Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 783-795, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166021

RESUMO

Neighborhood social processes may have important implications for parenting processes and ethnic-racial identity (ERI) processes and content in adolescence. Past research suggests that adolescents whose parents engaged in more cultural socialization, an important aspect of parental racial socialization, had higher levels of ERI processes and content. Parenting, however, is also situated within neighborhood contexts and can be influenced by resources available in neighborhoods. For example, having neighbors who share mutual values, trust one another, and appreciate/celebrate one's heritage culture may be a resource that promotes parents' efforts to engage in cultural socialization. We prospectively examined (from x¯age = 10.9-15.8 years) a model in which U.S. Mexican parents' perceptions of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion supported parents' engagement in higher levels of cultural socialization and in turn promoted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes and content. We tested a longitudinal mediation model with a sample of 749 U.S. Mexican adolescents (30% Mexico born; 48.9% female) and their parents. Mother-adolescent models suggest mothers' perception of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion in late childhood promoted middle adolescents' ERI affirmation via intermediate increases in maternal cultural socialization. Similar patterns were observed for ERI resolution, but only for adolescents whose mothers were born in the United States. We did not find evidence for mediation in the father-adolescent models. Findings are discussed in the context of the promoting nature of socially and culturally supportive neighborhood environments for U.S. Mexican families and adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Estudos Prospectivos , Identificação Social , Socialização , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Community Psychol ; 68(1-2): 100-113, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899970

RESUMO

This paper developed and validated a new measure of support for the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement among a racially-ethnically diverse sample of college students. The measure focuses on the movement's principles of Black liberation, intersectionality, and alliance building. Participants included 1934 college students (75% female) from a large public Southwestern university. The factor structure was supported by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, resulting in an 18-item measure, Support for Black Lives Matter, with two underlying factors. Black Liberation includes 12 items representing support for BLM because of awareness of and challenging structural inequality and racism experienced by Black individuals. Intersectional Values includes six items representing support for BLM because it embraces and affirms marginalized populations within the Black community, especially disabled Blacks, queer Blacks, Black women, and Black families with children. Evidence of criterion-related validity was demonstrated with racial group differences in support of BLM factors. Evidence of convergent validity was supported by significant positive correlations between support for BLM factors and critical consciousness (including awareness of racism, classism, and heterosexism), and negative correlations between support for BLM factors and subtle racist attitudes toward Blacks. Measurement invariance was evident between White, Black, Asian American, Latinx, and Multiracial participants. Implications and suggestions for use of the new measure are discussed.

4.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(1): 145-155, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the daily relation between racial discrimination experiences and diurnal cortisol patterns among a sample of Black American adults. The daily diary approach afforded the chance to examine how within-person fluctuations in racial discrimination experiences related to same- and next-day changes in cortisol patterns. The use of a lagged approach examines whether exposure to racial discrimination results in diminished outcomes. It was expected that healthy levels of ethnic-racial identity would moderate the relation between racial discrimination and cortisol parameters. METHOD: The participants included 93 Black adults (e.g., 20 males and 73 females) who ranged in age from 17 to 56 years old. Participants completed measures of racial discrimination and ethnic-racial identity, and provided 9 saliva samples. RESULTS: The results indicate that on days when individuals reported increased racial discrimination experiences, they exhibited higher cortisol levels at bedtime and greater overall cortisol output that same day. Lagged analyses revealed that on days when participants reported increased racial discrimination experiences, they exhibited less pronounced cortisol awakening responses and steeper diurnal cortisol slopes the next day. These associations were moderated by high racial centrality levels, high private regard levels, and low public regard levels. CONCLUSIONS: Same-day racial discrimination experiences related to compromised diurnal cortisol patterns. The effects of racial discrimination experiences on next-day physiological functioning largely depended on ethnic-racial identity dimensions, and afforded individuals the ability to recover. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Racismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 7(6): 1258, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474834

