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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948892

RESUMO

This special article summarizes the design and certification process of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology (EACTA) Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia (CTVA) Fellowship Program. The CTVA fellowship training includes a two-year curriculum at an EACTA-accredited educational facility. Before fellows are accepted into the program, they must meet a number of requirements, including evidence of a valid license to practice medicine, a specialist degree examination in anesthesiology, and appropriate language skills as required in the host centers. The CVTA Fellowship Program has 2 sequential and complementary levels of training-both with a modular structure that allows for individual planning and also takes into account the differing national healthcare needs and requirements of the 36 countries represented in EACTA. The basic training period focuses on the anesthetic management of patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular surgery and related procedures. The advanced training period is intended to deepen and to extend the clinical and nontechnical skills that fellows have acquired during the basic training. The goal of the EACTA fellowship is to produce highly trained and competent perioperative physicians who are able to care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 379(13): 1224-1233, 2018 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We reported previously that, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were at moderate-to-high risk for death, a restrictive transfusion strategy was noninferior to a liberal strategy with respect to the composite outcome of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new-onset renal failure with dialysis by hospital discharge or 28 days after surgery, whichever came first. We now report the clinical outcomes at 6 months after surgery. METHODS: We randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery to a restrictive red-cell transfusion strategy (transfusion if the hemoglobin concentration was <7.5 g per deciliter intraoperatively or postoperatively) or a liberal red-cell transfusion strategy (transfusion if the hemoglobin concentration was <9.5 g per deciliter intraoperatively or postoperatively when the patient was in the intensive care unit [ICU] or was <8.5 g per deciliter when the patient was in the non-ICU ward). The primary composite outcome was death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new-onset renal failure with dialysis occurring within 6 months after the initial surgery. An expanded secondary composite outcome included all the components of the primary outcome as well as emergency department visit, hospital readmission, or coronary revascularization occurring within 6 months after the index surgery. The secondary outcomes included the individual components of the two composite outcomes. RESULTS: At 6 months after surgery, the primary composite outcome had occurred in 402 of 2317 patients (17.4%) in the restrictive-threshold group and in 402 of 2347 patients (17.1%) in the liberal-threshold group (absolute risk difference before rounding, 0.22 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.95 to 2.39; odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.18; P=0.006 for noninferiority). Mortality was 6.2% in the restrictive-threshold group and 6.4% in the liberal-threshold group (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.21). There were no significant between-group differences in the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were at moderate-to-high risk for death, a restrictive strategy for red-cell transfusion was noninferior to a liberal strategy with respect to the composite outcome of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new-onset renal failure with dialysis at 6 months after surgery. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; TRICS III ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02042898 .).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
3.
Anesthesiology ; 128(2): 317-327, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods. RESULTS: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
N Engl J Med ; 377(22): 2133-2144, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) I of 6 or more (on a scale from 0 to 47, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of death after cardiac surgery) to a restrictive red-cell transfusion threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin level was <7.5 g per deciliter, starting from induction of anesthesia) or a liberal red-cell transfusion threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin level was <9.5 g per deciliter in the operating room or intensive care unit [ICU] or was <8.5 g per deciliter in the non-ICU ward). The primary composite outcome was death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new-onset renal failure with dialysis by hospital discharge or by day 28, whichever came first. Secondary outcomes included red-cell transfusion and other clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 11.4% of the patients in the restrictive-threshold group, as compared with 12.5% of those in the liberal-threshold group (absolute risk difference, -1.11 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.93 to 0.72; odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.07; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Mortality was 3.0% in the restrictive-threshold group and 3.6% in the liberal-threshold group (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.16). Red-cell transfusion occurred in 52.3% of the patients in the restrictive-threshold group, as compared with 72.6% of those in the liberal-threshold group (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.47). There were no significant between-group differences with regard to the other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were at moderate-to-high risk for death, a restrictive strategy regarding red-cell transfusion was noninferior to a liberal strategy with respect to the composite outcome of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new-onset renal failure with dialysis, with less blood transfused. