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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(8): 793-799, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993509

RESUMO

Chronological age alone is not a sufficient measure of the true physiological state of the body. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify biological age based on a physiological biomarker composite model; (2) and evaluate its association with death and age-related disease onset in the setting of an elderly population. Using structural equation modeling we computed biological age for 1699 individuals recruited from the first and second waves of the Rotterdam study. The algorithm included nine physiological parameters (c-reactive protein, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, cytomegalovirus optical density, urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, forced expiratory volume and systolic blood pressure). We assessed the association between biological age, all-cause mortality, all-cause morbidity and specific age-related diseases over a median follow-up of 11 years. Biological age, compared to chronological age or the traditional biomarkers of age-related diseases, showed a stronger association with all-cause mortality (HR 1.15 vs. 1.13 and 1.10), all-cause morbidity (HR 1.06 vs. 1.05 and 1.03), stroke (HR 1.17 vs. 1.08 and 1.04), cancer (HR 1.07 vs. 1.04 and 1.02) and diabetes mellitus (HR 1.12 vs. 1.01 and 0.98). Individuals who were biologically younger exhibited a healthier life-style as reflected in their lower BMI (P < 0.001) and lower incidence of stroke (P < 0.001), cancer (P < 0.01) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02). Collectively, our findings suggest that biological age based on the biomarker composite model of nine physiological parameters is a useful construct to assess individuals 65 years and older at increased risk for specific age-related diseases.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e010930, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023134

RESUMO

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and arterial calcification in major vascular beds and to establish whether arterial calcification mediates the relation between kidney function measures and cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) incidence. Methods and Results In 2241 participants from the Rotterdam Study (mean age 69 years, 52% female), kidney function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. All participants underwent noncontrast computed tomography to quantify the amount of arterial calcification in the coronary arteries, aortic arch, extracranial, and intracranial internal carotid arteries. We used linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, to evaluate the association between kidney function and arterial calcification volume in the 4 vessel beds. Incidence rate of CVD was calculated in 3 groups of participants based on their kidney function and presence of arterial calcification. We conducted mediation analysis to evaluate whether arterial calcification mediates this association. We found that in age- and sex-adjusted models, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio were associated with larger calcification volumes in all 4 vascular beds. Adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated the effect estimates. CVD incidence was higher in participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and presence of arterial calcification compared with individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 and no calcification. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, arterial calcification did not mediate the association between kidney function measures and CVD incidence. Conclusions The association of impaired kidney function and larger volumes of arterial calcification is partly explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial calcification does not mediate the association between kidney function and CVD beyond cardiovascular risk factors.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether classes of diabetes medications are associated with cognitive health and dementia risk, above and beyond their glycemic control properties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Findings were pooled from 5 population-based cohorts: the Framingham Heart Study, the Rotterdam Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, the Aging Gene-Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA). Differences between users and non-users of insulin, metformin and sulfonylurea were assessed in each cohort for cognitive and brain MRI measures using linear regression models, and cognitive decline and dementia/AD risk using mixed effect models and Cox regression analyses, respectively. Findings were then pooled using meta-analytic techniques, including 3,590 individuals with diabetes for the prospective analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders including indices of glycemic control, insulin use was associated with increased risk of new-onset dementia (pooled HR (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.18, 2.12);p = 0.002) and with a greater decline in global cognitive function (ß = -0.014±0.007;p = 0.045). The associations with incident dementia remained similar after further adjustment for renal function and excluding persons with diabetes whose treatment was life-style change only. Insulin use was not related to cognitive function nor to brain MRI measures. No significant associations were found between metformin or sulfonylurea use and outcomes of brain function and structure. There was no evidence of significant between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its advantages in controlling glycemic dysregulation and preventing complications, insulin treatment may be associated with increased adverse cognitive outcomes possibly due to a greater risk of hypoglycemia.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 67(3): 821-826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664508

