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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936228

RESUMO

Importance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) may have unique risk factors in women. Most women have a history of pregnancy; common adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) appear to be associated with ASCVD, but prior studies have limitations. Objective: To assess whether APOs are associated with increased ASCVD risk independently of traditional risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: The APO history among participants in the Women's Health Initiative, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women, was assessed. The associations of 5 self-reported APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight [ie, birth weight less than 2.49 kg], high birth weight [ie, birth weight greater than 4.08 kg], and preterm delivery by 3 weeks or more) with ASCVD were analyzed, adjusting for traditional ASCVD risk factors. Data were collected and analyzed in 2017. Exposures: APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, high birth weight, and preterm delivery). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjudicated ASCVD. Results: A total of 48 113 Women's Health Initiative participants responded to the survey; the median (interquartile range) age at time of enrollment was 60.0 (55.0-64.0) years. A total of 13 482 participants (28.8%) reported 1 or more APOs. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was more frequent in women who reported an APO compared with those without APOs (1028 of 13 482 [7.6%] vs 1758 of 30 522 [5.8%]). Each APO, analyzed separately, was significantly associated with ASCVD, and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, and preterm delivery remained significant after adjustment for traditional ASCVD risk factors. When all APOs were analyzed together, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.40) and low birth weight (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26) remained independently associated with ASCVD. All findings were materially unchanged by additional adjustment for parity, body mass index, and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large multiethnic cohort of women, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and low birth weight were independently associated with ASCVD after adjustment for risk factors and other APOs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to antihypertensive medication treatment (AHM) is a complex health behavior with determinants that extend beyond the individual patient. The structural and social determinants of health (SDH) that predispose populations to ill health and unhealthy behaviors could be potential barriers to long-term adherence to AHM. However, the role of SDH in AHM non-adherence has been understudied. Therefore, we aimed to define and identify the SDH factors associated with non-adherence to AHM and to quantify the variation in county-level non-adherence to AHM explained by these factors. METHODS: Two cross-sectional datasets, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke (2014-2016 cycle) and the 2016 County Health Rankings (CHR), were linked to create an analytic dataset. Contextual SDH variables were extracted from the CDC-CHR linked dataset. County-level prevalence of AHM non-adherence, based on Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries' claims data, was extracted from the CDC Atlas dataset. The CDC measured AHM non-adherence as the proportion of days covered (PDC) with AHM during a 365 day period for Medicare Part D beneficiaries and aggregated these measures at the county level. We applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify the constructs of social determinants of AHM non-adherence. AHM non-adherence variation and its social determinants were measured with structural equation models. RESULTS: Among 3000 counties in the U.S., the weighted mean prevalence of AHM non-adherence (PDC < 80%) in 2015 was 25.0%, with a standard deviation (SD) of 18.8%. AHM non-adherence was directly associated with poverty/food insecurity (ß = 0.31, P-value < 0.001) and weak social supports (ß = 0.27, P-value < 0.001), but inversely with healthy built environment (ß = -0.10, P-value = 0.02). These three constructs explained one-third (R2 = 30.0%) of the variation in county-level AHM non-adherence. CONCLUSION: AHM non-adherence varies by geographical location, one-third of which is explained by contextual SDH factors including poverty/food insecurity, weak social supports and healthy built environments.

3.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and animal studies suggest an inverse association between chocolate consumption and the risk of cancer. Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent evidence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of chocolate candy consumption with incident, invasive total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers in a large cohort of postmenopausal American women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a mean 14.8-year follow-up. Chocolate candy intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Invasive cancer events were assessed by physician adjudication. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The Women's Health Initiative Study enrolled 161,808 postmenopausal women at 40 clinical centers nationwide between 1993 and 1998. Of these women, 114,281 with plausible food frequency or biometric data and no missing data on chocolate candy exposure were selected for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer risk in quartiles of chocolate candy consumption with the first quartile as referent. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were 16,164 documented incident invasive cancers, representing an incidence rate of 17.0 per 100 participants and 12.3 per 1000 person years during follow-up among participants without any preexisting cancers or missing outcome data. There were no statistically significant associations for total invasive cancer (P-linear = .47, P-curvature = .14), or invasive breast cancer (P-linear = .77, P-curvature = .26). For colorectal cancer P-linear was .02, P-curvature was .03, and compared with women eating a 1 oz (28.4 g) chocolate candy serving <1 time per month, the hazard ratio for ≥1.5 times/wk was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.35). This result may be attributable to the excess adiposity associated with frequent chocolate candy consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In the Women's Health Initiative, there was no significant association between chocolate candy consumption and invasive total or breast cancer. There was a modest 18% higher risk of invasive colorectal cancer for women who ate chocolate candy at least 1.5 times/wk. These results require confirmation.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1759-1766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied associations between social support, social network size, social strain, or stressful life events and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From the Women's Health Initiative, 5,262 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes at baseline were included. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, depressive symptoms, anthropometric variables, and lifestyle factors were used to examine associations between social factors and CHD. RESULTS: A total of 672 case subjects with CHD were observed during an average 12.79 (SD 6.29) years of follow-up. There was a significant linear trend toward higher risk of CHD as the number of stressful life events increased (P for trend = 0.01; hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] for the third and fourth quartiles compared with first quartile: 1.27 [1.03-1.56] and 1.30 [1.04-1.64]). Being married or in an intimate relationship was related to decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.69-0.97]). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of stressful life events were associated with higher risk of CHD. Experience of stressful life events might be considered as a risk factor for CHD among women with type 2 diabetes.

