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2.
Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaba0694, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426457

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an important role in sensing both acute and chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature, but their primary oxygen-sensing mechanism and contribution to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) remains elusive. Alteration of the mitochondrial electron flux and increased superoxide release from complex III has been proposed as an essential trigger for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We used mice expressing a tunicate alternative oxidase, AOX, which maintains electron flux when respiratory complexes III and/or IV are inhibited. Respiratory restoration by AOX prevented acute HPV and hypoxic responses of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia-induced redox changes of NADH and cytochrome c, and superoxide production. In contrast, AOX did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and HIF-1α stabilization. These results indicate that distal inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in PASMC is an essential initial step for acute but not chronic oxygen sensing.

3.
Biomarkers ; 25(3): 290-295, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248722

RESUMO

Aim: This study assessed the utility of SPARC-like protein 1 (SPARCL1) as a biomarker of maladaptive right ventricular (RV) function in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).Methods: In this prospective study, we examined SPARCL1 levels in 105 patients with adaptive (n = 34) and maladaptive RV (n = 32) pressure overload caused by PH, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 18) with LVEF < 35% and preserved RV function and controls without LV or RV abnormalities (n = 21).Results: The median SPARCL1 concentration in patients with maladaptive RV function was higher than in those with adaptive RV function (p < 0.01), DCM (p < 0.001) or controls (p < 0.001). Patients with adaptive RV function had higher SPARCL1 concentrations than controls (p < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between adaptive RV and DCM. SPARCL1 showed good predictive power for maladaptive RV (AUC 0.77, p < 0.001) with an optimal cut-off value of 9.66 ng/ml. The TAPSE/PASP ratio was the only independent predictor of SPARCL1 ≥ 9.66 ng/ml in multivariable logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: SPARCL1 shows potential as novel biomarker of RV pathological remodelling and is associated with RV maladaptation and ventriculoarterial uncoupling in PH.

4.
J Breath Res ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a high unmet need in a non-invasive screening of lung cancer (LC). We conducted this single-center trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the electronic nose Aeonose®. The Aeonose collects breath samples for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures, determined by a pattern of resistance changes caused by differential redox reactions of metal-oxide sensors on the Aeonose plate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures were collected by Aeonose® in 42 incident and 78 prevalent LC patients, of them 29 LC patients in complete remission (LC CR), 33 healthy controls (HC) and 23 COPD patients. By dichotomous comparison of VOC's between incident LC and HC, a discriminating algorithm was established and also applied to LC CR and COPD subjects. Area under Curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and Matthews's correlation coefficient (MC) were used to interpret the data. RESULTS: The established algorithm of Aeonose® signature allowed safe separation of LC and HC, showing an AUC of 0.92, sensitivity of 0.84 and a specificity of 0.97. When tested in a blinded fashion, the device recognized 19 out of 29 LC CR patients (=65.5%) as LC-positive, of which only five developed recurrent LC later on (after 18.6 months ± 9.02; mean value ± SD). Unfortunately, the algorithm also recognized 11 of 24 COPD patients as being LC positive (with only one of the 24 COPD patients developing LC 56 months after the measurement). CONCLUSION: The Aeonose® revealed some potential in distinguishing LC from HC, however, with low specificity when applying the algorithm in a blinded fashion to other disease cohorts. We conclude that relevant VOC signals originating from comorbidities in LC such as COPD may have erroneously led to the separation between LC and controls.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229721

