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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241724

RESUMO

Hospital-acquired tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers is a global concern due to the increased attributable risk of tuberculosis infection among this group. To reduce healthcare workers' exposure to airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis, various policies and guidelines have been developed and updated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) since 1999. In March 2019, the WHO published the updated tuberculosis infection control guidelines. It had previously been suggested that the existence of multiple guidelines and the changes in the contents across versions may confuse end-users and challenge the implementation. With this issue in mind, we examined the updated WHO 2019 TB infection control guidelines. The WHO 2019 updated guideline is a shorter and more focused document that includes more of the evidence from published systematic reviews for TB infection prevention and control. The guidelines focus on implementing TB infection control as an integrated infection control and prevention 'package'. However, a few key elements have been omitted or integrated with other WHO policies that were previously included in the guidelines, many of which are also still present in other international and in many national level TB infection control guidelines. In this commentary, we highlighted the inconsistencies in the different versions of the guidelines, the challenges that the high TB burden and low-income countries may face while implementing the guidelines and some factors that may be considered in the future guidelines. The arguments we made have important implications for tuberculosis infection control strategy development and implementation in low-income and high TB burden countries.

3.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infection control policies and guidelines recommend using facemasks and respirators to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from respiratory infections. Common types of respirators used in healthcare settings are filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Aims of this study were to examine the current attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding the selection and use of respiratory protection and determine the acceptability of a novel PAPR. METHODS: In-depth interviews were undertaken with 20 HCWs from a large tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Participants were fit tested with a lightweight tight-fitting half-facepiece PAPR (CleanSpace2™ Power Unit, PAF-0034, by CleanSpace Technology®) using the TSI™ Portacount quantitative fit test method. RESULTS: Interview results showed that HCWs had a limited role in the selection and use of facemasks and respirators and had been using the devices provided by the hospital. The majority of subjects had no knowledge of hospital policy for the use of facemasks and respirators, had not been trained on the use of respirators, and had not been fit tested previously. Compliance with the use of facemasks and respirators was perceived as being low and facemasks and respirators were typically used only for short periods of time.All 20 participants were successfully fit tested to the CleanSpace2™ PAPR (overall geometric mean fit factor-6768). According to the exit surveys, CleanSpace2™ PAPRs were easy to don (14/20) and doff (15/20) and comfortable to wear (14/20). Most participants believed that PAPRs provide higher protection, comfort and reusability over N95 FFR and can be used during pandemics and other high-risk situations. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs should be aware of infection control policies and training should be provided on the correct use of respiratory protective devices. PAPRs can be used in hospital settings to protect HCWs from certain highly infectious and emerging pathogens, however, HCWs require adequate training on storage, use, and cleaning of PAPRs.

4.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although familial involvement during inpatient care is not uncommon in western countries, the types of caring activities that family members in Asian countries provide are significantly different. These activities may place the family member at risk from a health care-associated infection. This study aimed to examine whether the role of patients' families has been accounted for in the infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines and policy, using examples from Bangladesh (low-income country), Indonesia (middle-income country), and South Korea (high-income country). METHODS: The World Health Organization website and Institutional Repository for Information Sharing, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, Australian Government Web Archive, Open Grey, Grey Matters, World Bank, and advanced Google search, as well as the Health Department/Ministry of Health websites for each target country and 4 western countries (Australia, Canada, England, and the United States) were searched. Other databases, such as Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Global Health, ProQuest databases, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus were also searched. This was to review the reflection of the cultural influence in IPC policies/guidelines by reviewing those from the global organizations, which are often used as a blueprint for policy development, as well as those from western countries, which hold different cultures in care arrangement. Search was conducted with attention to the key areas: definition and role of carer in the acute health care facility, involvement of patients/family members in IPC activities, patient and family member hand hygiene, and IPC education. RESULTS: Ninety-two articles were identified based on the criteria for the study. Only 6 acknowledged that care is provided to hospitalized patients by their family members, and only 1 recommended that family members receive the same level of training as health care workers on IPC precautions. Other guides recommended the provision of information on IPC measures as means of patient involvement in the IPC program. Recognition of family caregivers or inclusion of them in the IPC strategies was not included in the target countries' guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although health care workers are the primary actors when it comes to providing care in acute health care settings, it is important to expand the IPC guides by considering the role of other caregivers. Policies and guidelines should reflect the cultural influence over healthcare. This is especially true when cultural values strongly influence over healthcare arrangements and the healthcare accommodates these cultural influences in the practice. Further work needs to be undertaken on the level of training/education provided to family members in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and South Korea.