5.
Menopause ; 27(7): 756-762, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examined whether specific social, physical, and financial factors were associated with diet quality among older, community-dwelling women. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a subset of 6,094 community-dwelling Women's Health Initiative participants who completed a food frequency questionnaire, administered from 2012 to 2013, and a self-administered supplemental questionnaire, administered approximately 1 year later. The supplemental questionnaire included five questions assessing social, physical, and financial factors related to eating. Diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010; range of 0-100; higher score indicates a higher quality diet). The total HEI-2010 score was calculated by summing individual scores representing the intake of nine adequacy components (beneficial food groups) and three moderation components (food groups to limit). Associations of responses to the five questions on the supplemental questionnaire with HEI-2010 scores were examined with multiple linear regression, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Mean ±â€Šstandard deviation age of participants was 78.8 ±â€Š6.7 years. Reporting eating fewer than two meals per day, having dental or other mouth problems causing problems with eating, and not always being able to shop, cook, or feed oneself were associated with statistically significantly lower HEI-2010 scores, compared with those not reporting these issues, after multivariable adjustment: 5.37, 2.98, and 2.39 lower scores, respectively (all P values <0.0001). Reporting eating alone most of the time and not always having enough money to buy food were not associated with HEI-2010 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Among older, community-dwelling women, eating fewer than two meals per day, dental and other mouth problems, and diminished ability to shop for food, prepare meals, and feed oneself were associated with lower diet quality. These are potential targets for interventions to improve diet quality in older women. : Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A561.

6.
J Urban Health ; 97(2): 271-278, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095977

RESUMO

While evidence for neighborhood effects on adverse birth outcomes is growing, no studies have examined whether living in a neighborhood impacted by mass incarceration is associated with preterm birth risk. We used modified Poisson regression to test whether residence in a neighborhood impacted by mass incarceration predicted future risk of preterm birth, among African American women. We linked data from the Justice Atlas of Sentencing and Corrections to survey and medical record data from the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments study (n = 681). We also tested for effect modification by age and marital status. The association between prison admission expenditures and future risk of PTB varied by maternal age at birth, with younger women (< 35) having a modest increase in risk (relative risk (RR) 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 1.15), and older (35+ year old) women having lower risk (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.69, 1.07). The association between the number of prison admissions due to new court cases and future risk of PTB varied by marital status, with evidence that married women may be protected (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61, 0.92), while little evidence of association was observed among unmarried women (RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.80, 1.30). The association between residence in an area impacted by mass incarceration and future risk of PTB among African American women may vary by age and marital status. Future research to identify the mechanisms of these associations is warranted.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Michigan , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 591-598, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity-related cancers disproportionately affect the Black community. We assessed the relationship between diet quality, physical activity, and their combined effect on obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: Data from postmenopausal (50-79 years of age) Black women enrolled in WHI clinical trials or observational studies were analyzed. Exposure variables included baseline physical activity [metabolic equivalent of tasks (MET)-hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015]. Outcomes included adjudicated obesity-related cancer incidence and mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between MVPA and HEI-2015 and obesity-related cancer risk and mortality. RESULTS: The analytical sample included 9,886 Black women, with a baseline mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.1 kg/m2 (SD = 6.8); mean HEI-2015 score of 63.2 (SD = 11.0, possible range 0 to 100); and mean MVPA of 5.0 (SD = 9.4) MET-hours/week. Over an average of 13 years of follow-up, 950 (9.6%) obesity-related cancer cases were observed, with 313 (32.9%) resulting in death. Physical activity [HR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.30], diet quality (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.08), and their combination (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29) were not associated with risk for any or site-specific obesity-related cancers. Similarly, these health behaviors had no association with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality, physical activity and their combined effect, as measured, were not associated with obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in WHI. IMPACT: Other social, behavioral, and biological factors may contribute to racial disparities observed in obesity-related cancer rates.