RESUMO

Immune microenvironment plays a critical role in lung cancer control versus progression and metastasis. In this investigation, we explored the impact of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte subpopulations on lung cancer biology by studying in vitro co-cultures, in vivo mouse models and human lung cancer tissue. Lymphocyte conditioned media-(CM) induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and migration in both primary human lung cancer cells and cell lines. Correspondingly, major accumulation of Th9 and Th17 cells was detected in human lung cancer tissue, and correlated with poor survival. Co-culturing lung cancer cells with Th9/Th17 cells or exposing them to the respective-CM induced-EMT in cancer cells and modulated the expression profile of genes implicated in EMT and metastasis. These features were reproduced by the signatory cytokines IL-9 and IL-17, with gene regulatory profiles evoked by these cytokines partly overlapping and partly complementary. Co-injection of Th9 and/or Th17 cells with tumor cells in wildtype, Rag1-/-, Il9r-/- and Il17ra-/- mice altered tumor growth and metastasis. Accordingly, inhibition of IL-9 or IL-17 cytokines by neutralizing antibodies decreased EMT and slowed lung cancer progression and metastasis. In conclusion, Th9 and Th17 lymphocytes induce lung cancer cell EMT, thereby promoting migration, and metastatic spreading and offering for novel therapeutic strategies.

7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, encompassing chronic airway obstruction and lung emphysema, is a major worldwide health problem and a severe socio-economic burden. Evidence previously provided by our group has shown that inhibition of inducible NOS (iNOS) prevents development of mild emphysema in a mouse model of chronic tobacco smoke exposure and can even trigger lung regeneration. Moreover, we could demonstrate that pulmonary hypertension is not only abolished in cigarette smoke-exposed iNOS-/- mice but also precedes emphysema development. Possible regenerative effects of pharmacological iNOS inhibition in more severe models of emphysema not dependent on tobacco smoke, however, are hitherto unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We have established a mouse model using a single dose of porcine pancreatic elastase or saline, intratracheally instilled in C57BL/6J mice. Emphysema, as well as pulmonary hypertension development was determined by both structural and functional measurements. KEY RESULTS: Our data revealed that (i) emphysema is fully established after 21 days, with the same degree of emphysema after 21 and 28 days post instillation, (ii) emphysema is stable for at least 12 weeks and (iii) pulmonary hypertension is evident, in contrast to smoke models, only after emphysema development. Oral treatment with the iNOS inhibitor N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-lysine (L-NIL) was started after emphysema establishment and continued for 12 weeks. This resulted in significant lung regeneration, evident in the improvement of emphysema and reversal of pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data indicate that iNOS is a potential new therapeutic target to treat severe emphysema and associated pulmonary hypertension.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219066

RESUMO

Regardless of the promising results of certain immune checkpoint blockers, current immunotherapeutics have met a bottleneck concerning response rate, toxicity, and resistance in lung cancer patients. Accumulating evidence forecasts that the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells takes center stage in cancer development by modulating tumor malignancy, immune cell infiltration, and immune evasion in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cytokines and chemokines secreted by this crosstalk play a major role in cancer development, progression, and therapeutic management. An increased infiltration of Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) was observed in most of the human cancers, including lung cancer. In this review, we emphasize the role of cytokines and chemokines in TAM-tumor cell crosstalk in the lung TME. Given the role of cytokines and chemokines in immunomodulation, we propose that TAM-derived cytokines and chemokines govern the cancer-promoting immune responses in the TME and offer a new immunotherapeutic option for lung cancer treatment.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098115

RESUMO

Alveolar edema, impaired alveolar fluid clearance, and elevated CO2 levels (hypercapnia) are hallmarks of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study investigated how hypercapnia affects maturation of the Na,K-ATPase (NKA), a key membrane transporter, and a cell adhesion molecule involved in the resolution of alveolar edema in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells to elevated CO2 concentrations caused a significant retention of NKA-ß in the ER and, thus, decreased levels of the transporter in the Golgi apparatus. These effects were associated with a marked reduction of the plasma membrane (PM) abundance of the NKA-α/ß complex as well as a decreased total and ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity. Furthermore, our study revealed that the ER-retained NKA-ß subunits were only partially assembled with NKA α-subunits, which suggests that hypercapnia modifies the ER folding environment. Moreover, we observed that elevated CO2 levels decreased intracellular ATP production and increased ER protein and, particularly, NKA-ß oxidation. Treatment with α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), which is a metabolite that has been shown to increase ATP levels and rescue mitochondrial function in hypercapnia-exposed cells, attenuated the deleterious effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and restored NKA PM abundance and function. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of NKA in alveolar epithelial cells by elevated CO2 levels, which may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for patients with ARDS and hypercapnia.