5.
Vaccine ; 38(2): 180-186, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infants and children under 5-years are at an increased risk of complications from influenza. We aimed to evaluate characteristics associated with uptake of Australian state and territory funded influenza vaccine programs in 2018 for children aged 6-months to 5-years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national online survey of 1002 Australian parents with at least one child aged between 6-months and 5-years (response rate 29.9%). A 23-item online questionnaire asked parents about health service use, 2017 and 2018 influenza vaccine uptake, and routine childhood vaccine status for their youngest child. Parents were also asked a range of questions about their demographics, sources of vaccine information, and beliefs and attitudes towards immunisation. RESULTS: A total of 1002 parents completed the questionnaire and 52.9% of children aged 6-months to 5-years in our sample were immunised against influenza in 2018; representing a significant increase from 2017. Knowing the vaccine was free for their child, and being influenced by a pharmacist increased the likelihood that their child received the influenza vaccine. Not receiving an influenza vaccine recommendation from a health care provider significantly reduced the likelihood of immunisation. Some parents were worried about the safety of the influenza vaccine for their child (36.4%), while 26.5% of parents agreed that you can catch influenza from the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of influenza vaccine for Australian children aged 6-months to 5-years increased significantly in 2018. Continuing efforts to build parents' trust in childhood influenza vaccination are still required. Increasing opportunities for health care providers to recommend vaccination will lead to further improvements in uptake for young children.

6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 911, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore how the influenza vaccine is promoted and delivered to children with medical comorbidities in the hospital setting, as well as the facilitators of and barriers to vaccination from the healthcare worker perspective. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff members (n = 17) at a paediatric hospital in Sydney, Australia between April and July 2018. This included nurses, clinical nurse consultants, pediatricians and department heads. The interviews were transcribed and analysed iteratively to generate the major themes. RESULTS: Approaches used to promote and/or deliver the influenza vaccine varied among the participants. Some described the vaccine as an ingrained component of their clinical consultation. Others acknowledged that there was missed opportunities to discuss or provide the vaccine, citing competing priorities as well as a lack of awareness, time and resources. Participants perceived that some parents had concerns about safety and appropriateness of the vaccine for their child. While there was some support for sending reminders and/or educating patients through the hospital, there were differing perspectives on whether tertiary centres should be delivering the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based interventions to increase vaccine uptake must consider the needs of staff. Easily accessible information and increased awareness of the recommendations among staff may lead to improved uptake in this hospital. Additional resources would be required to increase on-site delivery of the vaccine.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 805, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Education Centre (ECEC) staff are strongly recommended to receive several immunizations including influenza and pertussis. However, evidence regarding the uptake is either old or lacking across all Australian States/Territories. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and barriers around ECEC staff vaccination and the immunisation policy/practices employed at their workplaces. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was undertaken of staff members (administrators and childcare center staff) in early 2017. We compared the individual's knowledge, attitude and practices as well as the centre's policy and practice variables between the vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents. A logistic model was used to identify the factors associated with uptake of the different vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 575 ECEC staff completed the survey. Sixty percent reported being aware of the recommendations about staff immunisation. While participants did acknowledge that they could spread diseases if unvaccinated (86%), 30% could not recall receiving a dTpa in the last 10 years. Private centres were less likely to provide free or onsite vaccination compared to other categories of centres. Less than half reported receiving any encouragement to get the influenza vaccine and only 33% reported that their centre provides onsite influenza vaccination. Regarding the introduction of mandatory policies, 69% stated that they would support a policy. CONCLUSION: Employers should consider supporting methods to maximize vaccination of their employees including providing free onsite vaccination. Participants were open to idea of mandatory vaccination; however, this needs to be explored further to determine how vaccine costs and access issues could be resolved.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Local de Trabalho
8.
Vaccine ; 37(44): 6724-6729, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunisation programs available in low and middle-income countries include fewer vaccines in comparison to Australia's National Immunisation Program. As a result, refugees and migrants may have a heightened risk of being inadequately immunised upon arrival to Australia. Several studies have suggested that East African immigrants have low vaccination coverage. As such, the aim of this study was to explore the underlying attitudes, barriers and facilitators to immunisation in east African communities in two states of Australia: New South Wales and Victoria. METHODS: A qualitative study involving 17 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were undertaken with East African refugees and migrants living in two states of Australia: New South Wales and Victoria. These refugees and migrants were from four key East African countries: Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and South Sudan. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse and interpret the results. RESULTS: Language barriers, low risk perception and a lack of education were the key barriers identified by participants. Facilitators mentioned included the development of resources in participants' languages and the implementation of reminder systems consistently across all GP practices. There was also a unanimous agreement amongst participants that community organisations need to play a greater role in the dissemination of information about immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Further research needs to be undertaken with regards to how education about immunisation is delivered and disseminated to refugee and migrant communities. Current findings also support the need to improve the health literacy of refugees and migrants by providing culturally and linguistically appropriate resources in participants' respective languages.

