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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure, is a feature of depression and transdiagnostic construct in psychopathology. Theory and compelling evidence from preclinical models implicates stress-induced inflammation as a psychobiological pathway to anhedonic behavior; however, this pathway has not been tested in human models. Further, although anhedonia may reflect dysregulation in multiple dimensions of reward, the extent to which stress-induced inflammation alters these dimensions is unclear. Thus, the current experimental study used a standardized laboratory stressor task to elicit an inflammatory response and evaluate effects of stress-induced inflammation on multiple behavioral indices of reward processing. METHODS: Healthy young women (age 18-25) completed behavioral reward tasks assessing reward learning, motivation, and sensitivity and were randomized to undergo an acute psychosocial stressor (n = 37) or a no-stress active control (n = 17). Tasks were re-administered 90-120 minutes post-stress to coincide with the peak of the stress-induced inflammatory response. Blood samples were collected for assessment of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) at baseline and 90 and 120 minutes post stressor. RESULTS: Stress-induced IL-6 was associated with increased response bias during reward learning and increased motivation when probability of receiving a reward was low. Sensitivity to reward in the context of a motivation task was not altered in association with stress-induced IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to hypotheses, mild increases in IL-6 following acute stress were associated with increased reward responsiveness during reward learning and selective increases in motivation. Results contribute to an emerging and nuanced literature linking inflammation to reward processing, and demonstrate that behavioral effects of stress-induced inflammation may be detected in the laboratory setting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03828604.

2.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387652

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is a symptom of and a well-known risk factor for depression. Further, atypical functioning of the HPA axis has been linked to the pathogenesis of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of adolescent HPA axis functioning in the link between adolescent sleep problems and later depressive symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 157 17-18 year old adolescents (61.8% female) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and provided salivary cortisol samples throughout the day for three consecutive days. Two years later, adolescents reported their depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: Individuals (age 17-18) with greater sleep disturbance reported greater depressive symptoms two years later (age 19-20). This association occurred through the indirect effect of sleep disturbance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (indirect effect = 0.14, 95%CI [.02 -.39]). CONCLUSIONS: One pathway through which sleep problems may lead to depressive symptoms is by up-regulating components of the body's physiological stress response system that can be measured through the cortisol awakening response. Behavioral interventions that target sleep disturbance in adolescents may mitigate this neurobiological pathway to depression during this high-risk developmental phase.

3.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(11): 1716-1724, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107949

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is associated with increasing age. Yet, there are limited data about the association between age and systemic inflammation within older adults, and whether older age is also associated with cellular and nuclear signaling markers of inflammation. In community-dwelling older adults (N = 262, 60-88 years), systemic levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II; levels of toll-like receptor-4-stimulated monocytic production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α; and resting nuclear levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1, STAT3, STAT5) were evaluated. Adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, multivariate linear regression tested the association between age and each inflammatory marker. Age was positively associated with increased levels of interleukin-6 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (p's < .05) and with increases in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 activation (p's < .05). However, no relationship was found between age and C-reactive protein, toll-like receptor-4-stimulated interleukin-6/tumor necrosis factor alpha α production, or nuclear factor kappa B. Within a community-dwelling sample of older adults, older age is associated with increases in STAT activation, along with increases of systemic inflammatory cytokines. In older adults, heterogeneity in age-related increases in inflammatory disease risk may be related to individual variability in inflammation.