RESUMO

The names of two coauthors of this article were updated following the article's original publication.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to examine longitudinal relations between adolescents' reports of offline (i.e., in-person) ethnic-racial discrimination and adolescents' reports of online ethnic-racial discrimination. METHOD: The study was conducted among a sample of 570 African American and Latinx adolescents (58% female; 10-18 years) over three waves of assessments occurring at yearly intervals. Autoregressive cross-lagged analyses examined potential bidirectional relations of offline ethnic-racial discrimination and online ethnic-racial discrimination. RESULTS: Results indicated that adolescents' more frequent experiences of offline ethnic-racial discrimination predicted more frequent experiences of online ethnic-racial discrimination across time, but that the opposite direction was not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Findings may be used to redefine current theoretical frameworks that assert the bidirectional nature of online and offline experiences, particularly in the domain of ethnic-racial discrimination. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Child Dev ; 91(6): 2019-2041, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367516

RESUMO

Research on pubertal development among Black boys is limited. Addressing this gap, we examined associations between three pubertal domains (e.g., voice change, hair growth, and perceived relative timing), depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, among a nationally representative sample of 395 African American and 164 Caribbean Black boys (Mage  = 15 years). Moderation by ethnic-racial identity (e.g., racial centrality, racial regard) was also explored. Results indicated that for both ethnic subgroups early voice change increased self-esteem; whereas early voice change increased depressive symptoms among boys who felt society views Blacks more negatively. Buffering effects of ethnic-racial identity also varied significantly between the two groups. Findings suggest that the meaning Black boys ascribe to their ethnic-racial group may explain puberty-linked outcomes.

8.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 7(6): 1241-1248, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether knowledge, understanding and support of the Black Lives Matter movement were positively linked to self-reported physical health among a representative sample of Black American adults. METHODS: The 2016 Collaborative Multiracial Post-election Survey (CMPS) examined attitudes about the 2016 US election, immigration, policing, racial equality, and racial discrimination among Asian American, Black American, Latinx, and White adults. The current study used the Black American sample, which included 3102 individuals (69% female) older than 18 years of age. We used a set of logistic regression models to assess the associations of knowledge, support, and understanding of Black Lives Matter with overall physical health. RESULTS: Although knowledge of Black Lives Matter was not a significant predictor for physical health, understanding and supporting Black Lives Matter significantly predicted positive physical health among Black American adults. CONCLUSIONS: Black American adults who understand and support Black Lives Matter reported more positive overall physical health.

9.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 26(3): 390-398, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study used a nationally representative sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescents to examine whether relative pubertal timing moderated the relation between general and racial discrimination experiences and self-esteem. It was anticipated that discrimination experiences would be more harmful for early maturing African American and Caribbean Black girls and boys compared to their on-time and late counterparts. METHOD: The participants included 1170 youth (e.g., 563 males and 607 females) from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (NSAL-A) who ranged in age from 13 to 17. Youth completed self-report measures of pubertal development, general and racial discrimination experiences, and self-esteem. RESULTS: Moderation was evident such that African American and Caribbean Black girls who perceived their pubertal development as early relative to their same-age and same-sex peers exhibited higher self-esteem than African American and Caribbean Black girls who perceived their development as late at high levels of general discrimination experiences. Moderation was not evident for racial discrimination experiences among African American and Caribbean Black girls, nor was it evident for general and racial discrimination experiences among African American and Caribbean Black males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that relative pubertal timing operates as a potential moderator for general discrimination experiences among African American and Caribbean Black girls. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
10.
Child Dev ; 90(2): 480-488, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737778

RESUMO

This study used a nationally representative sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescent females to examine the relation between perceived pubertal timing relative to peers and discriminatory experiences. Participants included the 607 girls who participated in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (NSAL-A), and ranged in age from 13 to 17. Most African American girls perceived their development as on-time relative to their same-aged peers; whereas the majority of Caribbean Black girls perceived their development as earlier than their same-aged peers. The results indicated that girls who perceived that their pubertal development was earlier than their same-aged peers reported more general and racial discrimination experiences.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Grupo Associado , Puberdade/psicologia , Racismo , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Estados Unidos
11.
Am Psychol ; 74(1): 117-127, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652904