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; TRICS III ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02042898 .).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Assistência Perioperatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 104(4): 1289-1297, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated, single-measure, postoperative troponin is associated with adverse events after cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that increases in troponin from the first to the second postoperative day are also associated with all-cause, 12-month mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: This observational study included consecutive adults undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery with cardiac arrest. Troponin T was measured on the first and second postoperative day and was classified as "increasing" (>10%), "unchanged" (10% to -10%), or "decreasing" (<-10%). The primary endpoint was all-cause, 12-month mortality. Secondary endpoints were all-cause 12-month mortality or MACE and both outcomes at 30 days. The main analysis was by multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1,417 included patients, 99 (7.0%) died and 162 (11.4%) died or suffered MACE at 12 months. A significant interaction (p < 0.001) between first postoperative day troponin and the troponin trend from the first to the second postoperative day on 12-month, all-cause mortality precluded an analysis independent of first postoperative day troponin. Consequently, we stratified patients by their first postoperative day troponin (cutoff, 0.8 µg/L). Increasing troponin was associated with higher mortality in patients with first postoperative day troponin T ≥ 0.8 µg/L (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.59; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Troponin changes from the first to the second postoperative day should not be interpreted without consideration of the first postoperative day troponin concentration. For patients with a first postoperative day troponin ≥ 0.8 µg/L, an increase by more than 10% from the first to the second postoperative day was significantly associated with all-cause, 12-month mortality and other adverse events.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Vasc Surg ; 66(6): 1826-1835.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Predicting cardiac events is essential to provide patients with the best medical care and to assess the risk-benefit ratio of surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee) and the Vascular Study Group of New England Cardiac Risk Index (VSG) scores for the prediction of major cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing arterial surgery and to determine whether the inclusion of additional risk factors improved their accuracy. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 954 consecutive patients undergoing arterial vascular surgery, and the Lee and VSG scores were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves for each cardiac risk score were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared. Two logistic regression models were done to determine new variables related to the occurrence of major cardiac events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Cardiac events occurred in 120 (12.6%) patients. Both scores underestimated the rate of cardiac events across all risk strata. The VSG score had AUC of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.68), which was higher than the AUC of the Lee score (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.63; P = .03). Addition of preoperative anemia significantly improved the accuracy of the Lee score to an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P = .002) but not that of the VSG score. CONCLUSIONS: The Lee and VSG scores have low accuracy and underestimate the risk of major perioperative cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing vascular surgery. The Lee score's accuracy can be increased by adding preoperative anemia. Underestimation of major cardiac complications may lead to incorrect risk-benefit assessments regarding the planned operation.


Assuntos
Artérias/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 2072-2079, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perioperative course of urine levels of the renal damage biomarkers tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and to evaluate the predictive value of elevated TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 concentrations to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) early after cardiac on-pump surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 110 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between January and March 2014. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Urinary TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 levels were quantified using a commercially available kit at the following measurement points: before surgery, 1 hour after starting CPB, 4 hours after weaning from CPB, and 24 hours after weaning from CPB (time points 1-4). Postoperative AKI was defined according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. AKI after cardiac surgery was diagnosed in 9 patients (8%). The perioperative course of TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 was significantly different in patients with and without postoperative AKI (p < 0.001). TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI 1 hour after CPB start and 24 hours after weaning from CPB (p < 0.05). TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 levels >0.40 (ng/mL)2/1,000 measured at 1 hour after starting CPB were found to be the optimal cut-off, with a sensitivity of 0.778 and a specificity of 0.641. The negative predictive value was 0.972. CONCLUSIONS: Urine levels of TIMP-2 × IGFBP7 are predictive for AKI at an early time point (1 hour after starting CPB). Renal damage biomarkers such as TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 might be recommended as a supplement to traditionally used criteria of AKI prediction.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/urina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/urina , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/urina , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/urina , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Anesth Analg ; 125(3): 753-761, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a predictor of mortality after on-pump cardiac surgery. However, previous limited and heterogeneous studies have focused on peak concentrations at 3 to 5 days after surgery and may not offer clinicians much help in early decision-making. After confirming the predictive value of first-postoperative-day BNP in a preliminary analysis, we explored the association between isolated second-postoperative-day BNP concentrations, second-day BNP concentrations in conjunction with first-day BNP concentrations, and the change in BNP (ie, ΔBNP) from the first to the second postoperative day and 12-month, all-cause mortality. METHODS: We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in this observational, secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. We analyzed biomarkers on the first and second postoperative day. ΔBNP was defined as BNP on the second postoperative day minus BNP on the first postoperative day. The primary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 12 months and/or all-cause mortality at 12 months. MACE was defined as nonfatal cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. The association between BNP and outcomes was examined by receiver operating characteristic curves, as well as univariate and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the EuroSCORE II, cross-clamp time, and first-postoperative-day troponin T. RESULTS: We included 1199 patients in the preliminary analysis focused on BNP on postoperative day 1. In the analyses examining BNP variables requiring second-postoperative-day BNP measurement (n = 708), we observed 66 (9.3%) deaths, 48 (6.8%) MACE, and 104 (14.7%) deaths and/or MACE. Both first- and second-postoperative-day BNP were significant independent predictors of all-cause, 12-month mortality per 100 ng/L increase (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.040 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.019-1.065] and 1.064 [95% CI, 1.031-1.105], respectively). When used in conjunction with one another, first-day BNP was not significant (aOR, 1.021 [95% CI, 0.995-1.048]), while second-day BNP remained significant (aOR, 1.046 [95% CI, 1.008-1.091]). The ΔBNP per 100 ng/L increase was not associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality in the univariable (OR, 0.977 [95% CI, 0.951-1.007]) or multivariable analysis (aOR, 0.989 [95% CI, 0.962-1.021]). CONCLUSIONS: Both absolute concentrations of first- and second-postoperative-day BNP are independent predictors of 12-month, all-cause mortality. When modeled together, second-postoperative-day BNP is more predictive of 12-month, all-cause mortality. Although intuitively appealing, the change in BNP from the first to the second postoperative day is a complex variable and should not routinely be used for prognostication.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 1966-1973, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for long duration and overall burden of POD after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: One-year, single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in 2013. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were screened for POD using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of POD. Secondary outcome measures were the duration of POD and the area under the curve determined using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score over time. Independent predictors of POD were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Hospital length of stay, medications, and outcome data also were analyzed. Among the 656 patients included in the cohort, 618 were analyzed. The overall incidence of POD was 39%. Older patient age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) 1.06 [1.04-1.09] for an increase of 1 year, p < 0.001); low preoperative serum albumin (1.08 [1.03-1.13] for a decrease of 1 g/L, p < 0.001); a history of atrial fibrillation (2.30 [1.30-4.09], p = 0.004); perioperative stroke (6.27 [1.54-43.64], p = 0.008); ascending aortic replacement surgery (2.99 [1.50-6.05], p = 0.002); longer duration of procedure (1.37 [1.16-1.63] for an increase of 1 hour, p < 0.001); and increased postoperative C-reactive protein concentration (2.16 [1.49-3.16] for a 2-fold increase, p < 0.001) were associated with higher odds of POD. Among patients affected by POD, older age, perioperative stroke, longer procedure time, and increased postoperative C-reactive protein were consistently predictive of longer duration of POD and greater area under the curve. CONCLUSIONS: Known risk factors for the development of POD after cardiac surgery also are predictive of prolonged duration and high overall burden of POD.