10.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recruitment and involvement of bone-/blood-derived circulating fibrocytes (CF) in the promotion of fibrotic tissue remodelling processes have been shown. However, their direct contribution to pathological changes is not clear. The present study investigates the causal role of CF in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: For selective ablation of CF, we applied the suicidal gene strategy with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir. The transgenic mice were generated, having HSV-TK-GFP transgene under the collagen 1 promoter. To selectively target CF, HSV-TK-GFP+ bone marrow transplanted into irradiated wild type mice. These chimera mice were subjected to hypoxia for PH induction and ganciclovir for CF ablation. KEY RESULTS: In vivo CF ablation reduced right ventricular hypertrophy and vascular remodelling with reduced total collagen content. We quantified the CF recruited in the perivascular area and arterial wall of small pulmonary arteries. There was significant recruitment of CF in the lung in response to hypoxia. The characterization of CF showed the expression of CD45 and collagen1 (GFP) along with α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data demonstrated that CF ablation has a potential impact on right ventricular hypertrophy and vascular remodelling in the setting of experimental pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia. The beneficial effects may be related to the direct contribution of fibrocytes or its paracrine effect on other resident cell types. Thus, clinical manipulation of CF may represent a novel therapeutic approach to ameliorate the disease state in pulmonary hypertension.

11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(4): 633-642, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912453

RESUMO

Alterations of right atrial (RA) function have emerged as determinants of outcome in pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to clarify the pathophysiological associations of impaired RA conduit function with right ventricular (RV) function in PH. In 51 patients with PH (48 with pulmonary arterial hypertension), RA conduit function was assessed as echocardiographic peak early diastolic strain rate (PEDSR). PEDSR and cardiac magnetic resonance parameters were measured within 24 h of right heart catheterization and generation of pressure-volume loops to assess RV diastolic (RV end-diastolic pressure [EDP] and relaxation [Tau]) and systolic function. Spearman rho correlation and linear regression analysis were used to determine the association of PEDSR with RV function. The impact of PEDSR on time to clinical worsening was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Median (interquartile range) PEDSR was - 0.56 s - 1 (- 1.08 to - 0.37). Impaired PEDSR was significantly correlated with RV diastolic stiffness [EDP (rho = 0.570; p < 0.001) and Tau (rho = 0.500; p < 0.001)] but not with RV contractility or coupling. In multivariate linear regression including parameters of RV lusitropic and inotropic function, EDP remained independently associated with impaired PEDSR. During a median follow-up of 9 months, 23 patients deteriorated. After multivariate adjustment, PEDSR remained associated with clinical worsening (hazard ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-6.78). Altered RV lusitropy is associated with impaired RA conduit phase. PEDSR emerged as a promising, non-invasive, bedside-ready parameter to evaluate RV diastolic function and to predict prognosis in PH.

12.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(2): 406-415, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020333

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a detrimental condition that ultimately results in right heart failure and death. The ubiquitin proteasome system has been identified as a major protein degradation system to regulate cardiac remodelling in the left heart. Its role in right heart hypertrophy, however, is still ambiguous. METHODS AND RESULTS: RVH was induced in mice by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Both, expression and activity of the proteasome was found to be up-regulated in the hypertrophied right ventricle (RV) compared to healthy controls. Catalytic inhibition of the proteasome by the two proteasome inhibitors Bortezomib (BTZ) and ONX-0912 partially improved RVH both in preventive and therapeutic applications. Native gel analysis revealed that specifically the 26S proteasome complexes were activated in experimental RVH. Increased assembly of 26S proteasomes was accompanied by elevated expression of Rpn6, a rate-limiting subunit of 26S proteasome assembly, in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes of the right heart. Intriguingly, patients with RVH also showed increased expression of Rpn6 in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes of the RV as identified by immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that alterations in expression and activity of proteasomal subunits play a critical role in the development of RVH. Moreover, this study provides an improved understanding on the selective activation of the 26S proteasome in RVH that might be driven by the rate-limiting subunit Rpn6. In RVH, Rpn6 therefore represents a more specific target to interfere with proteasome function than the commonly used catalytic proteasome inhibitors.