RESUMO

The present study examined daily ethnic/racial identity as a moderator for racial discrimination. The idiographic approach was used to understand when Black youth are at risk for negative outcomes in the context of racial discrimination. The current study assessed if within-person changes in racial centrality, private regard, and public regard moderated the daily relation between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Daily measures of racial discrimination, ethnic/racial identity, and depressive symptoms were administered to a sample of 103 Black adolescents for 2 weeks. The results suggest that neither racial centrality nor private regard moderated the same-day or lagged associations between daily racial discrimination experiences and daily depressive symptoms. Although low public regard fluctuations evidenced no moderation for the within-day relation, low public regard fluctuations exacerbated the lagged day relation between daily racial discrimination experiences and daily depressive symptoms. When Black youth experienced lower levels of public regard compared to their average levels, previous-day racial discrimination experiences were associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. The results are discussed in the context of within-person changes in ethnic/racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnologia
12.
Child Dev ; 90(1): 62-70, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777539

RESUMO

This study employed an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design to examine the intersection of race and gender among Black American adolescents, aged 11-19. The quantitative component (n = 344) used survey data to examine gender differences in peer-perpetrated and adult-perpetrated racial discrimination experiences, and no gender differences were evident. Qualitative data (n = 42) probed how males and females interpret discrimination experiences given the intersection of race and gender. Although the majority of participants believed that Black males and females have similar experiences, some believed that Black males face more racial discrimination. However, analyses revealed social disadvantages for Black females given that they report inappropriate comments and unwelcome hair touching and limited opportunities for interracial dating compared with Black males.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am Psychol ; 73(6): 768-780, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188165

RESUMO

In 1996, Cynthia García Coll and colleagues introduced a groundbreaking model that articulated factors that influenced the development of ethnic-racial minority and immigrant youth. One of the key arguments was that racial discrimination is a stratification mechanism resulting in negative developmental outcomes for minority youth, and this argument has been supported by several meta-analyses. Against the backdrop of the rise of White nationalism, increasing hate crimes against ethnic-racial minority individuals, implementation of national policies that disproportionately affect communities of color, and the shift to a majority-minority country, it is imperative for future research to refine key aspects of the integrative model that are intricately connected to these trends. The present article offers recommendations for future research in 4 areas: (1) expansion of segregation indicators to include mass incarceration and mass deportation, (2) expansion of the study of resilience factors among minority youth, (3) application of the integrative model to White youth, and (4) the development of comprehensive measures and utilization of diverse methodologies. It is imperative that future research clarify these issues to further understanding of the development of all children in the context of racial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Racismo , Pesquisa , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários
14.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 24(1): 40-50, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study bridges the empirical research on pubertal timing effects, racial identity, and school and neighborhood context to understand the pubertal development and depression link among Black adolescent females. We examined whether racial identity content dimensions moderated the relation between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among Black adolescent females and the moderating capacity of school and neighborhood racial composition. METHOD: We administered measures of pubertal development, racial identity, and depressive symptoms to a sample of 217 Black adolescent females, aged 14 to 18. We assessed racial centrality, private regard, and public regard and used archival data to obtain the racial composition of participants' neighborhoods and schools. RESULTS: The results indicated that high racial centrality levels were linked to depressive symptoms for adolescent girls with late pubertal timing relative to their early counterparts, which was stronger for girls attending not majority Black schools. The results also indicated that low public regard levels were linked to depressive symptoms among adolescent girls with early pubertal timing relative to their late counterparts, which was stronger for girls attending not majority Black schools. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides evidence that racial identity and school racial context moderate the effects of pubertal timing differentially for early and late maturing Black girls. The results support the notion that the psychological effects of pubertal timing on internalizing symptoms are context dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Características de Residência , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
15.
Dev Psychol ; 53(11): 2170-2181, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094978