4.
Sleep ; 42(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994174

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances and sleep apnea are associated with increased vulnerability to age-related disease, altering molecular pathways affecting biological aging. Telomere length captures one component of biological aging. We evaluated whether objectively assessed sleep and sleep apnea relate to leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: Men and women aged 44-84 years (n = 672) from the MESA Stress and MESA Sleep studies underwent polysomnography and 7 day actigraphy (at Exam 5) and assessment of LTL (at baseline [Exam 1] and about 10 years later [Exam 5]). RESULTS: General linear models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, physical activity, and smoking found that severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; apnea-hypopnea index > 30) was cross-sectionally associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007). Modest associations of shorter LTL with less rapid eye movement sleep, more stage 1 sleep, wake after sleep onset >30 min, and long sleep duration were found, but these effects were diminished after adjusting for lifestyle and OSA. Exploratory analyses found that higher arousal index at Exam 5 was associated with greater LTL decline over the prior 10 years (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with shorter LTL. Individuals with high-arousal frequency had greater leukocyte telomere attrition over the prior decade. These findings suggest that sleep apnea and sleep fragmentation are associated with accelerated biological aging.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene expression may be an important biological mediator in associations between social factors and health. However, previous studies were limited by small sample sizes and use of differing cell types with heterogeneous expression patterns. We use a large population-based cohort with gene expression measured solely in monocytes to investigate associations between seven social factors and expression of genes previously found to be sensitive to social factors. METHODS: We employ three methodological approaches: 1) omnibus test for the entire gene set (Global ANCOVA), 2) assessment of each association individually (linear regression), and 3) machine learning method that performs variable selection with correlated predictors (elastic net). RESULTS: In global analyses, significant associations with the a priori defined socially sensitive gene set were detected for major or lifetime discrimination and chronic burden (p = 0.019 and p = 0.047, respectively). Marginally significant associations were detected for loneliness and adult socioeconomic status (p = 0.066, p = 0.093, respectively). No associations were significant in linear regression analyses after accounting for multiple testing. However, a small percentage of gene expressions (up to 11%) were associated with at least one social factor using elastic net. CONCLUSION: The Global ANCOVA and elastic net findings suggest that a small percentage of genes may be "socially sensitive," (i.e. demonstrate differential expression by social factor), yet single gene approaches such as linear regression may be ill powered to capture this relationship. Future research should further investigate the biological mechanisms through which social factors act to influence gene expression and how systemic changes in gene expression affect overall health.

6.
Health Psychol ; 38(3): 259-267, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions and leading causes of death. Although CVD clinically manifests in adulthood, underlying processes of CVD begin in the earlier decades of life. Inflammation has been shown to play a key role, but relatively little is understood about how inflammation changes over time among young individuals. Additionally, how psychosocial factors like stress may influence changes in inflammation earlier in the lifespan is not entirely clear. Thus, the current three-wave longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectory of CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, over a 4-year period from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Between- and within-person differences in stress in relation to changes in CRP were also examined. METHOD: A sample of 350 individuals was recruited during mid-adolescence and participated in 1 to 3 assessments, 2 years apart. At each assessment, participants provided dried blood spots for the assessment of CRP and reported on recent major life events, perceived stress, and daily interpersonal stress. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling indicated that CRP increased with age, and within-person increases in perceived stress, but not life events or daily stress, were associated with higher CRP. Between-person differences in average levels of stress from mid-adolescence into young adulthood were not associated with changes in CRP. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the link between stress and systemic inflammation between mid-adolescence and young adulthood may be most affected by contemporaneous experiences of perceived stress. There was little evidence to suggest that CRP trajectories varied by between-person differences in overall average levels of perceived stress, life events, and daily stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(4): 340-345, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allostatic load (AL) has been characterised in many ways throughout the literature; however, its relationship to health behaviours has only been studied in limited populations. We aimed to uncover qualitative patterns of biological indicators in AL and determine if those patterns were associated with certain health behaviours. METHODS: We conducted latent class analysis using biological indicators from a multiethnic population. We fit latent class regression of class on health behaviours (smoking, poor diet, physical activity and alcohol use) to measure the association between each latent class of AL and each health behaviour. RESULTS: Four classes, 'Metabolic+Cholesterol, 'Blood Pressure', 'Metabolic+Blood Pressure' and 'Low', were found in the sample. Latent class regression showed that physical activity and alcohol use were significantly associated with the 'Metabolic+Blood Pressure' class. CONCLUSION: Less physical activity was required to improve AL than was previously found. Low to moderate alcohol use was beneficial for lower AL. Implications of the amount of physical activity necessary to lower AL is discussed.

