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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 37, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtle impairments in left ventricular (LV) function and geometry are common findings in individuals with diabetes. However, whether these impairments precede the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) is not entirely clear. METHODS: Echocardiograms from 1710 individuals from the general population free of prevalent diabetes mellitus were analyzed. Left ventricular (LV) concentric geometry was defined as either LV concentric remodeling or LV concentric hypertrophy as directed in contemporary guidelines. The severity of LV concentricity was assessed by relative wall thickness (RWT) calculated as posterior wall thickness (PWT) indexed to left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole (LVIDd) (RWT = 2 * PWT/LVIDd). End-point was incident DM. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 12.6 years (IQR: 12.0-12.8 years). Follow-up was a 100%. A total of 55 participants (3.3%) developed DM during follow-up. At baseline, the prevalence of a concentric LV geometric pattern was significantly higher (41.8% vs 20.3%, p < 0.001) in individuals who developed DM during follow-up. In a final multivariable model adjusting for established DM risk factors including HbA1c, BMI and plasma glucose, LV concentric geometry and RWT remained significantly associated with incident DM (LV concentric geometry: HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.11-3.57, p = 0.021) (RWT: HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.86, p = 0.017, per 0.1 increase). This association remained despite adjustment for established risk factors for DM. CONCLUSION: Altered LV geometry may precede the development of DM. LV concentric geometry determined by echocardiography and the severity of LV concentricity evaluated as RWT are associated with incident DM in the general population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(1): 69-76, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of unsupervised high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular autonomic function in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes (age 60 ± 2 years, 17 males) lay in a supine position for 20 min for evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic function, which included (1) time domain measures of heart rate variability, (2) frequency domain measures of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability and (3) baroreflex receptor sensitivity. Participants were randomised into 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (3 sessions/week) or standard care control group. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, the between-group change in HbA1c (%) was significant (high-intensity interval training: 7.13 ± 0.31 to 6.87 ± 0.29 vs Control: 7.18 ± 0.17 to 7.36 ± 0.21, p = 0.03). There were no significant changes in measures of heart rate variability; R-R interval (ms) (high-intensity interval training: 954 ± 49 to 973 ± 53 vs Control: 920 ± 6 to 930 ± 32, p = 0.672), low frequency/high frequency (high-intensity interval training: 0.90 ± 0.21 to 0.73 ± 0.07 vs Control: 1.20 ± 0.29 to 1.00 ± 0.17, p = 0.203), or blood pressure variability; systolic blood pressure low frequency/high frequency (high-intensity interval training: 0.86 ± 0.21 to 0.73 ± 0.10 vs Control: 1.06 ± 0.26 to 0.91 ± 0.14, p = 0.169). At baseline, HbA1c was negatively correlated with baroreflex receptor sensitivity ( r = -0.592, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: High-intensity interval training improves glycaemic control but has limited effect on cardiovascular autonomic regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Barorreflexo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487318807767, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335505

RESUMO

Background We assessed the prevalence of newly diagnosed prediabetes and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and their impact on long-term mortality in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods We included patients hospitalized with HFrEF and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-III. Baseline two-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to classify patients as normoglycaemic or having newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM. Outcomes included post-discharge all-cause and cardiovascular mortality during the median follow-up of 2.1 years. Results At baseline, out of 150 patients (mean-age 57 ± 12 years; 88% male), prediabetes was diagnosed in 65 (43%) patients, and T2DM in 29 (19%) patients. These patients were older and more often with NYHA class III symptoms, but distribution of comorbidities was similar to normoglycaemic patients. Taking normoglycaemic patients as a reference, adjusted risk of all-cause mortality was significantly increased both in patients with prediabetes (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-6.3; p = 0.040) and in patients with T2DM (hazard ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.7-15.3; p = 0.023). Likewise, both prediabetes (hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9; p = 0.041) and T2DM (hazard ratio, 9.7; 95% CI 2.9-36.7; p = 0.018) independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normoglycaemic individuals. There was no interaction between either prediabetes or T2DM and heart failure aetiology or gender on study outcomes (all interaction p-values > 0.05). Conclusions Newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM are highly prevalent in patients hospitalized for worsening HFrEF and NYHA functional class II-III. Importantly, they impose independently increased long-term risk of higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 853-872, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520964