9.
Vaccine ; 37(44): 6594-6600, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing attention around the need to improve the confidence and skills of healthcare providers to assist them in completing the complex task of communicating to vaccine hesitant parents and other individuals. While interventions have been developed and evaluated in a research setting, there is uncertainty regarding the public availability. This study aimed to examine the current landscape regarding the availability of online dialogue- based interventions which aim to support vaccination conversations. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken to identify and appraise the availability and accessibility of dialogue-based interventions. A dialogue-based intervention was defined as a strategy aiming to improve an individual's confidence and communication skills to engage with and respond to vaccine hesitant individuals. Two approaches were utilised to identify relevant interventions and resources. Firstly, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Catalogue of Interventions was assessed to identify interventions that met the definition. Secondarily, a Google search (in English only) was conducted using key words, that reflected the strategy that healthcare providers may use to identify resources. RESULTS: We identified a total of 31 dialogue-based interventions, of which 29 were reviewed. The interventions were all text based and instructional in nature. Twenty-two were suitable for healthcare providers, as well as non-clinical immunisation spokespersons to use. Of issue, was that in many instances it was common to find the resource located on the fifth to tenth page of search entries, and usually disguised under seemingly non-descript and nonspecific titles. Lastly, not all resources were available for free and not all could be accessed directly from the site. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that while there have been numerous interventions developed to support healthcare providers to communicate with vaccine hesitant parents/individuals, there are fundamental issues with accessing the materials in a timely and convenient way. Having a central repository or website (which links to the interventions) would not only assistant healthcare providers to have an improved comprehension of the different interventions available but also would theoretically increase the utilisation by providers.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393927

RESUMO

Adolescent-friendly health programs have been in place in Nepal since 2008, yet uptake of the services for sexual and reproductive health remains suboptimal. For uptake of these services to improve, a rich understanding is needed of the factors impacting their acceptance and utilization from the perspectives of adolescents, health care staff, and key community informants. This study applied a qualitative research design involving six focus groups with 52 adolescents and in-depth interviews with 16 adolescents, 13 key informants, and 9 health care providers from six adolescent-friendly health facilities in Nepal. Thematic analysis was conducted for data analysis. The key themes identified as barriers include access issues due to travel, institutional health care barriers, perceived lack of privacy and confidentiality, and the unprofessional attitudes of staff towards the sexual health needs of adolescents. These themes are underpinned by gendered ideology and a moral framework around the sexual behavior of adolescents. Interview responses suggested that health care providers take a policing role in prescribing adolescents' conformity to this moral framework in their delivery of reproductive health care and services. While physical access to health services may be problematic for some adolescents, this is not the priority issue. Attention needs to be given to increasing the capacity of health care providers to deliver services without imposing their own and socially sanctioned moral frameworks around adolescent sexual behavior. Such capacity building should include training that is experiential and emphasizes the importance of confidentiality and non-judgmental attitudes.