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Anesth Analg ; 125(4): 1110-1117, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Troponin T is a predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery with most data examining fourth generational troponin T assays. We hypothesize that postoperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measured in increments of the upper limit of the norm independently predicts 30-day all-cause mortality. METHODS: We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery from February 2010 to March 2012 in a prospective cohort that measured hsTnT at 0600 of the first and second postoperative day. Our primary end point was 30-day, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality in patients surviving the first 30 days. We divided hsTnT into 5 predetermined categorizes based on the upper limit of the norm (ULN). We used Cox regression to examine an association of hsTnT independent of the EuroSCORE II at both 30 days as well as at 12 months in patients surviving the first 30 days. We assessed the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the net reassignment improvement for examining the benefit of adding of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II for prognostication and restratification of 30-day, all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We included 1122 of 1155 eligible patients (75% male; mean age 66 ± 11 years). We observed 58 (5.2%) deaths at 30 days and another 35 (3.4%) deaths at 12 months in patients surviving 30 days. HsTnT categorized by ULN exhibited a graded response for the mortality. Furthermore, hsTnT remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.014-1.024] per 10-fold increase in ULN) as well as at 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.007-1.032]) in patients surviving the first 30 days. The addition of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II significantly increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (area under curve: 0.816 [95% confidence interval, 0.754-0.878] versus area under curve: 0.870 [95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.917], respectively; P = .012). Finally, adding hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II improved restratification by the net reassignment improvement, primarily by improving rule-out of events. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that, similar to previous assays, higher postoperative concentrations of hsTnT are independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(5): 271-279, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of new pathological Q waves after on-pump cardiac surgery is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not either the occurrence per se or the location of new pathological Q waves after on-pump cardiac surgery is associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Single university hospital from January 2007 to October 2010. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery with MACE-free survival until at least the 7th postoperative day and available ECGs both preoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day (n = 1464). We conducted a subgroup analysis in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 740). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Our primary endpoint was 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or MACE, defined as acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure or re-vascularisation at 12 months. Using logistic regression, we examined the prognostic value of new pathological Q waves according to the Minnesota ECG Code, adjusting for the EuroSCORE II, cardiopulmonary bypass time and peak postoperative troponin T concentrations. RESULTS: We included 1464 patients (74% men; mean ±â€ŠSD age 66 ±â€Š10 years) and observed 103 (7.0%) all-cause deaths and/or MACEs at 12 months. A total of 236 patients (16.1%) had definite or probable new pathological Q waves according to the Minnesota ECG Code. The occurrence of new pathological Q waves per se was not associated with our primary endpoint [adjusted odds ratio, 0.970 (95% confidence interval, 0.540 to 1.648)]. However, the occurrence of a new pathological Q wave in V1 to V5 (anterior) was a strong independent predictor for poor outcome [adjusted odds ratio, 3.461 (95% confidence interval, 1.501 to 7.242)]. CONCLUSION: The current analysis suggests that for patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery, only new pathological Q waves in V1 to V5 (anterior) in the 7th postoperative day ECG are associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or MACE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00468598.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/tendências , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 45(6): 367-373, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359077

RESUMO