8.
J Biosoc Sci ; 51(5): 627-644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688190

RESUMO

Social stratification is an important mechanism of human organization that helps to explain health differences between demographic groups commonly associated with socioeconomic gradients. Individuals, or group of individuals, with similar health profiles may have had different stratification experiences. This is particularly true as social stratification is a significant non-measurable source of systematic unobservable differences in both SES indicators and health statuses of disadvantage. The goal of the present study was to expand the bulk of research that has traditionally treated socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as independent, additive influences on health by examining data from the United States. It is hypothesized that variation in an index of multi-system physiological dysregulation - allostatic load - is associated with social differentiation factors, sorting individuals with similar demographic and socioeconomic characteristics into mutually exclusive econo-demographic classes. The data were from the Longitudinal and Biomarker samples of the national Study of Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) conducted in 1995 and 2004/2006. Latent class analyses and regression analyses revealed that physiological dysregulation linked to socioeconomic variation among black people, females and older adults are associated with forces of stratification that confound socioeconomic and demographic indicators. In the United States, racial stratification of health is intrinsically related to the degree to which black people in general, and black females in particular, as a group, share an isolated status in society. Findings present evidence that disparities in health emerge from group-differentiation processes to the degree that individuals are distinctly exposed to the ecological, political, social, economic and historical contexts in which social stratification is ingrained. Given that health policies and programmes emanate from said legal and political environments, interventions should target the structural conditions that expose different subgroups to different stress risks in the first place.

9.
Prev Sci ; 20(4): 478-487, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627854

RESUMO

This article reports on the impact of the Experience Corps® (EC) Baltimore program, an intergenerational, school-based program aimed at improving academic achievement and reducing disruptive school behavior in urban, elementary school students in Kindergarten through third grade (K-3). Teams of adult volunteers aged 60 and older were placed in public schools, serving 15 h or more per week, to perform meaningful and important roles to improve the educational outcomes of children and the health and well-being of volunteers. Findings indicate no significant impact of the EC program on standardized reading or mathematical achievement test scores among children in grades 1-3 exposed to the program. K-1st grade students in EC schools had fewer principal office referrals compared to K-1st grade students in matched control schools during their second year in the EC program; second graders in EC schools had fewer suspensions and expulsions than second graders in non-EC schools during their first year in the EC program. In general, both boys and girls appeared to benefit from the EC program in school behavior. The results suggest that a volunteer engagement program for older adults can be modestly effective for improving selective aspects of classroom behavior among elementary school students in under-resourced, urban schools, but there were no significant improvements in academic achievement. More work is needed to identify individual- and school-level factors that may help account for these results.

10.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(10): 1079-1089, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities. STUDY DESIGN: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. AL at 6 and 12 months postpartum was measured by body mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, pulse, hemoglobin A1c, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein, and diurnal cortisol slope. RESULTS: Adverse AL health-risk profiles were significantly more prevalent among African-American women compared with non-Hispanic Whites, with Latinas intermediate. Breastfeeding was protective, particularly for White women. Complications of pregnancy were associated with higher AL, and disparities persisted or worsened through the first year postpartum. CONCLUSION: Adverse AL profiles occurred in a substantial proportion of postpartum women, and disparities did not improve from birth to 1 year. Breastfeeding was protective for the mother.

