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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047296, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic, lifestyle-related diseases is increasing among adults and children from low-income and middle-income countries. Despite the effectiveness of community-based interventions to address this situation, the benefits thereof may disappear in the long term, due to a lack of maintenance, especially among disadvantaged and high-risk populations. The KaziBantu randomised controlled trial conducted in 2019 consisted of two school-based health interventions, KaziKidz and KaziHealth. This study will evaluate the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions in promoting positive lifestyle changes among children and educators in disadvantaged schools in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has an observational, longitudinal, mixed-methods design. It will follow up educators and children from the KaziBantu study. All 160 educators enrolled in KaziHealth will be invited to participate, while the study will focus on 361 KaziKidz children (aged 10-16 years) identified as having an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Data collection will take place 1.5 and 2 years postintervention and includes quantitative and qualitative methods, such as anthropometric measurements, clinical assessments, questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses will encompass: prevalence of health parameters; descriptive frequencies of self-reported health behaviours and quality of life; the longitudinal association of these; extent of implementation; personal experiences with the programmes and an impact analysis based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework. DISCUSSION: In settings where resources are scarce, sustainable and effective prevention programmes are needed. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design of a study to evaluate KaziKidz and KaziHealth under real-world conditions in terms of effectiveness, being long-lasting and becoming institutionalised. We hypothesise that a mixed-methods approach will increase understanding of the interventions' capacity to lead to sustainable favourable health outcomes amid challenging environments, thereby generating evidence for policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15648510.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334121

RESUMO

Childhood hypertension drives hypertension in later life; hence, assessing blood pressure in children is an important measure to determine current and future cardiovascular health. There is, however, a paucity of childhood blood pressure data, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores blood pressure and associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. In the 'Disease, Activity and Schoolchildren's Health' (DASH) study, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Assessments included blood pressure, accelerometer-measured physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. The study consisted of 785 children (383 boys, 402 girls, M = 12.4±0.9 years). Overall, 18% of the children were classified as hypertensive, while 20% were either overweight/obese, and almost four out of ten children did not meet global daily physical activity recommendations. Hypertensive children were more likely to be overweight/obese, χ2 (2,785) = 14.42, p < 0.01, but only if they did not meet physical activity recommendations, χ2 (2,295) = 11.93, p < 0.01. Considering the moderating effect which sufficient activity has on the relationship between hypertension and body weight, more emphasis should be placed on early primary health intervention and education strategies.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 852, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness has been associated with both executive function and academic achievement in multiple cohort studies including children and adolescents. However, research is scarce among children from low- and middle-income countries. Hence, this paper focuses on South African primary schoolchildren living in marginalized areas and examines if academic achievement and inhibitory control can be explained by children's age, socioeconomic status, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity, stunting, grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 1277 children (48% girls, mean age: 8.3 years). Data were assessed via questionnaires, stool samples, anthropometric measurements, 20 m shuttle run test, grip strength test, Flanker task, and school grades. Data were analysed with mixed linear regression models with random intercepts for school classes, separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Higher socioeconomic status was most closely associated with academic achievement among boys (p < 0.05), whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and not being stunted explained most variance in academic achievement in girls (p < 0.05). Higher age turned out to be associated with better performance in the Flanker task (p < 0.01). Additionally, in boys, higher grip strength was associated with better information processing and inhibitory control of attention (p < 0.01), whereas in girls, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were positively associated with these cognitive abilities (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Academic performance has been shown to be compromised in schoolchildren living in marginalised areas, compared to schoolchildren in less disadvantaged parts of South Africa. The present study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength are two potentially modifiable factors that are associated with children's academic achievement and cognitive performance, and that should be targeted in future school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Helmintos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Solo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669905

RESUMO

The coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors has been reported in school-aged children from the age of nine years, but most evidence stems from high-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed at describing the cardiovascular health risk, physical activity (PA) behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of South African primary schoolchildren, and at examining the associations between PA/CRF and a composite measure of cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional data from 832 primary schoolchildren (grade 1-4) were analyzed. Total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body fat, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed as cardiovascular risk markers. Data were analyzed via mixed linear regressions and analyses of covariance. Overall, 24.2% of the participants did not meet current PA standards. Higher CRF/PA were associated with lower body fat and lower clustered cardiovascular risk (p < 0.05). When categorizing children into CRF/PA quartiles, a lower clustered cardiovascular risk gradient was found in children with higher CRF (p < 0.05) or PA (p < 0.05). Our data shows that higher CRF/PA is associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk already from a young age. Given that clustered cardiovascular risk present during childhood can track into adulthood, we advocate for PA participation and a healthy weight from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
6.
Children (Basel) ; 8(1)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477320