RESUMO

The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice. There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice. Sulphonylureas and insulin have been the traditional second- and third-line therapies although their safety in HF is equivocal. Neither glucagon-like preptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, nor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors reduce the risk for HF hospitalization. Indeed, a DPP4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, has been associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) are contraindicated in patients with (or at risk of) HF. In recent trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and canagliflozin, have both shown a significant reduction in HF hospitalization in patients with established CV disease or at risk of CV disease. Several ongoing trials should provide an insight into the effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF in the absence of T2DM.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 926, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343820

RESUMO

Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) increase has been described in hypertension (HTN), but less is known about its association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). As these conditions frequently co-exist, we investigated the association of T2DM, HTN and both with echocardiographic parameters, and hypothesized that patients with both had highest LVMI, followed by patients with only T2DM or HTN. Study population included 101 T2DM patients, 62 patients with HTN and no T2DM, and 76 patients with T2DM and HTN, excluded for ischemic heart disease. Demographic and clinical data, biochemical measurements, stress echocardiography, transthoracic 2D Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent association with T2DM. Linear regression models and Pearson's correlation were used to assess the correlations between LVMI and other parameters. Patients with only T2DM had significantly greater LVMI (84.9 ± 20.3 g/m2) compared to patients with T2DM and HTN (77.9 ± 16 g/m2) and only HTN (69.8 ± 12.4 g/m2). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, T2DM was associated with LVMI (OR 1.033, 95%CI 1.003-1.065, p = 0.029). A positive correlation of LVMI was found with fasting glucose (p < 0.001) and HbA1c (p = 0.0003). Increased LVMI could be a potential, pre-symptomatic marker of myocardial structural change in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Diabetologia ; 61(3): 581-588, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098323

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The self-administered Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is used to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We examined whether the MNSI might also provide information on risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE) trial, we divided 8463 participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) into independent training (n = 3252) and validation (n = 5211) sets. In the training set, we identified specific questions that were independently associated with a cardiovascular composite outcome (cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, non-fatal myocardial infarction/stroke, heart failure hospitalisation). We then evaluated the performance of these questions in the validation set. RESULTS: In the training set, three questions ('Are your legs numb?', 'Have you ever had an open sore on your foot?' and 'Do your legs hurt when you walk?') were significantly associated with the cardiovascular composite outcome. In the validation set, after multivariable adjustment for key covariates, one or more positive responses (n = 3079, 59.1%) was associated with a higher risk of the cardiovascular composite outcome (HR 1.54 [95% CI 1.28, 1.85], p < 0.001), heart failure hospitalisation (HR 1.74 [95% CI 1.29, 2.35], p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (HR 1.81 [95% CI 1.23, 2.69], p = 0.003), stroke (HR 1.75 [95% CI 1.20, 2.56], p = 0.003) and three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke) (HR 1.49 [95% CI 1.20, 1.85], p < 0.001) relative to no positive responses to all questions. Associations were stronger if participants answered positively to all three questions (n = 552, 11%). The addition of the total number of affirmative responses to existing models significantly improved Harrell's C statistic for the cardiovascular composite outcome (0.70 vs 0.71, p = 0.010), continuous net reclassification improvement (+22% [+10%, +31%], p = 0.027) and integrated discrimination improvement (+0.9% [+0.4%, +2.1%], p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We identified three questions from the MNSI that provide additional prognostic information for individuals with type 2 diabetes and CKD and/or CVD. If externally validated, these questions may be integrated into the clinical history to augment prediction of CV events in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Idoso , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fumaratos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 1631263, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648112