RESUMO

Longitudinal population-based data on effects of kidney dysfunction in the development of stroke and dementia remains inconclusive. We investigated associations of kidney function with risk of stroke and dementia in 5,993 community-dwelling individuals (mean age: 69.0 years, 57.2% women). We calculated estimated glomerular filtration rates based on creatinine, cystatin-C, and a combination of these two. During a mean follow-up of 11.6 years (69,790 person-years), 1,360 individuals suffered a stroke (n = 601) or developed dementia (n = 759). We found that an impaired kidney function was related to a higher risk of stroke, but not to dementia.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4228, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315176

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels can cause gout, an excruciating disease with suboptimal treatment. Previous GWAS identified common variants with modest effects on serum urate. Here we report large-scale whole-exome sequencing association studies of serum urate and kidney function among ≤19,517 European ancestry and African-American individuals. We identify aggregate associations of low-frequency damaging variants in the urate transporters SLC22A12 (URAT1; p = 1.3 × 10-56) and SLC2A9 (p = 4.5 × 10-7). Gout risk in rare SLC22A12 variant carriers is halved (OR = 0.5, p = 4.9 × 10-3). Selected rare variants in SLC22A12 are validated in transport studies, confirming three as loss-of-function (R325W, R405C, and T467M) and illustrating the therapeutic potential of the new URAT1-blocker lesinurad. In SLC2A9, mapping of rare variants of large effects onto the predicted protein structure reveals new residues that may affect urate binding. These findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of serum urate, and highlight molecular targets in SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 for lowering serum urate and preventing gout.

9.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348535

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by abnormalities that reflect disruption in filtration, tubular, and endocrine functions of the kidney. Our aim was to explore the relationship of specific laboratory result abnormalities and hypertension with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria CKD staging framework. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional individual participant-level analyses in a global consortium. SETTING & STUDY POPULATIONS: 17 CKD and 38 general population and high-risk cohorts. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Cohorts in the CKD Prognosis Consortium with data for eGFR and albuminuria, as well as a measurement of hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, potassium, or calcium, or hypertension. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were obtained and analyzed between July 2015 and January 2018. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We modeled the association of eGFR and albuminuria with hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, potassium, and calcium values using linear regression and with hypertension and categorical definitions of each abnormality using logistic regression. Results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The CKD cohorts (n=254,666 participants) were 27% women and 10% black, with a mean age of 69 (SD, 12) years. The general population/high-risk cohorts (n=1,758,334) were 50% women and 2% black, with a mean age of 50 (16) years. There was a strong graded association between lower eGFR and all laboratory result abnormalities (ORs ranging from 3.27 [95% CI, 2.68-3.97] to 8.91 [95% CI, 7.22-10.99] comparing eGFRs of 15 to 29 with eGFRs of 45 to 59mL/min/1.73m2), whereas albuminuria had equivocal or weak associations with abnormalities (ORs ranging from 0.77 [95% CI, 0.60-0.99] to 1.92 [95% CI, 1.65-2.24] comparing urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 300 vs < 30mg/g). LIMITATIONS: Variations in study era, health care delivery system, typical diet, and laboratory assays. CONCLUSIONS: Lower eGFR was strongly associated with higher odds of multiple laboratory result abnormalities. Knowledge of risk associations might help guide management in the heterogeneous group of patients with CKD.