13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(1): H156-H164, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756118

RESUMO

The functional relevance of right atrial (RA) function in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking-derived RA phasic function with invasively measured pressure-volume (P-V) loop-derived right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic elastance (Eed) and RV-arterial coupling [ratio of end-systolic elastance to arterial elastance (Ees/Ea)]. In 54 patients with severe PH, CMR was performed within 24 h of diagnostic right heart catheterization and P-V measurements. RA phasic function was assessed by CMR imaging of RA reservoir, passive, and active strain. The association of RA phasic function with indexes of RV function was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and linear regression analyses. Median [interquartile range] RA reservoir strain, passive strain, and active strain were 19.5% [11.0-24.5], 7.0% [4.0-12.0], and 13.0% [7.0-18.5], respectively. Ees/Ea was 0.73 [0.48-1.08], and Eed was 0.14 mmHg/mL [0.05-0.22]. RV diastolic impairment [RV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) and Eed] was correlated with RA phasic function, but Ea and Ees were not. In addition, RA phasic function was correlated with inferior vena cava diameter. In multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusting for key P-V loop indexes, Eed and EDP remained significantly associated with RA phasic function. We conclude that RA phasic function is altered in relation to impaired diastolic function of the chronically overloaded right ventricle and contributes to backward venous flow and systemic congestion. These results call for more attention to RA function in the management of patients with PH.NEW & NOTEWORTHY There is growing awareness of the importance of the right atrial (RA)-right ventricular (RV) axis in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Our results uncover alterations in RA phasic function that are related to depressed RV lusitropic function and contribute to backward venous return and systemic congestion in chronic RV overload. Assessment of RA function should be part of the management and follow-up of patients with PH.

14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 575-585, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661308

RESUMO

Rationale: Recently, rare heterozygous mutations in GDF2 were identified in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). GDF2 encodes the circulating BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) type 9, which is a ligand for the BMP2 receptor.Objectives: Here we determined the functional impact of GDF2 mutations and characterized plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels in patients with idiopathic PAH.Methods: Missense BMP9 mutant proteins were expressed in vitro and the impact on BMP9 protein processing and secretion, endothelial signaling, and functional activity was assessed. Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels and activity were assayed in patients with PAH with GDF2 variants and in control subjects. Levels were also measured in a larger cohort of control subjects (n = 120) and patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 260).Measurements and Main Results: We identified a novel rare variation at the GDF2 and BMP10 loci, including copy number variation. In vitro, BMP9 missense proteins demonstrated impaired cellular processing and secretion. Patients with PAH who carried these mutations exhibited reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and reduced BMP activity. Unexpectedly, plasma BMP10 levels were also markedly reduced in these individuals. Although overall BMP9 and BMP10 levels did not differ between patients with PAH and control subjects, BMP10 levels were lower in PAH females. A subset of patients with PAH had markedly reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and BMP10 in the absence of GDF2 mutations.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GDF2 mutations result in BMP9 loss of function and are likely causal. These mutations lead to reduced circulating levels of both BMP9 and BMP10. These findings support therapeutic strategies to enhance BMP9 or BMP10 signaling in PAH.

16.
Cell Signal ; 65: 109463, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693875

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women and accounts for almost 18.4% of all deaths due to cancer worldwide, with the global incidence increasing by approximately 0.5% per year. Lung cancer is regarded as a devastating type of cancer owing to its high prevalence, reduction in the health-related quality of life, frequently delayed diagnosis, low response rate, high toxicity, and resistance to available therapeutic options. The highly heterogeneous nature of this cancer with a proximal-to-distal distribution throughout the respiratory tract dramatically affects its diagnostic and therapeutic management. The diverse composition and plasticity of lung epithelial cells across the respiratory tract are regarded as significant factors underlying lung cancer heterogeneity. Therefore, definitions of the cells of origin for different types of lung cancer are urgently needed to understand lung cancer biology and to achieve early diagnosis and develop cell-targeted therapies. In the present review, we will discuss the current understanding of the cellular and molecular alterations in distinct lung epithelial cells that result in each type of lung cancer.