8.
J Aging Health ; 32(5-6): 410-421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698490

RESUMO

Objective: Timing and accumulation of work-related exposures may influence later life health. This study evaluates the association between women's work patterns and physical functioning. Method: Work history and physical functioning information was collected at baseline for U.S. women ages 50 to 79 years in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (N = 75,507). We estimated life course workforce participation patterns using latent class analysis. Associations between work patterns and physical limitations were explored using modified Poisson regression. Results: Compared with working continuously, women who left the workforce early had 8% increased risk and women who worked intermittently had 5% reduced risk of physical limitations later in life. The negative association with intermittent workforce participation was stronger for women with substantively complex work (9% reduced risk) than for women with nonsubstantively complex work (2% reduced risk). Discussion: Life course work patterns and characteristics may contribute to physical functioning later in life among women.

9.
Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) ; 1(1): 326-333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786496

RESUMO

Background: The impact of rural-urban residence on stroke risk and poor stroke outcomes among postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods: We used data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (1993-2014; n = 155,186) to test the hypothesis that women who live in rural compared with urban areas have higher stroke risk and worse stroke outcomes than urban women. We used rural-urban commuting area codes to categorize geocoded participant addresses into urban, large rural, or small rural areas. Incident strokes during follow-up were adjudicated by neurologists who used standardized criteria for reviewing brain imaging reports and other medical records and determining stroke subtype. Stroke functional recovery was measured with the Glasgow Stroke Outcomes Scale ascertained from the hospital record. We used univariable and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models as well as logistic regression models to test whether rural-urban residence predicted stroke risk and odds of poor stroke outcome. Results: Among the 155,186 women in our cohort, 2.3% (n = 3514) had an incident stroke. We observed a modest reduction in risk of incident stroke among women who lived in urban (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.86, confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.71-1.05) and large rural areas (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.60-1.04) compared with women who lived in small rural areas. In contrast, women who lived in urban compared with large rural areas had a similarly modest increased risk of stroke (aHR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.89-1.32). Women who lived in urban compared with large rural areas were more likely to have poor stroke outcome (odds ratio [OR]: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.06-1.88), but the association was attenuated after adjustment for covariates (adjusted OR [aOR]: 1.27, 0.93-1.74). Conclusions: Future studies should confirm and examine the potential pathways of the reported associations among postmenopausal women.

10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(3): 591-599, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations among parity, breastfeeding history, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred thirty-six thousand six hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States between 1993 and 1998, without baseline cancer or diabetes were followed for 14.2 years. Parity and breastfeeding data were collected by questionnaires administrated to all participants at baseline. Incident diabetes was assessed via validated self-report of physician-diagnosed diabetes treated with insulin or other hypoglycemic medications. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between parity, breastfeeding and diabetes incidence, and racial-ethnic differences in the associations. RESULTS: During follow-up, 18,812 cases of incident diabetes were identified. Overall, a greater number of term pregnancies was associated with increased risk of diabetes (P for trend=.002), and longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of diabetes (P for trend <.01). After further adjusting for adult weight gain among a subset of the cohort (n=75,558) with 9,110 cases, the association between parity and risk of diabetes were attenuated and became nonsignificant. Also, parous women with fewer than five term pregnancies did not have increased diabetes risk when breastfeeding for 3 months or more per child, which was associated with less weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results of this large, prospective study showed that the association between parity and risk of type 2 diabetes was most likely confounded by adult weight gain among postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Paridade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
11.
Womens Health Issues ; 29(4): 299-307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate associations between past-year verbal and/or physical abuse (VA/PA) and sexual (dis)satisfaction, that is, global or frequency-related (dis)satisfactions with sexual activity, among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional analysis of archival data was performed from the subset of 83,329 Women's Health Initiative participants (clinical trial and/or observational study components) who reported sexual activity in the year before baseline. Associations between VA/PA and global frequency (dis)satisfactions were modeled using logistic regression. MAIN FINDINGS: Most participants reported sexual satisfaction (global, 77%; frequency related, 66%). Disappointment with sexual frequency, specifically a desire for more frequent sex, was the most common dissatisfaction expressed. Past-year VA/PA exposure was reported by 9,410 participants (11%). In regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, health and health risk, and menopausal symptom variables, VA/PA was associated with higher rates of global (35% VA/PA exposed vs. 22% non-exposed; adjusted odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-1.80) and frequency-related dissatisfactions (50% of VA/PA exposed vs. 32% of non-exposed; adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual satisfaction was common, but not universally reported by study participants. Sexual dissatisfactions were overrepresented in VA/PA-exposed participants and associated with a desire for more frequent sexual activity. Opportunities for postmenopausal women to receive clinician-led education about safe and healthy ways to increase sexual activity are needed. Further research on this topic, particularly efforts to characterize safety concerns as well as modifiable barriers to satisfying sexual activity among postmenopausal women with recent VA/PA, would ensure that these interventions are evidence based.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Orgasmo , Satisfação Pessoal , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher
12.
SSM Popul Health ; 7: 100362, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899773