10.
Kidney Int ; 94(3): 608-615, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960746

RESUMO

Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria may be accompanied by brain pathology. Here we investigated whether changes in these kidney measures are linked to development of new MRI-detected infarcts and microbleeds, and progression of white matter hyperintensity volume. The study included 2671 participants from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study (mean age 75, 58.7% women). GFR was estimated from serum creatinine, and albuminuria was assessed by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Brain MRI was acquired at baseline (2002-2006) and 5 years later (2007-2011). New MRI-detected infarcts and microbleeds were counted on the follow-up scans. White matter hyperintensity progression was estimated as percent change in white matter hyperintensity volumes between the two exams. Participants with a large eGFR decline (over 3 ml/min/1.73m2 per year) had more incident subcortical infarcts (odds ratio 1.53; 95% confidence interval 1.05, 2.22), and more marked progression of white matter hyperintensity volume (difference: 8%; 95% confidence interval: 4%, 12%), compared to participants without a large decline. Participants with incident albuminuria (over 30 mg/g) had 21% more white matter hyperintensity volume progression (95% confidence interval: 14%, 29%) and 1.86 higher odds of developing new deep microbleeds (95% confidence interval 1.16, 2.98), compared to participants without incident albuminuria. The findings were independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Changes in kidney measures were not associated with occurrence of cortical infarcts. Thus, larger changes in eGFR and albuminuria are associated with increased risk for developing manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease. Individuals with larger changes in these kidney measures should be considered as a high risk population for accelerated brain pathology.

11.
Hypertension ; 72(1): 85-92, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785959

RESUMO

Carotid arterial diameter enlargement is a manifestation of arterial remodeling and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the association between carotid artery diameter and risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, CVD, and all-cause mortality and explored whether the associations could be explained by processes involved in arterial remodeling, that is, blood pressure-related media thickening, arterial stiffness, arterial wall stress, and atherosclerosis. We included 4887 participants (mean age 67±9 years; 54% women) from 4 cohort studies: Rotterdam Study, NEPHROTEST, Hoorn Study, and a study by Blacher et al. Common carotid artery properties were measured using echotracking. Incident cases were recorded based on medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and estimates of processes underlying arterial remodeling. During follow-up (mean, 11 years), 379 (8%) individuals had a stroke, 516 had a (11%) coronary heart disease, 807 had a (17%) CVD, and 1486 (30%) had died. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, individuals in the highest tertile of carotid diameter (diameter >8 mm) compared with those in the lowest tertile (diameter <7 mm) had a higher incidence of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.0). From all estimates of processes underlying arterial remodeling, adjustment for carotid intima-media thickness attenuated this association (hazard ratio after adjustment for intima-media thickness, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6). Larger carotid diameter was associated with risk of CVD and mortality but not clearly with coronary heart disease risk. We showed that a larger carotid diameter is associated with incident stroke, CVD, and mortality. Carotid intima-media thickness, a measure of blood pressure-related media thickening, partially explained the association with stroke incidence.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(11): 1493-1504, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular risk factors are closely linked with dementia risk, but whether heart disease predisposes to dementia is uncertain. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed risk estimates from longitudinal studies reporting the association of coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) with risk of dementia. RESULTS: We identified 16 studies (1,309,483 individuals) regarding CHD, and seven studies (1,958,702 individuals) about HF. A history of CHD was associated with a 27% increased risk of dementia (pooled relative risk [RR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.27 [1.07-1.50]), albeit with considerable heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 80%). HF was associated with 60% increased dementia risk (pooled RR 1.60 [1.19-2.13]) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 59%). Among prospective population-based cohorts, pooled estimates were similar (for CHD, RR 1.26 [1.06-1.49], nine studies; and HF, RR 1.80 [1.41-2.31], four studies) and highly consistent (I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: CHD and HF are associated with an increased risk of dementia.

13.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(12): 2165-2172, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566168