RESUMO

In preschool, children build new contacts and social relationships with other people. They learn to cooperate with their peers and communicate in groups. In addition to social relationships, basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen (MOBAK)) are also seen as a central developmental goal in early childhood and are necessary for participation in the culture of sports and movement. The aim of this paper is to describe the connection between social relationships and basic motor competencies in early childhood. In this present study, the motor competencies of N = 548 preschool children (51% girls, M = 68.0 months, SD = 6.8) were tested in the competence areas of self-movement and object movement. The children's perceived social relationships were recorded from teacher and parent perspectives. The results clearly show a connection between social relationships and motor competencies in early childhood, with a stronger connection observed in boys. This finding is relevant both from a developmental and a health-oriented perspective, as it points to a link between physical and mental health, as well as technical and interdisciplinary competencies, in early childhood.

7.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 6(1): e000823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062303

RESUMO

Background/Aim: Physical inactivity (PIA) is a growing global health problem and evidence suggests that PIA is a key driver for cardiovascular and chronic diseases. Recent data from South Africa revealed that only about half of the children achieved recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels. Assessing the intensity of PA in children from low socioeconomic communities in low-income and middle-income countries is important to estimate the extent of cardiovascular risk and overall impact on health. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in eight quintile 3 primary schools in disadvantaged communities in the Port Elizabeth region, South Africa. Children aged 10-15 years were subjected to PA, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose and skinfold thickness assessments. Cardiovascular risk markers were converted into standardised z-scores and summed, to obtain a clustered cardiovascular risk score. Results: Overall, 650 children had complete data records. 40.8% of the children did not meet recommended PA levels (ie, logged <60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day). If quartiles were developed based on children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and MVPA levels, a significant difference was found in clustered cardiovascular risk among children in the highest versus lowest fitness (p<0.001) or MVPA (p<0.001) quartiles. Conclusions: CRF and objectively assessed PA are closely linked with children's clustered cardiovascular risk. Given that 4 out of 10 South African schoolchildren from marginalised communities do not meet international PA recommendations, efforts should be made to ensure that promoting a physically active lifestyle is recognised as an important educational goal in primary schools. Trial registration numbers: ISRCTN68411960 and H14-HEA-HMS-002.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 492618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102419