Objective: Normative values of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic area and diameter (EDA and EDD) for intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) have not been established. We aimed to define the ranges of LV EDA and EDD for intraoperative TEE examinations in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: A MEDLINE search for studies reporting LV EDA and EDD in CABG patients was performed. Individual-level dataset from 333 anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated patients with preserved LV function (study population) were received from 8 studies. EDA and calculated EDD values in the study population were compared with summary mean EDD values obtained by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 2 studies of 500 awake patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Further, the influence of prespecified factors on EDD was evaluated through a multivariate regression model. Results: LV EDA and EDD values measured by TEE in anaesthetised CABG patients were 16.7±4.7 cm2 and 4.6±0.6 cm, respectively. EDD values measured by TEE in anaesthetised patients were 10% to 13% less those measured by TTE in 2 studies of awake patients (p<0.001). Body surface area, age and fractional area change but not sex were factors that affected LV EDD. Conclusion: LV EDD values measured by intraoperative TEE in anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated CABG patients were 10% to 13% less than those measured by TTE in awake CAD patients. This finding indicates that independent normative values specific for intraoperative TEE should be established for guiding intraoperative clinical decisions.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 123(6): 1363-1371, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin, a novel marker of endogenous stress, has shown diagnostic and prognostic value in nonsurgical patients with a suspected coronary event. We aimed to assess the incremental value of copeptin in addition to established preoperative risk indices to predict the occurrence of postoperative myocardial injury. METHODS: This secondary analysis of prospectively collected data included adults undergoing noncardiac surgery with risk factors for adverse perioperative cardiac events based on preoperative risk stratification. We examined preoperative copeptin in patients without elevated preoperative troponin and its association with myocardial injury by receiver operator characteristic curves, logistic regression, and net reassignment indices. RESULTS: Of the 190 patients included, 33 (17.4%) experienced myocardial injury within 48 hours, and 17 (8.9%) experienced cardiac death and/or major adverse cardiac events within the first postoperative year. Preoperative copeptin showed an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of .66 (95% confidence interval, .55-.76) for myocardial injury and an optimal cutoff of 9.6 pmol/L. This cutoff was an independent predictor of myocardial injury, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% confidence interval, 2.06-11.19) when adjusted for age, sex, and the revised cardiac risk index. The net reassignment improvement for myocardial injury was between 39% and 50% for both events and nonevents when adding copeptin to established preoperative risk indices. No significant difference in major adverse cardiac event and/or cardiac death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin (≥9.6 pmol/L) was associated with significantly higher rates of myocardial injury and improved risk stratification in patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery with nonelevated preoperative troponin.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue , Regulação para Cima
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(6): 1494-1501, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of sevoflurane and isoflurane during use of minimized extracorporeal circulation to perform coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Furthermore, cardiovascular stability during bypass and the postoperative release of troponins were evaluated. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 31 adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. INTERVENTIONS: The pharmacokinetic measurements of the concentration of the volatile anesthetics in the arterial and venous blood, air inlet, air outlet, and gas exhaust of the extracorporeal circulation were recorded. Secondary end-points were cardiovascular stability during bypass, amount of postoperative release of troponin, time to extubation, time to discharge from the intensive care unit and the hospital, and 30-day mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Thirty patients completed the protocol. The pharmacokinetics of isoflurane and sevoflurane were almost identical, with a rapid wash-in (time to reach 50% of arterial steady state) concentration of 0.87±0.97 minutes and 1.14±0.35 minutes for isoflurane and sevoflurane, respectively, and a biphasic venous elimination with a terminal half-life of approximately 10 minutes for both compounds. There was a correlation between the gas inlet and the gas exhaust of the extracorporeal circulation. No difference in cardiovascular stability was found. High-sensitivity troponin concentrations on the first postoperative morning were 0.355±0.312 µg/mL and 0.225±0.111 µg/mL in the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups, respectively (p = 0.147). CONCLUSIONS: The study found similar pharmacokinetics regarding wash-in and wash-out for sevoflurane and isoflurane. In addition, no difference in cardiovascular stability was found. The markers of cardiac damage were not different between the two anesthetics. Based on these data, sevoflurane and isoflurane might be used equivalently in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with extracorporeal circulation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/sangue , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardiotônicos/sangue , Isoflurano/sangue , Éteres Metílicos/sangue , Idoso , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano , Troponina T/sangue
17.