RESUMO

Background: Gait disturbance is proposed as a mechanism for higher risk of fall in kidney disease patients. We investigated the association of kidney function with gait pattern in the general population and tested whether the association between impaired kidney function and fall is more pronounced in subjects with lower gait function. Methods: We included 1430 participants (mean age: 60 years) from the Rotterdam Study. Kidney function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). We assessed global gait, gait velocity and seven independent gait domains: Rhythm, Phases, Variability, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Regression models adjusted for cardiometabolic and neurological factors were used. We evaluated whether participants with impaired kidney function and impaired gait fell more in the previous year. Results: The study population had a median (interquartile range) ACR of 3.6 (2.5-6.2) mg/g and mean ± SD eGFR of 87.6 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Higher ACR and lower eGFR were associated with lower global gait score [per doubling of ACR: -0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to -0.06, and per SD eGFR:-0.09, 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.03] and slower gait speed (ACR: -1.44 cm/s, CI: -2.12 to -0.76; eGFR: -1.55 cm/s, CI: -2.43 to -0.67). Worse kidney function was associated with lower scores in Variability domain. The association between impaired kidney function and history of fall was present only in participants with lower gait scores [odds ratio (95% CI): ACR: 1.34 (1.09-1.65); eGFR: 1.58 (1.07-2.33)]. Conclusions: We observed a graded association between lower kidney function and impaired gait suggesting that individuals with decreased kidney function, even at an early stage, need to be evaluated for gait abnormalities and might benefit from fall prevention programmes.

14.
Circulation ; 135(24): 2336-2353, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28461624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk. METHODS: We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a P value of <1.0×10-3 (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests). RESULTS: We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the ADAMTS7 gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (P=1.3×10-16) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (P=2.5×10-4), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interaction P value=8.7×10-5). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced ADAMTS7 expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of ADAMTS7. CONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced ADAMTS7 expression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascular ADAMTS7 expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteína ADAMTS7/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(8): 2311-2321, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360221

RESUMO

Disorders of water balance, an excess or deficit of total body water relative to body electrolyte content, are common and ascertained by plasma hypo- or hypernatremia, respectively. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis on plasma sodium concentration in 45,889 individuals of European descent (stage 1 discovery) and 17,637 additional individuals of European descent (stage 2 replication), and a transethnic meta-analysis of replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 79,506 individuals (63,526 individuals of European descent, 8765 individuals of Asian Indian descent, and 7215 individuals of African descent). In stage 1, we identified eight loci associated with plasma sodium concentration at P<5.0 × 10-6 Of these, rs9980 at NFAT5 replicated in stage 2 meta-analysis (P=3.1 × 10-5), with combined stages 1 and 2 genome-wide significance of P=5.6 × 10-10 Transethnic meta-analysis further supported the association at rs9980 (P=5.9 × 10-12). Additionally, rs16846053 at SLC4A10 showed nominally, but not genome-wide, significant association in combined stages 1 and 2 meta-analysis (P=6.7 × 10-8). NFAT5 encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that coordinates the intracellular response to hypertonic stress but was not previously implicated in the regulation of systemic water balance. SLC4A10 encodes a sodium bicarbonate transporter with a brain-restricted expression pattern, and variant rs16846053 affects a putative intronic NFAT5 DNA binding motif. The lead variants for NFAT5 and SLC4A10 are cis expression quantitative trait loci in tissues of the central nervous system and relevant to transcriptional regulation. Thus, genetic variation in NFAT5 and SLC4A10 expression and function in the central nervous system may affect the regulation of systemic water balance.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Plasma/química , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/genética , Sódio/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/genética , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 18(3): 276.e1-276.e7, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28109688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. DESIGN: Prospective population-based cohort. SETTING: Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. MAIN MEASURES: We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The ß for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable healthcare in aging populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Mortalidade , Países Baixos , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(3): 981-994, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920155