RESUMO

Introduction: Regular physical activity is associated with multiple health benefits for children. Evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that physical activity is positively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The promotion of physical activity, and hence HRQoL, through a school-based intervention is therefore an important endeavor, particularly in disadvantaged areas of low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. Methods: We designed a multicomponent physical activity intervention that was implemented over a 20-week period in 2015 in eight disadvantaged primary schools of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Overall, 758 children aged 8-13 years participated. HRQoL was measured with the 27-item KIDSCREEN questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was assessed with a single item of the Health-Behavior of School-Aged Children test, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. Post-intervention scores were predicted with mixed linear regression models, taking into consideration the clustered nature of the data. Results: Higher baseline levels as well as increasing levels of self-reported physical activity predicted all dimensions of children's HRQoL. Baseline levels and increases in cardiorespiratory fitness predicted children's self-perceived physical well-being (one of the HRQoL subscales). Participation in the multicomponent physical activity intervention did not affect children's HRQoL. Conclusion: Higher and increasing self-reported physical activity predict all assessed HRQoL dimensions, which underlines that the promotion of regular physical activity among children living in disadvantaged settings is an important public health measure. Policy makers should encourage schools to create physical activity friendly environments, while schools should implement regular physical education as proposed by the school curriculum.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Autorrelato , África do Sul
9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(7): e14097, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of poverty-related infectious diseases remains high in low- and middle-income countries, while noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly gaining importance. To address this dual disease burden, the KaziBantu project aims at improving and promoting health literacy as a means for a healthy and active lifestyle. The project implements a school-based health intervention package consisting of physical education, moving-to-music, and specific health and nutrition education lessons from the KaziKidz toolkit. It is complemented by the KaziHealth workplace health intervention program for teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the KaziBantu project is to assess the effect of a school-based health intervention package on risk factors for NCDs, health behaviors, and psychosocial health in primary school children in disadvantaged communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In addition, we aim to test a workplace health intervention for teachers. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in 8 schools. Approximately 1000 grade 4 to grade 6 school children, aged 9 to 13 years, and approximately 60 teachers will be recruited during a baseline survey in early 2019. For school children, the study is designed as a 36-week, cluster RCT (KaziKidz intervention), whereas for teachers, a 24-week intervention phase (KaziHealth intervention) is planned. The intervention program consists of 3 main components; namely, (1) KaziKidz and KaziHealth teaching material, (2) workshops, and (3) teacher coaches. After randomization, 4 of the 8 schools will receive the education program, whereas the other schools will serve as the control group. Intervention schools will be further randomized to the different combinations of 2 additional intervention components: teacher workshops and teacher coaching. RESULTS: This study builds on previous experience and will generate new evidence on health intervention responses to NCD risk factors in school settings as a decision tool for future controlled studies that will enable comparisons among marginalized communities between South African and other African settings. CONCLUSIONS: The KaziKidz teaching material is a holistic educational and instructional tool designed for primary school teachers in low-resource settings, which is in line with South Africa's Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The ready-to-use lessons and assessments within KaziKidz should facilitate the use and implementation of the teaching material. Furthermore, the KaziHealth interventions should empower teachers to take care of their health through knowledge gains regarding disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, psychosocial health, and nutrition indicators. Teachers as role models will be able to promote better health behaviors and encourage a healthy and active lifestyle for children at school. We conjecture that improved health and well-being increase teachers' productivity with trickle-down effects on the children they teach and train. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 18485542; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18485542. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14097.

10.
J Sport Health Sci ; 8(1): 63-70, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719385

RESUMO

Background: A central aim of physical education is the promotion of basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK), which are prerequisites for children's active participation in sports culture. This article introduces the MOBAK-1 test instrument for 6- to 8-year-old children and determines the construct validity of this test instrument. In addition, the relationship between MOBAK and motor ability (i.e., strength) as well as body mass index (BMI), sex, and age is investigated. Methods: We analyzed data of 923 first and second graders (422 girls, 501 boys, age = 6.80 ± 0.44 years). The children's basic motor competencies were assessed by the MOBAK-1 test instrument. Besides analyses of frequency, correlation, and variance, 3 confirmatory factor analyses with covariates were performed. Results: We found 2 MOBAK factors consisting of 4 items each. The first factor, locomotion, included the items balancing, rolling, jumping, and side stepping; the second factor, object control, included the items throwing, catching, bouncing, and dribbling. The motor ability strength had a significant influence on the factors locomotion (ß = 0.60) and object control (ß = 0.50). Older pupils achieved better results than younger pupils on object control (ß = 0.29). Boys performed better on object control (ß = -0.44), whereas girls achieved better results in locomotion (ß = 0.07). Pupils with a high BMI achieved lower performance only on the factor locomotion (ß = -0.28). Conclusion: The MOBAK-1 test instrument developed for this study meets psychometric validity demands and is suitable to evaluate effects of sports and physical education.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650624