11.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 102: 182-188, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576944

RESUMO

Although epidemiologic studies of telomere length have become increasingly common, few population-based, multi-ethnic studies include data on telomere shortening, which may be a better predictor of morbidity and mortality than a single measure of telomere length. This study used stored blood samples from 1169 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) to examine age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, income, and education as predictors of change in telomere length over a 10-year period in linear mixed effects models. Mean age at baseline was 61 years, and the sample was 54% female, 27% white, 30% African-American, and 43% Hispanic. At baseline, 58% of the sample was married; 32% had household income below $25,000 per year, 35% had income between $25,000 and $49,999 per year, and 34% had income above $50,000 per year; 41% had a high school education or less, 30% had some college, and 29% had a college degree or more. Relative telomere length (T/S ratio) was measured by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. In general, ten-year telomere attrition was greater for groups that had longer telomere length at baseline, including younger people, whites, and women. After adjusting for baseline telomere length, race/ethnic differences in telomere attrition were attenuated, and age and sex differences were reversed, such that older people and men showed greater telomere shortening. There were no significant differences in telomere attrition by marital status, income, or education. There is not yet a consensus in the field regarding whether to adjust for baseline telomere length in models examining predictors of telomere attrition. To ensure comparability across studies, researchers should report results both with and without adjustment for baseline telomere length.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial residential segregation has been linked to adverse health outcomes, but associations may operate through multiple pathways. Prior studies have not examined associations of neighbourhood-level racial segregation with an index of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline neighbourhood-level racial residential segregation with a composite measure of CMR. Participants included 5015 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic participants aged 45-84 years old over 12 years of follow-up (2000-2012). We used linear mixed effects models to estimate race-stratified associations of own-group segregation with CMR at baseline and with the rate of annual change in CMR. Models were adjusted for sociodemographics, medication use and individual-level and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: In models adjusted for sociodemographics and medication use, high baseline segregation was associated with higher baseline CMR among blacks and Hispanics but lower baseline CMR among whites. Individual and neighbourhood-level SES fully explained observed associations between segregation and CMR for whites and Hispanics. However, associations of segregation with CMR among blacks remained (high vs low segregation: mean difference 0.17 SD units, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.32; medium vs low segregation: mean difference 0.18 SD units, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.33). Baseline segregation was not associated with change in CMR index scores over time. CONCLUSION: Associations of own-group racial residential segregation with CMR varied by race/ethnicity. After accounting for SES, living in a more segregated neighbourhood was associated with greater risk among black participants only.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at higher risk of experiencing social isolation, which has been linked to impaired physical and mental health. The link between social isolation and health might be due to objective deprivation of social network and/or subjective experience of loneliness. This community-based cross-sectional study examined whether the associations between social isolation and behavioral symptoms including sleep disturbance, depression, and fatigue are mostly explained by its subjective component. METHODS: Randomly selected 2541 community-dwelling individuals in Los Angeles aged ≥60 years were telephone-interviewed regarding their objective and subjective social isolation (respectively social network size and loneliness), sleep disturbance, depression, and fatigue. RESULTS: When objective and subjective social isolation were separately included in multivariate regression models, both were significantly associated with behavioral symptoms. However, once they were simultaneously included in the same multivariate models, while subjective social isolation remained strongly associated (adjusted beta 0.24 for sleep disturbance [P < 0.001], 0.44 for depression [P < 0.001], 0.17 for fatigue [P < 0.001]), objective social isolation was weakly or non-significantly associated (-0.04 for sleep disturbance [P = 0.03], -0.01 for depression [P = 0.48], -0.003 for fatigue [P = 0.89]). Additionally, those with objective social isolation were found to have worse symptoms mostly when they also experienced subjective social isolation. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with objective social isolation may experience sleep disturbance, depression, and fatigue because they feel socially isolated, not just because they are deprived of social networks. Interventions that target social isolation might serve as potential treatments for improving behavioral health of older adults, especially by targeting its subjective component.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165409

RESUMO

Objectives: Exposure to life stresses can lead to diminution in the capacity of stress response systems to mount a robust response to new challenges, with blunting of dynamic range - the spread between maximal attainable and minimal resting levels. We investigate the association between early life adversity and the dynamic range of adult diurnal cortisol secretion. Method: In 35-86 year-old adults, cortisol assayed from 16 saliva samples over four consecutive days was used to compute diurnal dynamic range and area under the curve (AUC). Economic adversity in childhood was indexed by recalled parental education, family welfare dependence, and perceived financial status; and childhood social adversity by parental separation, death, and abuse. Results: Adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, both childhood adversities were strongly associated with smaller adult cortisol diurnal dynamic range, but not with AUC. The association with cortisol dynamic range was explained by adult social and economic variables. Discussion: Early life adversity appears to leave a long-term imprint on cortisol secretion dynamics, reducing diurnal dynamic range without increasing total secretion. This points to the importance of examining the adaptation capacity of physiological systems when studying the impact of early life and chronic stresses on adult health.