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (nStage1: 111,666; nStage2: 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea (PPM1J, EDEM3, ACP1, SPEG, EYA4, CYP1A1, and ATXN2L; PStage1<3.7×10-7), of which most were common and annotated as nonsynonymous variants. Gene-based analysis identified associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, SOS2 (P=5.4×10-8 by sequence kernel association test). Experimental follow-up in zebrafish embryos revealed changes in glomerular gene expression and renal tubule morphology in the embryonic kidney of acp1- and sos2-knockdowns. These developmental abnormalities associated with altered blood clearance rate and heightened prevalence of edema. This study expands the number of loci associated with kidney function and identifies novel genes with potential roles in kidney formation.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/embriologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless/genética , Animais , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 175(6): 653-660, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27926474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid dysfunction has been associated with kidney function decline, but mainly in cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between thyroid and kidney function in a prospective population-based cohort study longitudinally. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants aged ≥45 years from the Rotterdam Study with thyroid and kidney function assessment were included. Kidney function and new onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) were defined using estimated glomerular filtration ate (eGFR), with CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to the CKD-EPI formula. RESULTS: We included 5103 participants (mean age of 63.6 years) with a mean follow-up of 8.1 years. Cross-sectionally, higher TSH levels were associated with lower eGFR (Beta (ß): -1.75 mL/min; 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.17, -1.33), in multivariable models adjusting for several cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension and history of coronary heart disease among others. In contrast, longitudinally, higher TSH levels were associated with less annual eGFR decline (ß: -0.06 mL/min; CI: -0.11, -0.01) and lower CKD incidence (odds ratio 0.85, CI; 0.75, 0.96). Compared with euthyroid participants, subclinical hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk for CKD whereas hypothyroid individuals had a decreased risk (P for trend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperactive thyroid function is associated with increased risk of kidney function decline while hypothyroidism is associated with a decreased CKD risk. More insight is needed in the pathophysiological pathways connecting high thyroid function and kidney function decline.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
19.
Neurology ; 87(9): 927-34, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27488598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cerebral white matter microstructural integrity with mortality. METHODS: We included 4,294 individuals, free from stroke and dementia (mean age 63.6 years, 44% male) from the population-based Rotterdam Study (2006-2011). Diffusion-MRI was used to assess the microstructural integrity of the white matter, both globally and for specific white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were the measures used to quantify white matter integrity. All-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality was recorded with a median follow-up time of 5.4 and 4.6 years, respectively. Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, APOE ε4 allele carriership, cardiovascular risk factors, and macrostructural MRI changes, were used to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: During the follow-up time, 216 participants (5.0%) died of all causes, 31 (0.7%) of cardiovascular causes, and 102 individuals (2.4%) died of noncardiovascular causes. Each SD decrease in fractional anisotropy and each SD increase in mean diffusivity was associated with a 1.37-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.57) and a 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.28-1.75) higher hazard of all-cause mortality, respectively. The associations were more prominent with cardiovascular mortality than with noncardiovascular mortality. In tract-specific analyses, we observed that association tracts were more prominently related to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that impairments in cerebral white matter, even at early stages, are not limited to adverse brain outcomes and they are related to mortality, especially from cardiovascular causes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Mortalidade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anisotropia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(9): 934-45, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding, and/or is a consequence of reverse causation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization to investigate whether cystatin C is causally related to CVD in the general population. METHODS: We incorporated participant data from 16 prospective cohorts (n = 76,481) with 37,126 measures of cystatin C and added genetic data from 43 studies (n = 252,216) with 63,292 CVD events. We used the common variant rs911119 in CST3 as an instrumental variable to investigate the causal role of cystatin C in CVD, including coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. RESULTS: Cystatin C concentrations were associated with CVD risk after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors (relative risk: 1.82 per doubling of cystatin C; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56 to 2.13; p = 2.12 × 10(-14)). The minor allele of rs911119 was associated with decreased serum cystatin C (6.13% per allele; 95% CI: 5.75 to 6.50; p = 5.95 × 10(-211)), explaining 2.8% of the observed variation in cystatin C. Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide evidence for a causal role of cystatin C, with a causal relative risk for CVD of 1.00 per doubling cystatin C (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.22; p = 0.994), which was statistically different from the observational estimate (p = 1.6 × 10(-5)). A causal effect of cystatin C was not detected for any individual component of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal role of cystatin C in the etiology of CVD. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering circulating cystatin C are unlikely to be effective in preventing CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Cistatina C/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cistatina C/sangue , Genótipo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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