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2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 97, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse offspring health outcomes across their life course. We hypothesize that DNA methylation is a potential mediator of this relationship. METHODS: We examined the association of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring blood DNA methylation in 2821 individuals (age 16 to 48 years) from five prospective birth cohort studies and perform Mendelian randomization and mediation analyses to assess whether methylation markers have causal effects on disease outcomes in the offspring. RESULTS: We identify 69 differentially methylated CpGs in 36 genomic regions (P value < 1 × 10-7) associated with exposure to maternal smoking in adolescents and adults. Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for a causal role of four maternal smoking-related CpG sites on an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease or schizophrenia. Further mediation analyses showed some evidence of cg25189904 in GNG12 gene mediating the effect of exposure to maternal smoking on schizophrenia-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation may represent a biological mechanism through which maternal smoking is associated with increased risk of psychiatric morbidity in the exposed offspring.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the increased risk of several chronic diseases, especially in people living in the Northern Latitudes. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status in older subjects born in 1945 in Northern Finland (latitude 65°North), and to examine its associations to components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we invited 904 subjects born in 1945 from the Oulu region (Oulu45 cohort), out of an original cohort of 1332 subjects. In the cohort, plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were determined by an enzyme immunoassay of 263 men and 373 women, with a mean age baseline of 69±0.5 years old. We assessed the participants' usage of vitamin D supplements, as well as their lifestyle factors, using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Nearly 80% of the subjects had low vitamin D levels [either vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L) or insufficient (50 - 75 nmol/L)], and only 20% of the participants had sufficient vitamin D levels (>75 nmol/L) (based on the American Endocrine Society guidelines). The low vitamin D status was associated with a high prevalence of MetS; a significantly higher number of subjects with MetS (41%) had low vitamin D levels in comparison to the non-MetS subjects (38%) (p ≤ 0.05). The subjects under vitamin D supplementation had a significantly lower incidence of MetS (42.6% vs 57.4%) and its components in comparison to the non-supplemented subjects (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are a risk factor for MetS amongst other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical inactivity, among older subjects in the Northern Latitudes (65°North). Optimal supplementation of vitamin D, along with rich dietary sources of vitamin D, are highly recommended for older subjects as a means to positively affect, e.g., hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity, as components of the MetS.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 607-616, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple chronic conditions. Genetic factors play a crucial role in modulating the inflammatory load, but the exact mechanisms are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess genetic determinants of 16 circulating cytokines and cell adhesion molecules (inflammatory phenotypes) in Finns. METHODS: Genome-wide associations of the inflammatory phenotypes were studied in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=5284). A subsequent meta-analysis was completed for 10 phenotypes available in a previous genome-wide association study, adding up to 13 577 individuals in the study. Complementary association tests were performed to study the effect of the ABO blood types on soluble adhesion molecule levels. RESULTS: We identified seven novel and six previously reported genetic associations (p<3.1×10-9). Three loci were associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) level, one of which was the ABO locus that has been previously associated with soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels. Our findings suggest that the blood type B associates primarily with sVCAM-1 level, while the A1 subtype shows a robust effect on sE-selectin and sICAM-1 levels. The genotypes in the ABO locus associating with higher soluble adhesion molecule levels tend to associate with lower circulating cholesterol levels and lower cardiovascular disease risk. CONCLUSION: The present results extend the knowledge about genetic factors contributing to the inflammatory load. Our findings suggest that two distinct mechanisms contribute to the soluble adhesion molecule levels in the ABO locus and that elevated soluble adhesion molecule levels per se may not increase risk for cardiovascular disease.

