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Urology ; 92: 70-4, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915429


OBJECTIVE: To assess the urologist's impact on prostate needle core biopsy variables including number of containers submitted, total core length, longest core length, and individual core length threshold values, and to elucidate the relationship between these variables and cancer detection rate within a recent cohort. METHODS: A retrospective search was performed to identify patients who had an extended transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle core biopsy between 2008 and 2013. RESULTS: One thousand one prostate biopsies were analyzed. Total core length (mean 13.2-22.9 cm, P < .001) significantly varied by submitting urologist but did not impact cancer detection rate per case. Increased core length per container impacted the cancer detection per container (P < .001). The number of cores that met threshold values of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm as well as longest individual core length (mean 1.7-2.2 cm) significantly varied between urologist (P < .001), although there was no association between these variables and cancer detection. Container number differed significantly between urologists (P < .001) but did not correlate with cancer detection. For the single urologist with a change in his submission protocol during the study period, a nonsignificant change in cancer detection was noted when comparing 12-14 containers vs 6-9 containers. CONCLUSION: Submitting urologist significantly impacts prostate biopsy metrics. An increased amount of tissue per container was associated with higher rates of cancer per container. A nonsignificant change in cancer detection rate was observed when container number was reduced from 12-14 to 6-9.

Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Urologia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
Ther Adv Urol ; 7(6): 388-95, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26622323


Historically, androgen-deprivation therapy has been the cornerstone for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, nearly majority patients with prostate cancer transition to the refractory state of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Newer therapeutic agents are needed for treating these CRPC patients that are unresponsive to androgen deprivation and/or chemotherapy. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes limits the expression of genomic regions by improving binding between histones and the DNA backbone. Modulating the role of HDAC enzymes can alter the cell's regulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, thereby regulating potential neoplastic proliferation. As a result, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are now being evaluated for CRPC or chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer due to their effects on the expression of the androgen receptor gene. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanism and functional target molecules of different HDACi as applicable to CRPC as well as describe recent and current clinical trials involving HDACi in prostate cancer. To date, four HDAC classes comprising 18 isoenzymes have been identified. Recent clinical trials of vorinostat, romidepsin, and panobinostat have provided cautious optimism towards improved outcomes using these novel therapeutic agents for CPRC patients. Nevertheless, no phase III trial has been conducted to cement one of these drugs as an adjunct to androgen-deprivation therapy. Consequently, further investigation is necessary to delineate the benefits and drawbacks of these medications.