11.
Vaccine ; 37(37): 5630-5636, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) causes significant burden of HPV-related diseases, which are more prevalent in immunosuppressed compared to immunocompetent people. We conducted a multi-centre clinical trial to determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of HPV vaccine in immunocompromised children. Here we present the immunogenicity results 5 years post vaccination. METHODS: We followed up immunocompromised children (5-18 years) with a range of specified underlying conditions who were previously recruited from three Australian paediatric hospitals. Participants received three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil Quadrivalent HPV Types 6, 11, 16, 18) and were followed up between 2007 and 2016 (60 months post-vaccination). The immunogenicity primary outcome was seroconversion and geometric mean titres (GMT) of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine serotypes in the study. RESULTS: Of the 59 original participants, 37 were followed up at 60 months. The proportion of participants who seroconverted were: 86.5%, 89.2%, 89.2%, 91.9% by competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) and 83.8%, 83.8%, 94.6%, 78.4% by total immunoglobulin G assays (IgG) for serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 respectively. GMT values ranged from 118 (95%CI: 79-177) for serotype 11, to 373 (95%CI: 215-649) for serotype 16 by cLIA. For IgG, serotype 16 had the highest GMT of 261 (95%CI: 143-477) and serotype 18 had the lowest value of 37 (95%CI: 21-68). All antibody titres were lower in females compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant except for serotype 16. No serious adverse event was reported during this follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Our evidence, although limited by small numbers, is reassuring that a three dose schedule of HPV vaccine remains immunogenic in immunocompromised children to five years post vaccination. Large scale studies are required to determine long term protection in immunocompromised children. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02263703 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 368, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, oral rotavirus vaccines are available but not funded on the National Immunization Program (NIP). New immunization program introduction requires an assessment of community acceptance. For religiously observant Muslims in Indonesia, vaccine acceptance is further complicated by the use of porcine trypsin during manufacturing and the absence of halal labeling. In Indonesia, religious and community leaders and the Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) are important resources for many religiously observant Muslims in decisions regarding the use of medicines, including vaccines. This study aimed to explore the views of religious and community leaders regarding the rotavirus vaccine to inform future communication strategies. METHODS: Twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken with religious leaders and community representatives from two districts of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Thematic analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Although there was recognition childhood diarrhoea can be severe and a vaccine was needed, few were aware of the vaccine. Participants believed a halal label was required for community acceptance, and maintenance of trust in their government and leaders. Participants considered themselves to be key players in promoting the vaccine to the community post-labeling. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for better stakeholder engagement prior to vaccine availability and the potentially important role of religious and community leaders in rotavirus vaccine acceptability in the majority Muslim community of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. These findings will assist with the development of strategies for new vaccine introduction in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Atitude , Participação da Comunidade , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Islamismo , Liderança , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião e Medicina , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical variation in ovarian cancer care has been reported internationally. Using Wennberg's classification of clinical variation as effective care we can conceptualise variation through deviation from clinical guidelines. The aim of this review was to address knowledge gaps in the effectiveness of attempts to reduce unwarranted clinical variation through addressing the following questions: What is the evidence of guideline adherence in ovarian cancer and its deviation?; what are the key factors associated with variation in guideline adherence in ovarian cancer care?; and what quality improvement approaches have been used and what is the evidence of their effectiveness in enhancing guideline adherence in ovarian cancer care?. METHODS: Keywords and synonyms for the major concepts of ovarian cancer, guideline adherence and safety were developed and combined to form the search strategy. Systematic searches of four electronic databases were undertaken of publications from January 2007 to November 2018. Retrieved articles were assessed against the eligibility criteria to determine those for inclusion. RESULTS: Thirty-two papers were included in the review with three broad groupings identified: adherence to and deviation from guidelines (either local, national or international guidelines); factors impacting guidelines adherence; and quality improvement approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Unwarranted clinical variation may be used as a marker for the effectiveness of a health system, based on the outcome of this systematic review. This review found that the implementation of quality indicators through a formal quality improvement program lead to improvements in guideline adherent care. Further research on outcomes of implementing quality improvement programs in ovarian cancer care will improve the ability to implement centralised care and further identify factors that to improve outcomes in ovarian cancer care.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Vaccine ; 37(16): 2244-2248, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is recommended and funded for Australian children with medical comorbidities that increase their risk of severe influenza. Despite this, influenza vaccine coverage remains low within this population. We examined caregivers' attitudes and practices for influenza vaccination in children with medical comorbidities. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with caregivers of children (6 months to <18 years old) with medical comorbidities attending sub-speciality paediatric outpatient clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne), Princess Margaret Hospital (Perth), and Leading Steps private paediatric clinic (Gold Coast). Multivariate linear regression was used to identify surveys responses predictive of receipt of influenza vaccination in 2017. RESULTS: From the 611 surveys collected, 556 were suitable for analysis. Caregiver reported 2017 influenza vaccine coverage was 52.2% in children with medical comorbidities. Caregivers who believed influenza vaccines to be ≥50% effective were more likely to vaccinate their children (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]:3.79 (2.41; 5.96). Those who expressed concerns about vaccine side effects were less likely to vaccinate their children (aOR: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.30; 0.80]). Influenza vaccine uptake was significantly more likely for children who had been previously recommended influenza vaccination by their hospital-based physician (aOR: 4.33 [95% CI: 2.58; 7.27]) and had previously received a hospital-based vaccination (aOR: 3.11 [95% CI 1.79; 5.40]). Hospital-based physicians were also caregivers' most commonly reported source of trusted vaccination information (63.5%). Whilst only 29.3% of caregivers reported their child had been recommended influenza vaccination during a previous admission, 80.1% of caregivers stated they were receptive to their child receiving potential future influenza vaccinations during hospitalisations. CONCLUSIONS: Reported influenza vaccination coverage in children with medical comorbidities remains inadequate. An important finding of this study is that influenza vaccination recommendation by children's hospital physicians and previous vaccine receipt in hospital was associated with vaccine uptake. Opportunities for vaccination, especially during hospitalisation, must be examined.