5.
Diabetes ; 68(8): 1681-1691, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088856

RESUMO

Liver dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are consistently associated. However, it is currently unknown whether liver dysfunction contributes to, results from, or is merely correlated with T2D due to confounding. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the presence and direction of any causal relation between liver function and T2D risk including up to 64,094 T2D case and 607,012 control subjects. Several biomarkers were used as proxies of liver function (i.e., alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]). Genetic variants strongly associated with each liver function marker were used to investigate the effect of liver function on T2D risk. In addition, genetic variants strongly associated with T2D risk and with fasting insulin were used to investigate the effect of predisposition to T2D and insulin resistance, respectively, on liver function. Genetically predicted higher circulating ALT and AST were related to increased risk of T2D. There was a modest negative association of genetically predicted ALP with T2D risk and no evidence of association between GGT and T2D risk. Genetic predisposition to higher fasting insulin, but not to T2D, was related to increased circulating ALT. Since circulating ALT and AST are markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), these findings provide some support for insulin resistance resulting in NAFLD, which in turn increases T2D risk.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and BMI in childhood and adulthood. Each of these associations could be due to causal intrauterine effects, or confounding (genetic or environmental), or some combination of these. Here we estimate the extent to which the association between maternal BMI and offspring body size is explained by offspring genotype, as a first step towards establishing the importance of genetic confounding. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring BW and BMI at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, in three European birth cohorts (n ≤11 498). Bivariate Genomic-relatedness-based Restricted Maximum Likelihood implemented in the GCTA software (GCTA-GREML) was used to estimate the extent to which phenotypic covariance was explained by offspring genotype as captured by common imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We merged individual participant data from all cohorts, enabling calculation of pooled estimates. RESULTS: Phenotypic covariance (equivalent here to Pearson's correlation coefficient) between maternal BMI and offspring phenotype was 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.17] for offspring BW, increasing to 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.31) for offspring 15 year BMI. Covariance explained by offspring genotype was negligible for BW [-0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], but increased to 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21) at 15 years, which is equivalent to 43% (95% CI: 15%, 72%) of the phenotypic covariance. Sensitivity analyses using weight, BMI and ponderal index as the offspring phenotype at all ages showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring genotype explains a substantial fraction of the covariance between maternal BMI and offspring adolescent BMI. This is consistent with a potentially important role for genetic confounding as a driver of the maternal BMI-offspring BMI association.

7.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070705

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Integration of different omics data could markedly help to identify biological signatures, understand the missing heritability of complex diseases and ultimately achieve personalised medicine. Standard regression models used in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify loci with a strong effect size, whereas GWAS meta-analyses are often needed to capture weak loci contributing to the missing heritability. Development of novel machine learning algorithms for merging genotype data with other omics data is highly needed as it could enhance the prioritisation of weak loci. RESULTS: We developed cNMTF (Corrected Non-negative Matrix Tri-Factorisation), an integrative algorithm based on clustering techniques of biological data. This method assesses the interrelatedness between genotypes, phenotypes, the damaging effect of the variants and gene networks in order to identify loci-trait associations. cNMTF was used to prioritise genes associated with lipid traits in two population cohorts. We replicated 129 genes reported in GWAS world-wide and provided evidence that supports 85% of our findings (226 out of 265 genes), including recent associations in literature (NLGN1), regulators of lipid metabolism (DAB1) and pleiotropic genes for lipid traits (CARM1). Moreover, cNMTF performed efficiently against strong population structures by accounting for the individuals' ancestry. As the method is flexible in the incorporation of diverse omics data sources, it can be easily adapted to the user's research needs. AVAILABILITY: An R package (cnmtf) is available at https://lgl15.github.io/cnmtf_web/index.html. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 238: 44-48, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether maternal hemoglobin during pregnancy associates with offspring perinatal outcomes in a developed country. Changes in maternal hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy are partly physiological phenomena reflecting alterations of maternal blood volume. Especially hemoglobin measures outside the physiological range may influence maternal health and fetal growth with long-lasting consequences. STUDY DESIGN: We studied an unselected sample drawn from two regional birth cohorts born 20 years apart: The Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986. These are two mother-and-child population-based birth cohorts together comprising 21,710 mothers and their children. After exclusions, the sample size of the current study was 20,554. Concentrations of maternal hemoglobin at first and last antenatal visits were categorized as low (lowest 10%), medium (reference) or high (highest 10%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses for categories of maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcomes such as preterm delivery and full-term small and large for gestational age were conducted with adjustments for maternal cofactors. RESULTS: Low maternal hemoglobin at early pregnancy associated with decreased risk of full-term small for gestational age (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58, 0.93], p = 0.010). At late pregnancy, low maternal hemoglobin associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI [1.26, 2.02], p < 0.0005) whereas high maternal hemoglobin associated with increased risk of full-term small for gestational age (adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI [1.07, 1.56], p = 0.009). Maternal hemoglobin did not show constant association with risk of large for gestational age. CONCLUSION: The results from this study support evidence that both low and high maternal hemoglobin associate with adverse perinatal outcomes. Low maternal hemoglobin associated with preterm delivery and high with full-term small for gestational age. Association was mainly present when maternal hemoglobin was measured during the third trimester. These results indicate that it is important to monitor both extremes of maternal hemoglobin throughout the pregnancy.