RESUMO

Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children's health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was implemented from February 2015 to May 2016 in grade 4 classes in eight disadvantaged primary schools. Interventions consisted of physical education lessons, moving-to-music classes, in-class activity breaks and school infrastructure enhancement to promote physical activity. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness. Explanatory variables were socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, stunting, anaemia and parasite infections. Complete data were available from 746 children. A significantly lower increase in the mean BMI Z-score (estimate of difference in mean change: -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.24 to -0.09; p < 0.001) and reduced increase in the mean skinfold thickness (difference in mean change: -1.06; 95% CI: -1.83 to -0.29; p = 0.007) was observed in intervention schools. No significant group difference occurred in the mean change of cardiorespiratory fitness (p > 0.05). These findings show that a multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention can reduce the increase in specific cardiovascular risk factors. However, a longer and more intensive intervention might be necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Instituições Acadêmicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Educação Física e Treinamento , Classe Social , África do Sul , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206908, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 20-week school-based physical activity intervention program on academic performance and selective attention among disadvantaged South African primary school children. DESIGN: Cluster randomized control trial. METHODS: The study cohort included 663 children from eight primary schools, aged 8-13 years. Data assessment took place between February 2015 and May 2016 following the implementation of a 20-week school-based physical activity program. The d2 test was employed to assess selective attention, while the averaged end-of-year school results (math, life skills, home language, and additional language) were used as an indicator of academic performance. Physical fitness was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test (VO2 max) and grip strength tests. We controlled for cluster effects, baseline scores in selective attention or academic performance, and potential confounders, such as children's age, gender, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity (as determined by a pre-tested questionnaire), body mass index, hemoglobin (as a proxy for anemia, as measured by blood sampling), and soil-transmitted helminth infections (as assessed by the Kato-Katz technique). RESULTS: Our multivariate analysis suggested that the physical activity intervention had a positive effect on academic performance (p = 0.032), while no effect was found on selective attention (concentration performance; p = 0.469; error percentage; p = 0.237). After controlling for potential confounders, the physical activity condition contributed to the maintenance of academic performance, whereas a decrease was observed in learners in the control condition. Furthermore, physically active and fit children tend to have better concentration performance (CP) than their less fit peers (self-reported activity; p<0.016, grip strength; p<0.009, VO2 max p>0.021). CONCLUSION: A 20-week physical activity intervention contributes to the maintenance of academic performance among socioeconomically deprived school children in South Africa. School administrators should ensure that their school staff implements physical activity lessons, which are a compulsory component of the school by the curriculum.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0180434, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662168

RESUMO

This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a) the effects of exercise and b) the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE) measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment) would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels) in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.


Assuntos
Esforço Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Placebos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(5): e0005573, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. METHODOLOGY: The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all p<0.05). In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05) and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001), whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001) and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.


Assuntos
Atenção , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física , Classe Social , Populações Vulneráveis , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
J Behav Med ; 40(2): 293-306, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506909

RESUMO

The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.


Assuntos
Afeto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Percept Mot Skills ; 124(1): 5-20, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879423

RESUMO

Basic motor competencies are defined as motor performance dispositions that evolve from specific requirements in sports and exercise. After validating the MOBAK-1 instrument for first graders, we developed the MOBAK-3 for the assessment of basic motor competencies in third graders. We investigated the factorial and diagnostic validity of this instrument in a sample of 323 children (age: M = 9.2 years, SD = .39; sex: boys, n = 158, girls, n = 165). A confirmatory factor analysis verified the theoretical structure with the two factors Locomotion and Object Control. By means of latent class analysis, we identified five latent classes that were connected with external criteria. We concluded that the MOBAK-3 effectively evaluates the basic motor competencies of 8- to 10-year-old students.