RESUMO

Stressors from multiple sources, across the life-course, may have independent and joint associations with preterm birth (PTB) risk in African American women. Using data from the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments Study (LIFE; 2009-2011) of post-partum African American women from Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan (n=1365), we examined the association between perceived stress and PTB, and effect modification by perceptions of early-life neighborhood social control and disorder. We defined PTB as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. We used Cohen's Perceived Stress scale, and valid and reliable scales of early-life (age 10) neighborhood social control and social disorder to quantify exposures. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with log binomial regression models- with separate interaction terms for perceived stress and each early-life neighborhood scale. We considered p < 0.10 significant for interaction terms. PTB occurred in 16.4% (n=224) of the study participants. In the total sample, perceived stress was not associated with PTB rates. However, there was suggestive evidence of a joint association between perceived stress and early-life neighborhood social disorder (p for interaction = 0.06), such that among women who reported high early-life neighborhood social disorder (n=660), perceived stress was positively associated with PTB (adjusted PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.63). There was no association between perceived stress and PTB for women in the low early-life neighborhood social disorder strata (n=651) (adjusted PR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.21). There was no evidence that early-life neighborhood social control modified the association between perceived stress and PTB. Our results suggest that early-life neighborhood stressors may magnify the association between current perceived stress and PTB rates, in African American women. More research to confirm and explicate the biologic and/or psychosocial mechanisms of the reported association is warranted.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871154

RESUMO

Ecological evidence suggests that neighborhoods with more tax foreclosures also have more adverse birth outcomes. However, whether neighborhood-level tax foreclosures impact individual-level risk for adverse birth outcomes is unknown. We assessed whether living in a neighborhood with high tax foreclosures is associated with a woman's preterm birth (PTB) risk and tested for effect modification by educational attainment, among urban African American women from the Life Influence on Fetal Environments Study (2009⁻2011; n = 686). We linked survey and medical record data to archival, block-group level tax foreclosure data from the county treasurer. We used Modified Poisson regression with robust error variance and included a foreclosure X education interaction in adjusted models. In the overall sample, neighborhood tax foreclosures did not predict PTB (adjusted relative risk: 0.93, CI: 0.74, 1.16), but the association was modified by educational attainment (interaction p = 0.01). Among women with lower education (n = 227), neighborhood tax foreclosures did not predict PTB risk. The association for women with higher education (n = 401) was statistically significant for a reduction in risk for PTB (adjusted relative risk: 0.74, CI: 0.55, 0.98) among those who lived in neighborhoods with high versus low tax foreclosures. Future studies should seek to identify the mechanisms of this association.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Michigan , Gravidez , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Stroke ; 50(4): 797-804, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869565

