenerative/reconstructive treatment was less frequent (0.4%) compared to OFD (2.8%), but the evidence was sparse. There was only sparse radiographic data not allowing any relevant comparisons. CONCLUSION: Periodontal regenerative/reconstructive therapy in intrabony defects results, in general, in shallower residual PD and larger CAL gain compared with OFD, translating in high rates of tooth survival, on a medium (3-5 years) to long-term basis (5-20 years). Combination approaches appear, in general, more efficacious compared to monotherapy in terms of shallower residual PD and larger CAL gain. A clear hierarchy could, however, not be established due to limited evidence.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 310, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate 24 protocols for the production of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) produced via horizontal centrifugation to better understand cell separation following protocols at various times and speeds. METHODS: All protocols were compared utilizing a recent method to quantify cells in PRF in 1 mL sequential layers pipetted from the upper layer downwards until all 10 mL were harvested. In total, 960 complete blood counts (CBCs) were investigated. Both solid and liquid-based PRF protocols were investigated following 24 protocols involving 6 relative centrifugal force (RCF) values (100, 200, 400, 700, 1000 and 1200g) at 4 centrifugation times (3, 5, 8 and 12 min). RESULTS: In general, platelets could more easily accumulate in the upper 4 layers when compared to leukocytes owing to their lower cellular density. Protocol time seemed to have a greater impact on the final cell layer separation when compared to the effect of speed. Protocols of greater than 8 min at 400g led to no leukocyte accumulation in the upper PRF layers (found specifically within the buffy coat). Protocols at or below 200g were unable to effectively accumulate platelets/leukocytes. The optimal centrifugation speed and time for solid-PRF ranged between 400 and 700g for 8 min. It was noted that variability in patient baseline platelet/leukocyte/erythrocyte counts (hematocrit) significantly affected cell layer separation. This finding was more pronounced at lower centrifugation speeds. CONCLUSIONS: Within the investigated ranges, a protocol of 700g for 8 min presented the highest yield of platelets/leukocytes evenly distributed throughout the upper PRF layers.

16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the effects of laser monotherapy with non-surgical mechanical instrumentation alone in untreated periodontitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A focused question was formulated based on the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study design criteria (PICOS): in patients with untreated periodontitis, does laser mono-therapy provide adjunctive effects on pocket probing depth (PPD) changes compared with non-surgical instrumentation alone? Both randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analyses are expressed as weighted mean differences (WMD) and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The search yielded 1268 records, out of which 8 articles could be included. With respect to PPD changes, a meta-analysis including 5 articles (n = 148) failed to identify statistically significant differences in favor of laser monotherapy for PPD change (WMD = 0.14 mm; 95% CI: - 0.04/0.32; z = 1.51; p = 0.132) nor for clinical attachment level (CAL) (WMD = 0.04 mm; 95% CI: - 0.35/0.42; z = 0.19; p = 0.850). Data on cost-effectiveness are lacking. One study reported patient-related outcome measures (PROMS). CONCLUSIONS: In untreated periodontitis patients, laser monotherapy does not yield superior clinical benefits compared with non-surgical mechanical instrumentation alone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In untreated periodontitis patients, mechanical instrumentation with hand and/or ultrasonic instruments remains the standard of care.

17.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 881-887, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215480

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of the adjunctive subgingival application of sodium hypochlorite on clinical outcome following nonsurgical periodontal treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search protocol was developed to answer the following focused question: 'in patients with periodontitis, does adjunctive subgingival application of sodium hypochlorite have additional clinical benefits compared to subgingival debridement alone?' Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) published up to January 30, 2020, with at least 6 months of follow-up, in which sodium hypochlorite was used as an adjunct in nonsurgical periodontitis treatment were included. The search was limited to the English language. RESULTS: Out of 355 studies retrieved, the search resulted in two publications that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The adjunctive application of sodium hypochlorite did not provide additional beneficial effect in terms of changes in the evaluated clinical outcomes (i.e. probing depth values [PDs], clinical attachment level gain [CAL] and bleeding on probing [BOP]) when compared to mechanical instrumentation alone over the 12-month investigation period (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The available data have failed to show any additional clinical benefit following the use of sodium hypochlorite in conjunction with nonsurgical periodontal therapy.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
18.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 981-990, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze in vitro new formulations with Citrox and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) regarding their antibacterial activity against planktonic bacteria and their potential to inhibit biofilm formation or to act on existing biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five oral health care products with 0.05%-0.5% CHX formulations (four rinses and one gel) were compared with Citrox preparations and additive-free CHX solutions. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against 13 oral bacteria associated with caries or periodontitis. Further, the activity on retarding biofilm formation and on existing biofilms was analyzed; both a 'cariogenic' (5 species) and a 'periodontal' (12 species) biofilm were included. RESULTS: The MIC values did not differ between the CHX mouthrinse/gel formulations and the respective additive-free CHX solutions. Citrox was active against selected periodontopathogens (e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis). The CHX formulations more effectively retarded biofilm formation than did solutions with the same concentration of CHX but without additives. The anti-biofilm activities depended on the CHX concentration in the formulations. Both CHX solutions and formulations (rinse and gel) were only slightly active on an already formed biofilm. Citrox did not exert any anti-biofilm effect. CONCLUSION: The present in vitro data support the anti-biofilm activity of the novel CHX, Citrox, poly-L-lysine and xylitol oral health-care formulations. Further studies are warranted to confirm the present findings in various clinical settings.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Saúde Bucal , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia
19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of a newly proposed minimally invasive split-thickness flap design without vertical-releasing incisions for vertical bone regeneration performed in either a simultaneous or staged approach and to analyze the prevalence of adverse events during postoperative healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following preparation of a split-thickness flap and bilaminar elevation of the mucosa and underlying periosteum, the alveolar bone was exposed over the defects, vertical GBR was performed by means of a titanium-reinforced high-density polytetrafluoroethylene membrane combined with particulated autogenous bone (AP) and bovine-derived xenograft (BDX) in 1:1 ratio. At 9 months after reconstructive surgery, vertical and horizontal hard tissue gain was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examination. RESULTS: Twenty-four vertical alveolar ridge defects in 19 patients were treated with vertical GBR. In case of 6 surgical sites, implant placement was performed at the time of the GBR (simultaneous group); in the remaining 18 surgical, sites implant placement was performed 9 months after the ridge augmentation (staged group). After uneventful healing in 23 cases, hard tissue fill was detected in each site. Direct clinical measurements confirmed vertical and horizontal hard tissue gain averaging 3.2 ± 1.9 mm and 6.5 ± 0.5 mm respectively, in the simultaneous group and 4.5 ± 2.2 mm and 8.7 ± 2.3 mm respectively, in the staged group. Additional radiographic evaluation based on CBCT data sets in the staged group revealed mean vertical and horizontal hard tissue fill of 4.2 ± 2.0 mm and 8.5 ± 2.4 mm. Radiographic volume gain was 1.1 ± 0.4 cm3. CONCLUSION: Vertical GBR consisting of a split-thickness flap and using titanium-reinforced non-resorbable membrane in conjunction with a 1:1 mixture of AP+BDX may lead to a predictable vertical and horizontal hard tissue reconstruction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The used split-thickness flap design may represent a valuable approach to increase the success rate of vertical GBR, resulting in predicable hard tissue regeneration, and favorable wound healing with low rate of membrane exposure.

20.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 0, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028051
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