17.
Psychol Health ; 32(1): 110-126, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27775430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present research introduces an extended conceptualisation of self-concordance, which is considered an attribute not only of goals, but also of goal intentions. Based on a corresponding operationalisation, we investigate the interplay of both intention strength and intention self-concordance in the prediction of physical activity. DESIGN: Data were taken from a longitudinal study of 134 obese people who were asked to fill out a questionnaire three times every six months. MAIN MEASURES: Physical activity and intention self-concordance were measured by validated scales. Intentions strength was assessed by an item typically employed in the extant literature. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses and path analyses showed both intention strength and self-concordance to be significant predictors of changes in physical activity over time. Additional analyses found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of intention strength and self-concordance; for outcome expectations this was not the case. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the idea that intention strength and self-concordance are two critical facets of a goal intention that need to be considered in the prediction of physical activity participation. Whereas intention strength refers to the degree of determination with which a goal intention is adopted, self-concordance rather captures the quality of this intention.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Objetivos , Intenção , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 9(1): 488, 2016 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As traditional lifestyle and diets change with social and economic development, disadvantaged communities in low- and middle-income countries increasingly face a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. We studied the relationship between physical fitness and infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), intestinal protozoa and Helicobacter pylori among schoolchildren in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1009 children, aged 9 to 12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth. Physical fitness was determined using field-deployable tests of the Eurofit fitness test battery. Stool samples were analysed with the Kato-Katz thick smear technique to diagnose STHs and with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect intestinal protozoa and H. pylori infections. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were assessed and anthropometric indicators determined. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 934 children (92 %). In two schools, high STH prevalences were found (Ascaris lumbricoides 60 and 72 %; Trichuris trichiura 65 % each). For boys and girls co-infected with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura (n = 155) the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was estimated to be 50.1 and 47.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1), compared to 51.5 and 47.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1) for their non-infected peers (n = 278), respectively. On average, children without helminth infections had greater body mass (P = 0.011), height (P = 0.009) and a higher body mass index (P = 0.024) and were less often stunted (P = 0.006), but not significantly less wasted compared to their peers with a single or dual species infection. Among 9-year-old boys, a negative correlation between helminth infections and VO2 max, grip strength and standing broad jump distance was observed (P = 0.038). The overall mean Hb level was 122.2 g l(-1). In the two schools with the highest prevalence of STHs the Hb means were 119.7 and 120.5 g l(-1), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasite infections appear to have a small but significant negative effect on the physical fitness of infected children, as expressed by their maximal oxygen uptake. We observed a clear impact on anthropometric indicators.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/fisiopatologia , Helmintíase/fisiopatologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física , Áreas de Pobreza , Infecções por Protozoários/fisiopatologia , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Protozoários/complicações , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudantes
19.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1285, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An in-depth epidemiological investigation on intestinal parasite infections in an impoverished area of Port Elizabeth, South Africa provides a unique opportunity for research on its impact on children's physical fitness, cognitive performance and psychosocial health. Additionally, we will screen risk factors for the development of diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. METHODS/DESIGN: A 2-year longitudinal cohort study will be conducted, consisting of three cross-sectional surveys (baseline and two follow-ups), in eight historically black and coloured (mixed race) primary schools located in different townships in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Approximately 1000 Grade 4 primary schoolchildren, aged 8 to 12 years, will be enrolled and followed. At each survey, disease status, anthropometry and levels of physical fitness, cognitive performance and psychosocial health will be assessed. After each survey, individuals diagnosed with parasitic worm infections will be treated with anthelminthic drugs, while children with other infections will be referred to local clinics. Based on baseline results, interventions will be tailored to the local settings, embedded within the study and implemented in half of the schools, while the remaining schools will serve as controls. Implementation of the interventions will take place over two 8-week periods. The effect of interventions will be determined with predefined health parameters. DISCUSSION: This study will shed new light on the health burden incurred by children in deprived urban settings of South Africa and provide guidance for specific health interventions. Challenges foreseen in the conduct of this study include: (i) difficulty in obtaining written informed consent from parents/guardians; (ii) administration of questionnaires in schools where three languages are spoken (Afrikaans, Xhosa and English); (iii) challenges in grasping concepts of psychosocial health among schoolchildren using a questionnaire; and (iv) loss to follow-up due to the study setting where illiteracy, mobility and violence are common. Finally, designing the health interventions together with local principals and teachers will allow all concerned with the research to bolster a sense of community ownership and sustained use of the interventions after the study has ceased. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-trials.com; identifier: ISRCTN68411960 (date assigned: 14 February 2014).


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Immunother ; 37(9): 461-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25304729

RESUMO

Adjuvant melanoma treatment with interferon-α (IFN-α) has proven to be accompanied by several side effects and to decrease patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), fatigue and depression being essential factors at that. Although a large body of evidence exists for HRQOL under IFN-α therapy, we now specifically address this topic combining the HRQOL survey in the first months of IFN-α low-dose treatment with a structured assessment of relevant neuropsychiatric side effects, fatigue and depression, with specific validated assessment tools. The present study is a longitudinal observational study assessing fatigue, depression, and HRQOL with specific assessment tools at 3 assessment points over 6 months. The IFN-α treatment group consisted of 48 patients with current IFN-α therapy (3 MU 3 times weekly) from a consecutively recruited melanoma collective and compared with a parallelized nontreatment group (n=48) in routine clinical practice. A descriptive analysis and generalized linear models were applied to compare the groups. Physical fatigue increased significantly within the first months of IFN-α treatment, whereas cognitive and emotional fatigue and depression symptoms did not show this increase. The hypothesis of a significant deterioration of HRQOL after IFN-α initiation was not confirmed. The treatment group did, however, show a different course of global HRQOL than the comparison group, with a significant improvement in the nontreatment group. Patients under low-dose IFN-α therapy primarily suffer from physical side effects, mainly physical fatigue, in the early phases of treatment. The HRQOL improvement evident in the nontreatment group was not observed in the IFN-α group.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
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