Anesthesiology ; 125(2): 313-21, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery is associated with hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in the deflated and subsequently reventilated lung. Numerous studies have reported volatile anesthesia-induced attenuation of inflammatory responses in such scenarios. If the effect also extends to clinical outcome is yet undetermined. We hypothesized that volatile anesthesia is superior to intravenous anesthesia regarding postoperative complications. METHODS: Five centers in Switzerland participated in the randomized controlled trial. Patients scheduled for lung surgery with one-lung ventilation were randomly assigned to one of two parallel arms to receive either propofol or desflurane as general anesthetic. Patients and surgeons were blinded to group allocation. Time to occurrence of the first major complication according to the Clavien-Dindo score was defined as primary (during hospitalization) or secondary (6-month follow-up) endpoint. Cox regression models were used with adjustment for prestratification variables and age. RESULTS: Of 767 screened patients, 460 were randomized and analyzed (n = 230 for each arm). Demographics, disease and intraoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Incidence of major complications during hospitalization was 16.5% in the propofol and 13.0% in the desflurane groups (hazard ratio for desflurane vs. propofol, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.22; P = 0.24). Incidence of major complications within 6 months from surgery was 40.4% in the propofol and 39.6% in the desflurane groups (hazard ratio for desflurane vs. propofol, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.28; P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first multicenter randomized controlled trial addressing the effect of volatile versus intravenous anesthetics on major complications after lung surgery. No difference between the two anesthesia regimens was evident.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação/métodos , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Pulmonares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Pulmonares/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Desflurano , Método Duplo-Cego , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Isoflurano/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Propofol/efeitos adversos
19.
Platelets ; 27(3): 254-61, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367099

RESUMO

Reduced aspirin responsiveness (i.e. persistent high platelet reactivity in platelet function testing) might be associated with increased risk of myocardial ischemia and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary disease. However, the impact in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the predictive value of reduced aspirin responsiveness on cardiac and thromboembolic events in patients undergoing elective isolated CABG surgery with aspirin intake until at least two days before surgery. We included 304 patients in this prospective single-center cohort study. Impedance platelet aggregometry (Multiplate®) was performed directly before and on the first day after surgery. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was defined as area under the curve in ASPItest (AUCASPI) ≥300 U. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiac or thromboembolic events within 1 year. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was found in 13 and 24% of patients pre and postoperatively, respectively. There was no difference in the outcomes between patients with normal and reduced aspirin responsiveness in the preoperative measurement (log-rank test, p = 0.540). Multivariate analysis including logistic EuroSCORE I and postoperative troponin T levels did not show any association of reduced aspirin responsiveness with adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 0.576; (95% CI 0.128-2.585; p = 0.471). Similarly, postoperative reduced aspirin responsiveness was not associated with adverse events. To conclude, reduced aspirin responsiveness as evaluated by Multiplate® platelet function analyzer was not associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiac and thromboembolic events and mortality after CABG surgery.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Impedância Elétrica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Plaquetas , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Circulation ; 130(12): 948-57, 2014 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The independent predictive value of troponin T (TNT) after on-pump cardiac surgery was established in several studies. However, adjustment was limited to preoperative risk factors without considering perioperative complications. Data on the prognostic value of postoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are scarce. Our aim was to assess the independent value of TNT and BNP to predict 12-month outcome after cardiac surgery with adjustment for preoperative risk estimates and postoperative complications and to report risk stratification gains when considering the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) combined with postoperative biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2010. We evaluated postoperative TNT and BNP, the EuroSCORE, and postoperative complications as predictors of adverse events using Cox regression. The primary end point was death or major adverse cardiac events within 1 year after surgery. We calculated the net reclassification index of TNT and BNP in addition to the EuroSCORE. We enrolled 1559 patients, of whom 176 (11.3%) experienced an event. The adjusted hazard ratio of TNT >0.8 µg/L was 2.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.47-3.15) and of BNP >790 ng/L was 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.65-3.62). The net reclassification index of the addition of TNT and BNP to the EuroSCORE was 0.276 (95% confidence interval, 0.195-0.348). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative TNT and BNP are strong predictors of 1-year events after on-pump cardiac surgery independent of preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications. Updating the preoperative EuroSCORE risk with postoperative TNT and BNP after surgery allows for improved prediction of 1-year death or major adverse cardiac events.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
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