9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 51: 12-18, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copper is an abundant trace element in humans where alterations in the circulating concentration could inform on chronic disease aetiology. To date, data are lacking to study how copper may associate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in young and healthy population. Molecular evidence suggests an important role of copper in liver metabolism, an essential organ in maintaining cardiovascular health and inflammation, therefore supporting copper as an associated biomarker of the risk. OBJECTIVE: We performed a cross-sectional analysis to examine the possible associations between blood copper levels and risk factors for CVD and pre-inflammatory process. DESIGN: The data has been collected from a sub-sample set of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) at 31 years. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 206 individuals, 116 men and 90 women. To reduce environmental individual variations affecting both copper and the metabolic profile in the study sample, the participants were selected as: i) being born in Finnish Lapland and ii) living in their birth place for the last five years preceding blood sampling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting blood copper concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The CVD risk factors included 6 metabolic clusters (30 cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory factors) assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the linear association between blood copper and 6 metabolic clusters for CVD risk. Associations were assessed under correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: Copper (Cu) levels were comparable in men and women, with no difference between sexes (p-value <0.60). In multiple regression models, sex adjusted, copper was associated with 9 metabolites from 4 metabolic clusters. After adjustment with BMI, copper was associated with 4 metabolites from 3 metabolic clusters: glutamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). After correction for multiple testing, Cu was found positively associated with only 2 biomarkers of inflammation including AGP [p = 0.04] and hs-CRP [p = 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the strength and limitation of the study design, the present study does not support evidence for an independent role of copper on biomarkers for CVD risk. Nevertheless, we are reporting a robust association of copper with the inflammatory load that is important to consider in light with the inflammatory component of chronic health. In addition, the association of copper with metabolites may be attributable to BMI or environmental factors associated to it, and warrants further research in large population samples.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Cobre/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

11.
Circulation ; 138(22): 2499-2512, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524137

RESUMO

Background: Both statins and PCSK9 inhibitors lower blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. To assess potential differences between metabolic effects of these two lipid-lowering therapies, we performed detailed lipid and metabolite profiling of a large randomized statin trial and compared the results with the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9, acting as a naturally occurring trial. Methods: 228 circulating metabolic measures were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including lipoprotein subclass concentrations and their lipid composition, fatty acids, and amino acids, for 5,359 individuals (2,659 on treatment) in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial at 6-months post-randomization. The corresponding metabolic measures were analyzed in eight population cohorts (N=72,185) using PCSK9 rs11591147 as an unconfounded proxy to mimic the therapeutic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. Results: Scaled to an equivalent lowering of LDL-C, the effects of genetic inhibition of PCSK9 on 228 metabolic markers were generally consistent with those of statin therapy (R 2=0.88). Alterations in lipoprotein lipid composition and fatty acid distribution were similar. However, discrepancies were observed for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipid measures. For instance, genetic inhibition of PCSK9 had weaker effects on lowering of VLDL-cholesterol compared with statin therapy (54% vs. 77% reduction, relative to the lowering effect on LDL-C; P=2x10-7 for heterogeneity). Genetic inhibition of PCSK9 showed no significant effects on amino acids, ketones, or a marker of inflammation (GlycA) whereas statin treatment weakly lowered GlycA levels. Conclusions: Genetic inhibition of PCSK9 had similar metabolic effects to statin therapy on detailed lipid and metabolite profiles. However, PCSK9 inhibitors are predicted to have weaker effects on VLDL lipids compared with statins for an equivalent lowering of LDL-C, which potentially translate into smaller reductions in cardiovascular disease risk.

12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prepregnancy maternal obesity is a global health problem and has been associated with offspring metabolic and mental ill-health. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding potential neurobiological factors related to these associations. This study explored the relation between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring brain white matter microstructure at the age of 6, 10, and 26 years in three independent cohorts. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study used data from three European birth cohorts (n = 116 children aged 6 years, n = 2466 children aged 10 years, and n = 437 young adults aged 26 years). Information on maternal prepregnancy BMI was obtained before or during pregnancy and offspring brain white matter microstructure was measured at age 6, 10, or 26 years. We used magnetic resonance imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) as measures of white matter microstructure in the brainstem, callosal, limbic, association, and projection tracts. Linear regressions were fitted to examine the association of maternal BMI and offspring white matter microstructure, adjusting for several socioeconomic and lifestyle-related confounders, including education, smoking, and alcohol use. RESULTS: Maternal BMI was associated with higher FA and lower MD in multiple brain tracts, for example, association and projection fibers, in offspring aged 10 and 26 years, but not at 6 years. In each cohort maternal BMI was related to different white matter tract and thus no common associations across the cohorts were found. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal BMI was associated with higher FA and lower MD in multiple brain tracts in offspring aged 10 and 26 years, but not at 6 years of age. Future studies should examine whether our observations can be replicated and explore the potential causal nature of the findings.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203660, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, a difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions, has been associated with obesity and eating disorders in small-scale cross-sectional studies. Here, we assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and alexithymia in a large cohort of free-living Finnish adults over a 15-year period. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966). The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used as a measure of alexithymia and was completed at the age of 31 years (31y: n = 4841), and 46 years (46y: n = 5404). BMI was recorded at both time points. Where data at both time points were available (n = 3274), the relationship between changes in BMI and TAS-20 over this time period was also investigated. RESULTS: BMI was significantly and positively associated with TAS-20 score (p<0.0001, both at 31 years and at 46 years of ages). The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (sex, marital status and several socio-economic indicators). In individuals who experienced the greatest change in BMI (in either direction) over the 15-year period, there was a modest mean increase in TAS-20 score. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that TAS-20 score was correlated with and co-varied with body mass status. We suggest that future clinical research should consider the role of alexithymia in obesity. Further investigation of this relationship is warranted to ensure that the needs of obese subjects with undiagnosed alexithymia are considered in the design of weight management programmes.