15.
Vaccine ; 37(5): 705-710, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare worker (HCW) vaccination against seasonal influenza is considered a key preventative measure within hospitals and aged-care facilities (ACFs) to reduce the risk of transmission and related disease. Despite this, many facilities experience persistently low vaccination coverage rates and mandatory vaccination has been explored as a potential strategy to improve coverage. This study explored the current climate around staff vaccination in Australia from the perspective of opinion leaders and key stakeholders. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted between April and July 2018 with 22 individuals involved in vaccination policy and program development and implementation from a range of organisations including state health departments, hospitals and ACFs across Australia. In addition, interviews were undertaken with individuals from aged care and nursing peak bodies/colleges. Interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo 12 software. RESULTS: Major themes emerging from the interviews included a sense that attitudes around staff vaccination are changing; the persistence of administrative and resource barriers; the importance of positive workplace culture towards influenza vaccination; and the need for individualised and personal communication strategies. Perspectives were diverse on the necessity of introducing stronger policies, with participants divided in their support mandatory influenza vaccinations. Some advocated that key performance indicators should be used as an alternative to vaccine mandates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides policy makers with useful insights into the current Australian context around occupational vaccination policies, to inform acceptable and effective strategies to improve influenza vaccination uptake among Australian hospital and aged care staff.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Programas Obrigatórios , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Pessoal Administrativo , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Cuidadores , Hospitais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Vacinal
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 637, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections during the pandemic of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature in which clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were described. Published studies (between 01/01/2009 and 05/07/2012) describing cases of fatal or hospitalised A(H1N1)pdm09 and including data on bacterial testing or co-infection. RESULTS: Seventy five studies met the inclusion criteria. Fatal cases with autopsy specimen testing were reported in 11 studies, in which any co-infection was identified in 23% of cases (Streptococcus pneumoniae 29%). Eleven studies reported bacterial co-infection among hospitalised cases of A(H1N1)2009pdm with confirmed pneumonia, with a mean of 19% positive for bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 54%). Of 16 studies of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, bacterial co-infection identified in a mean of 19% of cases (Streptococcus pneumoniae 26%). The mean prevalence of bacterial co-infection was 12% in studies of hospitalised patients not requiring ICU (Streptococcus pneumoniae 33%) and 16% in studies of paediatric patients hospitalised in general or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) wards (Streptococcus pneumoniae 16%). CONCLUSION: We found that few studies of the 2009 influenza pandemic reported on bacterial complications and testing. Of studies which did report on this, secondary bacterial infection was identified in almost one in four patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae the most common bacteria identified. Bacterial complications were associated with serious outcomes such as death and admission to intensive care. Prevention and treatment of bacterial secondary infection should be an integral part of pandemic planning, and improved uptake of routine pneumococcal vaccination in adults with an indication may reduce the impact of a pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Criança , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/virologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mortalidade , Pandemias/história , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(11): 1218-1223, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a communications strategy, education entertainment has been used to inform, influence, and shift societal and individual behaviors. Recently, there has been an increasing number of entertainment-education YouTube videos focused on hand hygiene. However, there is currently no understanding about the quality of these videos; therefore, this study aimed to explore the social media content and user engagement with these videos. METHODS: The search terms "hand hygiene" and "hand hygiene education" were used to query YouTube. Video content had to be directed at a health care professional audience. Using author designed checklists, each video was systematically evaluated and grouped according to educational usefulness and was subsequently evaluated against the categories of attractiveness, comprehension, and persuasiveness. RESULTS: A total of 400 videos were screened, with 70 videos retained for analysis. Of these, 55.7% (n = 39) were categorized as educationally useful. Overall, educationally useful videos scored higher than noneducationally useful videos across the categories of attractiveness, comprehension, and persuasiveness. Miscommunication of the concept of My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene was observed in several of the YouTube videos. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of educationally useful videos in relation to hand hygiene is evident; however, it is clear that there are opportunities for contributors using this medium to strengthen their alignment with social media best practice principles to maximize the effectiveness, reach, and sustainability of their content.