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In the United States, black Americans exhibit a greater risk of stroke and burden of stroke risk factors than whites; however, it is unclear whether these stroke risk factors influence stroke risk differently across racial groups. Methods- In total, 126 018 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (11 389 black and 114 629 white women), free of stroke and coronary heart disease at baseline (1994-1998), were followed through 2010. Participants completed baseline clinical exams with standardized measurements of blood pressure and anthropometrics, medication inventory and self-reported questionnaires on sociodemographics, behaviors/lifestyle, and medical history. Incident total, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were updated annually through questionnaires with medical record confirmation. Rate differences (per 100 000 person-years) and hazard ratios (HR) based on multivariable Cox models and were estimated. Results- Over a median of 13 years, 4344 stroke events were observed. Absolute incidence rates were higher in black than white women in each age group. In age-adjusted analyses, the risk of stroke was significantly higher among black compared with white women (HR=1.47, 95% CI, 1.33-1.63); adjustment for stroke risk factors, which may be on the causal pathway, attenuated the estimate. Racial disparities were greatest among women 50 to <60 years (HR=3.48; 95% CI, 2.31-5.26; rate difference =99) and diminished with increasing age (60 to <70 HR=1.80; 95% CI, 1.50-2.16; rate difference =107; ≥70 years: HR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.43; rate difference =87; Pinteraction <0.001). Black women 50 to <60 years remained at significantly higher risk than white women after adjustment for stroke risk factors (HR=1.76; 95% CI, 1.09-2.83). Conclusions- There was a moderately greater risk of total stroke among black compared with white women; however, racial disparities were greatest among women aged 50 to <60 years. Interventions targeted at younger black women may provide the greatest benefit in reducing disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(10): 1620-1625, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871746

RESUMO

Women with history of pregnancy loss (PL) have higher burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, yet it is unclear whether this is attributable to an association with established CVD risk factors (RFs). We examined whether PL is associated with CVD RFs and biomarkers in parous postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, and whether the association between PL and CVD RFs accounted for the association between PL and incident CVD. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate associations between baseline history of PL and CVD RFs. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the associations between baseline history of PL and incident CVD after adjustment for baseline RFs. Of 79,121 women, 27,272 (35%) had experienced PL. History of PL was associated with higher body mass index (p < 0.0001), hypertension (p < 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.003), depression (p < 0.0001), and lower income (p < 0.0001), physical activity (p = 0.01), poorer diet (p < 0.0001), smoking (p < 0.0001), and alcohol use (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for CVD RFs, PL was significantly associated with incident CVD over mean follow up of 16 years (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.16). In conclusion, several CVD RFs are associated with PL, but they do not entirely account for the association between PL and incident CVD.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(4): e005284, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical data on the link between stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among black women is limited. We examined associations of stressful life events and social strain with incident CVD among black women and tested for effect modification by resilience. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our analysis included 10 785 black women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials cohort. Participants were followed for CVD for up to 23 years (mean, 12.5). Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for associations between stress-related exposures and incident CVD. We included interactions between follow-up time (age) and stressful life events because of evidence of nonproportional hazards. Effect modification by resilience was examined in the sub-cohort of 2765 women with resilience and stressful life events measures. Higher stressful life events were associated with incident CVD at ages 55 (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quartile=1.80; 95% CI, 1.27-2.54) and 65 (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quartile=1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.68), but not at older ages. Adjustment for CVD risk factors attenuated these associations. Similar associations were observed for social strain. In the sub-cohort of women with updated stressful life events and resilience measures, higher stressful life events were associated with incident CVD in multivariable-adjusted models (hazard ratio=1.61; 95% CI, 1.04-2.51). Resilience did not modify this association nor was resilience independently associated with incident CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of older black women, recent reports of stressful life events were related to incident CVD. Resilience was unrelated to incident CVD. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Psychosom Med ; 81(3): 256-264, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychological traits such as optimism and hostility affect coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but mechanisms for this association are unclear. We hypothesized that optimism and hostility may affect CHD risk via changes in heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis using data from the Women's Health Initiative Myocardial Ischemia and Migraine Study. Participants underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring 3 years after enrollment. Optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), cynical hostility (Cook-Medley), demographics, and coronary risk factors were assessed at baseline. HRV measures included standard deviation of average N-N intervals (SDNN); standard deviation of average N-N intervals for 5 minutes (SDANN); and average heart rate (HR). CHD was defined as the first occurrence of myocardial infarction, angina, coronary angioplasty, and bypass grafting. Linear and Cox regression models adjusted for CHD risk factors were used to examine, respectively, associations between optimism, hostility, and HRV and between HRV and CHD risk. RESULTS: Final analyses included 2655 women. Although optimism was not associated with HRV, hostility was inversely associated with HRV 3 years later (SDANN: adjusted ß = -0.54; 95% CI = -0.97 to -0.11; SDNN: -0.49; 95% CI = -0.93 to -0.05). HRV was inversely associated with CHD risk; for each 10-millisecond increase in SDNN or SDANN, there was a decrease in CHD risk of 9% (p = .023) and 12% (p = .006), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HRV did not play a major role in explaining why more optimistic women seem to be somewhat protected from CHD risk. Although hostility was inversely associated with HRV, its role in explaining the association between hostility and CHD risk remains to be established.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença das Coronárias , Hostilidade , Otimismo , Personalidade , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(2): 276-283, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although social exposures have complex and dynamic relationships and interactions, the existing literature on the impact of rural-urban residence on stage at breast cancer diagnosis does not examine heterogeneity of effect. We examined the joint effect of social support, social relationship strain, and rural-urban residence on stage at breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (n = 161,808), we describe the distribution of social, behavioral, and clinical factors by rural-urban residence among postmenopausal women with incident breast cancer (n = 7,120). We used rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes to categorize baseline residential addresses as urban, large rural city/town, or small rural town, and the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results staging system to categorize breast cancer stage at diagnosis (dichotomized as early or late). We then used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the relationship between rural-urban residence and stage at breast cancer diagnosis. We included separate interaction terms between rural-urban residence and social strain and social support to test for statistical interaction. RESULTS: Of the social, behavioral, and clinical factors we examined, only younger age at WHI enrollment screening was significantly associated with late stage at breast cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003). Contrary to our hypothesis, rural-urban residence was not significantly associated with stage at breast cancer diagnosis among postmenopausal women ([adjusted OR, 95% CI] for urban compared with small town: 1.08 [0.76-1.53]; large town compared with small town: 1.16 [0.74-1.84]; and urban compared with large town: 0.93 [0.68-1.26]).The associations did not vary by social support or social strain (p for interaction between RUCA and social strain and social support, respectively: 0.99 and 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should examine other potential effect modifiers to identify novel factors predictive or protective for late stage at breast cancer diagnosis associated with rural-urban residence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Diabetes Educ ; 44(4): 383-394, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944067