14.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 156, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological role of SERPINA1 in respiratory health may be more strongly determined by the regulation of its expression than by common genetic variants. A family based study of predominantly smoking adults found methylation at two Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine sites (CpGs) in SERPINA1 gene to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk. The objective of this study was to confirm the association of lung function with SERPINA1 methylation in general population samples by testing a comprehensive set of CpGs in the SERPINA gene cluster. We considered lung function level and decline in adult smokers from three European population-based cohorts and lung function level and growth in tobacco-smoke exposed children from a birth cohort. METHODS: DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k and EPIC beadchips and lung function were measured at two time points in 1076 SAPALDIA, ECRHS and NFBC adult cohort participants and 259 ALSPAC children. Associations of methylation at 119 CpG sites in the SERPINA gene cluster (PP4R4-SERPINA13P) with lung functions and circulating alpha-1-antitripsin (AAT) were assessed using multivariable cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. RESULTS: Methylation at cg08257009 in the SERPINA gene cluster, located 32 kb downstream of SERPINA1, not annotated to a gene, was associated with FEV1/FVC at the Bonferroni corrected level in adults, but not in children. None of the methylation signals in the SERPINA1 gene showed associations with lung function after correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support a role of SERPINA1 gene methylation as determinant of lung function across the life course in the tobacco smoke exposed general population exposed.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is complicated by multidimensional interplays between biological and psychosocial factors acting at the individual level. To address the challenge we took a systematic approach, to explore the bio-psychosocial predictors of blood glucose in mid-age. METHODS: Based on the 31-year and 46-year follow-ups (5,078 participants, 43% male) of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, we used a systematic strategy to select bio-psychosocial variables at 31 years to enable a data-driven approach. As selection criteria, the variable must be (i) a component of the metabolic syndrome or an indicator of psychosocial health using WHO guidelines, (ii) easily obtainable in general health check-ups and (iii) associated with fasting blood glucose at 46 years (P < 0.10). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to derive latent factors, and stepwise linear regression allowed exploration of relationships between factors and fasting glucose. RESULTS: Of all 26 variables originally considered, 19 met the selection criteria and were included in an exploratory factor analysis. Two variables were further excluded due to low loading (<0.3). We derived four latent factors, which we named as socioeconomic, metabolic, psychosocial and blood pressure status. The combination of metabolic and psychosocial factors, adjusted for sex, provided best prediction of fasting glucose at 46 years (explaining 10.7% of variation in glucose; P < 0.001). Regarding different bio-psychosocial pathways and relationships, the importance of psychosocial factors in addition to established metabolic risk factors was highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports evidence for the bio-psychosocial nature of adult glycemic health and exemplifies an evidence-based approach to model the bio-psychosocial relationships. The factorial model may help further research and public health practice in focusing also on psychosocial aspects in maintaining normoglycaemia in the prevention of cardio-metabolic diseases.

16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(10): 1704-1714, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A body of literature suggests a metabolically healthy phenotype in individuals with obesity. Despite important clinical implications, the early origins of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) have received little attention. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of MHO among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) at 31 years of age, examine its determinants in early life taking into account the sex specificity. METHODS: We studied 3205 term-born cohort participants with data available for cardio-metabolic health outcomes at 31 years, and longitudinal height and weight data. After stratifying the population by sex, adult BMI and a strict definition of metabolic health (i.e., no risk factors meaning metabolic health), we obtained six groups. Repeated childhood height and weight measures were used to model early growth and early adiposity phenotypes. We employed marginal means adjusted for mother and child covariates including socio-economic status, birth weight and gestational-age, to compare differences between the groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of adult MHO was 6% in men and 13.5% in women. Differences in adult metabolic status were linked to alterations in BMI and age at adiposity peak in infancy (p < 0.0003 in men and p = 0.027 in women), and BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR) (p < 0.0001 irrespective of sex). Compared to MHO, metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) women were five and a half months younger at AR (p = 0.007) with a higher BMI while MUO men were four months older (p = 0.036) with no difference in BMI at AR. CONCLUSION: At the time of AR, MHO women appeared to be older than their MUO counterparts while MHO men were younger. These original results support potential risk factors at the time of adiposity rebound linked to metabolic health in adulthood. These variations by sex warrant independent replication.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(12): 2214-2223, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648650