15.
Psychosom Med ; 80(6): 551-563, 2018 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social disadvantage is associated with markers of physiological dysregulation, which is linked to disease trajectories. Chronic experiences with discrimination are thought to result in the accumulation of physiological "wear and tear" known as allostatic load (AL) among socially marginalized populations such as sexual minorities. Using a nationally representative US sample, we examined whether (1) people who self-identified as homosexual or bisexual display higher levels of AL than heterosexual individuals and (2) subgroups of sexual identity would further differ from each other as a consequence of distinct experiences of marginalization. METHODS: We use data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Employing multivariate regression methods with sex-specific analyses, we examined AL score differences among lesbian/gay (n = 211), bisexual (n = 307), homosexually experienced (n = 424), and exclusively heterosexual (n = 12,969) individuals, adjusting for possible confounding due to demographics, health indicators, and, among men, HIV infection status. RESULTS: Results indicate that elevated AL was more common in bisexual men compared with exclusively heterosexual men (adjusted ß = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05 to 0.44), with significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (adjusted odd ratio = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.46-7.92) and systolic blood pressure (adjusted odd ratio = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.02 to 4.18). Gay-identified men evidenced significantly lower AL (adjusted ß = -0.22, 95% CI = -0.41 to -0.04). No significant differences in AL were observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that physiological dysregulation is more common in bisexual males compared with all other men. The results are discussed with regard to differences in health outcomes between individuals with different sexual orientations.

16.
Behav Genet ; 48(3): 173-186, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651684

RESUMO

Social relationships play a critical role in health and well-being throughout life. We analyzed the genetic and environmental variance co-variance structure for social support and strain across four sets of relationships including with one's co-twin, spouse/partner, family and friends. The sample included 5288 Norwegian twins aged 40-80. Older people reported less support from their co-twin and friends and less strain from their family and friends. Genetic influences contribute importantly to variation across all the measures, with estimates ranging from 0 to 58%; variance due to shared environmental influences was most important for the twin-relationship, ranging from 0.11 to 0.42%. Social support was negatively correlated with social strain across all sets of relationships. With the exception of the co-twin relationship, these associations were primarily mediated by genetic and non-shared environmental effects.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Apoio Social , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
17.
Child Dev ; 89(5): 1577-1588, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777438

RESUMO

The current study examines the association between parental support and adolescent sleep under varying levels of family stress. Participants included 316 adolescents (Mage  = 16.40 years, 43% male) and their parents (Mage  = 45.67 years, 91% mothers) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Both adolescents and parents completed questionnaires and adolescents wore wrist actigraphs and completed self-reports on their sleep for 7 consecutive days. Results indicated that under contexts of family stress, more parental support was linked to longer sleep duration, less sleep variability, and less time spent awake during the night. Findings suggest that under contexts of family stress, cohesive family relationships may provide a sense of stability and security that is necessary for healthful sleep.