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe how a community-academic partnership developed and implemented a shared goal of evaluating the impact of a large community-based diabetes self-management program on diabetes care and mental health outcomes. Methods Data came from the YMCA of Greater Richmond Diabetes Control Program (DCP), a 12-week, group-format self-management program led by lay health coaches. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 312) completed baseline assessments of sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes history, and mental health. Four outcomes were assessed pre- and post-DCP on 141 participants who completed the program: hemoglobin A1C (A1C), weight, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), and glucose monitoring. The team worked with a Community Advisory Board throughout the research process. Results The DCP had wide geographic reach, including lower-income neighborhoods. The average age of the participants was 53.9 years, 71.4% were female, and 69% were African American. During the DCP, A1C declined from 8.4% to 7.6% (P < .001), but weight was unchanged (229.2 vs 227.9, P < .282). During the DCP, the proportion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms declined from 32.4% to 15.5% (P < .001), and frequency of glucose monitoring significantly increased. Conclusions The YMCA of Greater Richmond DCP has wide reach into underserved populations throughout the metropolitan area. This program is effective at improving diabetes self-management and mental health. Findings have implications for supporting academic-community partnerships to address diabetes disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Virginia/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
20.
Womens Health Issues ; 28(6): 488-494, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have identified modifiable risk factors that are associated with the prevention of preterm delivery (PTD). This study examined the relationship between PTD and physical activity during pregnancy. METHODS: Data were obtained by medical record review and postpartum questionnaires from a cohort of African American women (N = 1,410) delivering singleton infants. Physical activity was self-reported and analyses compared any and none. Additional analyses classified leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and walking for a purpose as 0, 1 to 19, 20 to 39, and 40 minutes per day or more and stair climbing as 0, 1 to 5, 6 to 9, and 10 or more times per day. Log-Poisson models adjusted for previous PTD, pregnancy complications, and income were used to examine the association between PTD and physical activity during pregnancy across body mass index categories. RESULTS: Overall, 16.4% of deliveries were preterm. LTPA was associated with a decreased prevalence of PTD (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.96), but stratification by maternal prepregnancy body mass index suggested that LTPA was only protective against PTD among women with normal weight (PR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79). Stair climbing 10 or more times per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of PTD among women with normal weight (PR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.94) and women with overweight (PR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.80) only. Walking for a purpose (e.g., to the store, the bus stop, or to work) was not associated with PTD. CONCLUSIONS: African American women who participate in either LTPA or stair climbing during pregnancy have a decreased prevalence of PTD, but the protective effect varied by maternal body mass index.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Caminhada , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Michigan/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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