17.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749139

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), have been known to regulate chromatin structure and lineage-specific gene expression during cardiovascular development and disease. However, alterations in the landscape of histone PTMs and their contribution to the pathogenesis of incurable cardiovascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH) and associated right heart failure (RHF) remain largely unexplored. This review focusses on the studies in PH and RHF that investigated the gene families that write (histone acetyltransferases), read (bromodomain-containing proteins) or erase (histone deacetylases [HDACs] and sirtuins [SIRT]) acetyl moieties from the ε-amino group of lysine residues of histones and non-histone proteins. Analysis of cells and tissues isolated from the in vivo preclinical models of PH and human pulmonary arterial hypertension not only confirmed significant alterations in the expression levels of multiple HDACs, SIRT1, SIRT3 and BRD4 proteins but also demonstrated their strong association to proliferative, inflammatory and fibrotic phenotypes linked to the pathological vascular remodelling process. Due to the reversible nature of post-translational protein acetylation, the therapeutic efficacy of numerous small-molecule inhibitors (vorinostat, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, mocetinostat, entinostat, tubastatin A, apabetalone, JQ1 and resveratrol) have been evaluated in different preclinical models of cardiovascular disease, which revealed the promising therapeutic benefits of targeting histone acetylation pathways in the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, left heart dysfunction, PH and RHF. This review also emphasizes the need for deeper molecular insights into the contribution of epigenetic changes to PH pathogenesis and therapeutic evaluation of isoform-specific modulation in ex vivo and in vivo models of PH and RHF.

19.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in employing electronic nose technology in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases. Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are challenging in regard to setting an accurate diagnosis in a timely manner. Thus, there is a high unmet need in non-invasive diagnostic tests. This single-center explorative study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of electronic nose (Aeonose®) in the diagnosis of ILDs. METHODS: Exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures were obtained by Aeonose® in 174 ILD patients, 23 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 33 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: By dichotomous comparison of VOC's between ILD, COPD, and HC, a discriminating algorithm was established. In addition, direct analyses between the ILD subgroups, e.g., cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP, n = 28), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 51), and connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD, n = 25) were performed. Area under the Curve (AUC) and Matthews's correlation coefficient (MCC) were used to interpret the data. In direct comparison of the different ILD subgroups to HC, the algorithms developed on the basis of the Aeonose® signatures allowed safe separation between IPF vs. HC (AUC of 0.95, MCC of 0.73), COP vs. HC (AUC 0.89, MCC 0.67), and CTD-ILD vs. HC (AUC 0.90, MCC 0.69). Additionally, to a case-control study design, the breath patterns of ILD subgroups were compared to each other. Following this approach, the sensitivity and specificity showed a relevant drop, which results in a poorer performance of the algorithm to separate the different ILD subgroups (IPF vs. COP with MCC 0.49, IPF vs. CTD-ILD with MCC 0.55, and COP vs. CT-ILD with MCC 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: The Aeonose® showed some potential in separating ILD subgroups from HC. Unfortunately, when applying the algorithm to distinguish ILD subgroups from each other, the device showed low specificity. We suggest that artificial intelligence or principle compound analysis-based studies of a much broader data set of patients with ILDs may be much better suited to train these devices.

20.
Pulm Circ ; 9(3): 2045894019875342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588353

RESUMO

The Breelib™ nebulizer was designed to reduce iloprost inhalation times for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In 30 patients with PAH, rapid inhalation of iloprost 2.5 µg using Breelib™ caused significant improvements in invasively measured afterload and cardiac index but not echocardiographic right ventricular strain during 30 min post-inhalation.

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