RESUMO

The developmental significance of youths' racial identities during adolescence is well established. It is less clear how puberty, a normative process, influences the relationship between racial identity and adjustment outcomes during adolescence. This study examined whether puberty moderates the relationship between racial identity dimensions and internalizing and externalizing outcomes, and whether the effects of puberty and racial identity on internalizing and externalizing outcomes vary by child sex. Data are drawn from African American families (N = 176; 48% female) who participated in Waves 4 and 5 of Phase III of the NICHD SECCYD. Results indicated that fifth-grade boys who felt more positively about being African American and were less advanced in their pubertal development evidenced less internalizing problems 1 year later, after adjusting for previous internalizing levels; however, for boys further in their pubertal development, having higher private regard was associated with more, rather than less, internalizing problems. Additionally, fifth-grade boys and girls who were less advanced in their pubertal development and believed that society views African Americans in a more positive light (higher public regard levels) engaged in more externalizing behaviors 1 year later, after adjusting for previous externalizing levels. Findings offer new insights into the independent and synergistic linkages between racial identity and pubertal development in their relation to internalizing and externalizing outcomes among African American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Puberdade/psicologia , Identificação Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Problema , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Child Dev ; 88(3): 683-692, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339101

RESUMO

This manuscript introduces the special section, Context and Ethnic/Racial Identity.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Identificação Social , Humanos
17.
J Black Psychol ; 43(8): 789-812, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386696

RESUMO

Racial discrimination is conceptualized as a psychosocial stressor that has negative implications for mental health. However, factors related to racial identity may influence whether negative experiences are interpreted as instances of racial discrimination and subsequently reported as such in survey instruments, particularly given the ambiguous nature of contemporary racism. Along these lines, dimensions of racial identity may moderate associations between racial discrimination and mental health outcomes. This study examined relationships between racial discrimination, racial identity, implicit racial bias, and depressive symptoms among African American men between 30 and 50 years of age (n = 95). Higher racial centrality was associated with greater reports of racial discrimination, while greater implicit anti-Black bias was associated with lower reports of racial discrimination. In models predicting elevated depressive symptoms, holding greater implicit anti-Black bias in tandem with reporting lower racial discrimination was associated with the highest risk. Results suggest that unconscious as well as conscious processes related to racial identity are important to consider in measuring racial discrimination, and should be integrated in studies of racial discrimination and mental health.

18.
Child Dev ; 87(5): 1367-78, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27684392

RESUMO

This study examined how youth's neighborhood characteristics informed their expectations of racial discrimination concurrently and longitudinally. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from Waves 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study, which permitted the examination of neighborhood influences among a socioeconomically diverse sample of African American parents and adolescents (n = 863; Mage  = 12.29). Youth exposed to more neighborhood disadvantage in seventh grade reported more negative concurrent neighborhood perceptions, which, in turn, predicted greater expectations of racial discrimination in eighth grade; youth's expectations remained stable into adulthood. Thus, support was found for the mediating role of youth's subjective neighborhood perceptions in the longitudinal relation between neighborhood structure and expectations of racial discrimination.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Características de Residência , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maryland/etnologia
19.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 20(2): 156-65, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24773002

RESUMO

The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Diversidade Cultural , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Child Dev ; 85(1): 40-57, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24490891

RESUMO

The construction of an ethnic or racial identity is considered an important developmental milestone for youth of color. This review summarizes research on links between ethnic and racial identity (ERI) with psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among ethnic minority adolescents. With notable exceptions, aspects of ERI are generally associated with adaptive outcomes. ERI are generally beneficial for African American adolescents' adjustment across all three domains, whereas the evidence is somewhat mixed for Latino and American Indian youth. There is a dearth of research for academic and health risk outcomes among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on ERI among minority youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Americanos Asiáticos/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...