Assuntos
Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Mídias Sociais , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos
19.
Public Health Res Pract ; 28(2)2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, a high school-based measles supplementary immunisation activity (SIA) took place in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in response to a large number of adolescents being identified as undervaccinated or unvaccinated against measles. The program focused on areas of NSW where previous measles outbreaks had occurred and where large numbers of undervaccinated adolescents lived. More than 11 000 students were vaccinated in 2014, and the program continued in 2015, when more than 4000 students in Years 11 and 12 were vaccinated. Parents of students vaccinated during the program were surveyed to determine their level of satisfaction with the program. METHODS: An online link to the anonymous survey with instructions was sent in a text message between August 2015 and May 2016 to parents of students who had consented or been vaccinated during the 2014 and 2015 measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs). RESULTS: Responses were received from parents in all Local Health Districts (LHDs), and response rates ranged from <1% to 21% across different districts with 59% of the total number of complete responses from three LHDs. Overall, parents were satisfied with the MMR program, its resources and how it was implemented. Suggestions were received to improve consent processes, increase student involvement and increase school staff accountability. More than half of the parents reported difficulty finding their child's previous vaccination record. Improving vaccination record access and management was highlighted as an area of improvement in the program. CONCLUSION: Although response rates were low, the survey has generated important ideas that may help to further improve implementation of school vaccination programs, including allowing electronic consent, increasing student engagement, improving access to previous vaccination records and increasing school staff accountability.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Women Birth ; 31(6): 463-468, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398459

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Typically there is limited opportunity for stakeholder engagement to determine service delivery gaps when implementing an outbreak or supplementary vaccination program. BACKGROUND: In response to increasing pertussis notifications in NSW, Australia, an antenatal pertussis vaccination program was introduced offering pertussis containing vaccine to all pregnant women in the third trimester. AIM: To explore the effectiveness of consulting with midwives prior to and during a new state-wide vaccination program. METHODS: A pre-program needs analysis was conducted through an online audit of the NSW Clinical Midwifery Consultants followed by a post-implementation audit at 18 months. FINDINGS: Information received from the midwives was utilised during program planning which facilitated program implementation without any major issues in all Local Health Districts. The post-implementation audit provided feedback to program planners that that implementation was continuing consistently and Midwives were found to be very supportive and engaged. DISCUSSION: Education and support of clinicians is vital for high vaccine uptake in new vaccination programs which can be enabled through appropriate educational packages and program resources. CONCLUSION: Consulting with the midwives in advance of a new vaccination program was a new initiative and highly recommended as it was time well spent gaining essential information on program resourcing and operational needs. Conducting a post-implementation audit is also strongly recommended as a check-point for issues and recommendations, to empower frontline staff and support consistent program implementation. Frontline staff engagement before and during implementation of a new vaccination program is a powerful mechanism for effective, efficient and consistent program delivery.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Tocologia , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Gestantes , Vacinação/métodos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , New South Wales , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
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