RESUMO

Fatty liver has been associated with unfavourable metabolic changes in circulation. To provide insights in fatty liver-related metabolic deviations, we compared metabolic association profile of fatty liver versus metabolic association profiles of genotypes increasing the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The cross-sectional associations of ultrasound-ascertained fatty liver with 123 metabolic measures were determined in 1810 (Nfatty liver = 338) individuals aged 34-49 years from The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The association profiles of NAFLD-risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR, and LYPLAL1 with the corresponding metabolic measures were obtained from a publicly available metabolomics GWAS including up to 24 925 Europeans. The risk alleles showed different metabolic effects: PNPLA3 rs738409-G, the strongest genetic NAFLD risk factor, did not associate with metabolic changes. Metabolic effects of GCKR rs1260326-T were comparable in many respects to the fatty liver associations. Metabolic effects of LYPLAL1 rs12137855-C were similar, but statistically less robust, to the effects of GCKR rs1260326-T. TM6SF2 rs58542926-T displayed opposite metabolic effects when compared with the fatty liver associations. The metabolic effects of the risk alleles highlight heterogeneity of the molecular pathways leading to fatty liver and suggest that the fatty liver-related changes in the circulating lipids and metabolites may vary depending on the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Despite the robust cross-sectional associations on population level, the present results showing neutral or cardioprotective metabolic effects for some of the NAFLD risk alleles advocate that hepatic lipid accumulation by itself may not increase the level of circulating lipids or other metabolites.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(4): 742-756, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309628

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B, HMGA2, SH2B3, KCNAB1, L3MBTL3, GCK, EBF1, TCF7L2, ACTL9, CYP3A7) were associated with offspring birth weight at P < 5 × 10-8. In SEM analyses, at least 7 of the 10 associations were consistent with effects of the maternal genotype acting via the intrauterine environment, rather than via effects of shared alleles with the fetus. Variants, or correlated proxies, at many of the loci had been previously associated with adult traits, including fasting glucose (MTNR1B, GCK and TCF7L2) and sex hormone levels (CYP3A7), and one (EBF1) with gestational duration. The identified associations indicate that genetic effects on maternal glucose, cytochrome P450 activity and gestational duration, and potentially on maternal blood pressure and immune function, are relevant for fetal growth. Further characterization of these associations in mechanistic and causal analyses will enhance understanding of the potentially modifiable maternal determinants of fetal growth, with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with low and high birth weights.

19.
Int J Public Health ; 63(4): 435-446, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unemployment has been linked with poor health. We hypothesized that being unemployed is associated with disorders of glucose metabolism and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to ascertain the relationship. METHODS: We searched the databases of Scopus, Medline Ovid and Web of Science for population-based original studies for past 20 years. Random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes among the unemployed as compared to those employed, separately for men and women when possible. RESULTS: Out of 981 articles found, 12 articles were included in the systematic review and eight articles in the meta-analyses. Unemployment was associated with 1.6-fold odds for prediabetes (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.07-2.35), and 1.7-fold odds for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.14-2.58) in the total sample. The corresponding associations for type 2 diabetes were also found stratified for men (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.47-1.60) and women (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.33-1.92). CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment is associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, global concerns of public health with potential for prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 30(3): 430-441, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768569

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days). After weaning (~3 months of age), the offspring were kept in either a standard (in order to remain lean) or low-activity, obesogenic environment. R mothers gained less weight and produced smaller offspring. As adults, obese offspring were heavier and fatter with reduced glucose tolerance, regardless of maternal diet. Molecular markers of stress and autophagy in liver and adipose tissue were increased with obesity, with gene expression of hepatic glucose-related protein 78 (Grp78) and omental activation transcription factor 6 (Atf6), Grp78 and ER stress degradation enhancer molecule 1 (Edem1) only being increased in R offspring. In conclusion, the adverse effect of juvenile-onset obesity on insulin-responsive tissues can be amplified by previous exposure to a suboptimal nutritional environment in utero, thereby contributing to earlier onset of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estresse Fisiológico , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exercício , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Desmame
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