18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 85: 179-189, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886460

RESUMO

Latino immigrants have lower prevalence of depression, obesity and cardiovascular disease than US-born Latinos when they are recently arrived in the US, but this health advantage erodes with increasing duration of US residence. Cumulative exposure to psychosocial stress and its physiological sequelae may mediate the relationship between nativity and duration of US residence and poor health. We used data from Latino cohort study participants ages 45-84 to examine cross-sectional (n=558) and longitudinal (n=248) associations between nativity and duration of US residence and features of the diurnal cortisol curve including: wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR, wake-up to 30min post-awakening), early decline (30min to 2h post-awakening) and late decline (2h post-awakening to bed time), wake-to-bed slope, and area under the curve (AUC). In cross-sectional analyses, US-born Latinos had higher wake-up cortisol than immigrants with fewer than 30 years of US residence. In the full sample, over 5 years the CAR and early decline became flatter and AUC became larger. Over 5 years, US-born Latinos had greater increases in wake-up cortisol and less pronounced flattening of the early diurnal cortisol decline than immigrants with fewer than 30 years of US residence. Immigrants with 30 or more years of US residence also had less pronounced flattening of the early decline relative to more recent immigrants, and also had a less pronounced increase in AUC. In sum, we saw limited cross-sectional evidence that US-born Latinos have more dysregulated cortisol than recently-arrived Latino immigrants, but over time US-born Latinos had slower progression of cortisol dysregulation.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/etnologia
19.
Gerontologist ; 57(suppl_2): S178-S186, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854610

RESUMO

Purpose: Regular physical activity is a key component of healthy aging, but few older adults meet physical activity guidelines. Poor aging expectations can contribute to this lack of activity, since negative stereotypes about the aging process can be internalized and affect physical performance. Although prior cross-sectional studies have shown that physical activity and aging expectations are associated, less is known about this association longitudinally, particularly among traditionally underrepresented groups. It is also unclear whether different domains of aging expectations are differentially associated with physical activity. Design and Methods: The number of minutes/week of physical activity in which Baltimore Experience Corps Trial participants (N = 446; 92.6% African American) engaged were measured using the CHAMPS questionnaire, while their aging expectations were measured using the ERA-12 survey. Linear mixed effects models assessed the association between physical activity and aging expectations over 2 years, both in full and sex-stratified samples. Separate models were also fit for different ERA-12 domains. Results: We found that higher overall expectations regarding aging are associated with higher engagement in moderate- to high-intensity physical activity over a 2-year period of time for women only. When the ERA-12 domains were examined separately, only the physical domain was associated with physical activity, both in women and overall. Implications: Low expectations regarding physical aging may represent a barrier to physical activity for older adults. Given that most older adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines, identifying factors that improve aging expectations may be a way to increase physical activity levels in aging populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Exercício/psicologia , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Baltimore , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
20.
Sleep ; 40(9)2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651371

RESUMO

Study Objectives: Variable daily sleep (ie, higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined how the IIV of sleep timing, duration, and quality is associated with physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome and allostatic load (AL) as a multisystem distal outcome. Methods: Participants are 436 adults (Mage ± standard deviation = 54.1 ± 11.7, 60.3% women) from the Midlife in the United States study. Sleep was objectively assessed using 7-day actigraphy. Diurnal cortisol was measured via saliva samples (four/day for 4 consecutive days). AL was measured using 23 biomarkers from seven systems (inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic glucose and lipid, cardiovascular, parasympathetic, sympathetic) using a validated bifactor model. Linear and quadratic effects of sleep IIV were estimated using a validated Bayesian model. Results: Controlling for covariates, more variable sleep timing (p = .04 for risetime, p = .097 for bedtime) and total sleep time (TST; p = .02), but not mean sleep variables, were associated with flatter cortisol diurnal slope. More variable sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, later average bedtime, and shorter TST were associated with higher AL adjusting for age and sex (p-values < .05); after controlling for all covariates, however, only later mean bedtime remained significantly associated with higher AL (p = .04). Conclusions: In a community sample of adults, more variable sleep patterns were associated with blunted diurnal cortisol trajectories but not with higher multisystem physiological dysregulation. The associations between sleep IIV and overall health are likely complex, including multiple biopsychosocial determinants and require further investigation.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Biomarcadores/análise , Sono/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Teorema de Bayes , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Saliva/química , Fatores de Tempo
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