RESUMO

Introduction: We investigated the association of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy with increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in 6068 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in the Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ELIXA). Methods: History of retinopathy and neuropathy as well as duration of T2DM were self-reported at screening. Proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between retinopathy, neuropathy, and recurrent CV events. Results: At screening, retinopathy and neuropathy were reported in 10.7% and 17.5% of patients, respectively, while 5.7% reported both. When adjusted for randomized treatment only, both retinopathy and neuropathy were associated with a primary composite outcome (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) (retinopathy: HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75; neuropathy: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57), CV composite (CV death, nonfatal MI, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HF)) (retinopathy: HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.88; neuropathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.19-1.62), myocardial infarction (retinopathy: HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.76; neuropathy: HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.54), HF hospitalization (retinopathy: HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.48-2.78; neuropathy: HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.27), and all-cause mortality (retinopathy: HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.28-2.12; neuropathy: HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.78). When included in the same model, and adjusted for T2DM duration, there were no independent associations of either with CV outcomes, while T2DM duration remained strongly associated with all outcomes. Addition of demographic characteristics and CV risk factors did not further alter these relationships. Conclusions: In patients with T2DM and recent ACS, a history of retinopathy and/or neuropathy and longer T2DM duration could be considered clinical markers for high risk of recurrent CV events. This trial is registered with the ELIXA (Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome), ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01147250.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
13.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(5): 333-340, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart failure progression. Sacubitril/valsartan, a combination angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, improves morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese hypertensive patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on HbA1c and time to first-time initiation of insulin or oral antihyperglycaemic drugs in patients with diabetes and HFrEF. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of the PARADIGM-HF trial, we included 3778 patients with known diabetes or an HbA1c ≥6·5% at screening out of 8399 patients with HFrEF who were randomly assigned to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or enalapril. Of these patients, most (98%) had type 2 diabetes. We assessed changes in HbA1c, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and BMI in a mixed effects longitudinal analysis model. Time to initiation of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs or insulin in subjects previously not treated with these agents were compared between treatment groups. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences in HbA1c concentrations between randomised groups at screening. During the first year of follow-up, HbA1c concentrations decreased by 0·16% (SD 1·40) in the enalapril group and 0·26% (SD 1·25) in the sacubitril/valsartan group (between-group reduction 0·13%, 95% CI 0·05-0·22, p=0·0023). HbA1c concentrations were persistently lower in the sacubitril/valsartan group than in the enalapril group over the 3-year follow-up (between-group reduction 0·14%, 95% CI 0·06-0·23, p=0·0055). New use of insulin was 29% lower in patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan (114 [7%] patients) compared with patients receiving enalapril (153 [10%]; hazard ratio 0·71, 95% CI 0·56-0·90, p=0·0052). Similarly, fewer patients were started on oral antihyperglycaemic therapy (0·77, 0·58-1·02, p=0·073) in the sacubitril/valsartan group. INTERPRETATION: Patients with diabetes and HFrEF enrolled in PARADIGM-HF who received sacubitril/valsartan had a greater long-term reduction in HbA1c than those receiving enalapril. These data suggest that sacubitril/valsartan might enhance glycaemic control in patients with diabetes and HFrEF. FUNDING: Novartis.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Enalapril/farmacologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Valsartana/farmacologia
14.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2015: 390185, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089884

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR) and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (group A), 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B), 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C), and 12 healthy controls (group D). The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05) and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P < 0.001). HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P < 0.05) and in C versus D (P < 0.01). Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P < 0.05) and in C versus D (P < 0.01), while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

15.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2015: 934791, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089903

RESUMO

We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS), (b) plasma insulin (PI), and (c) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with (group A) and without (group B) atherothrombotic ischemic stroke (ATIS), nondiabetics with ATIS (group C), and healthy controls (group D). IS was determined by minimal model (Si). Si was lower in A versus B (1.18 ± 0.67 versus 2.82 ± 0.61 min-1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (3.18 ± 0.93 versus 6.13 ± 1.69 min-1/mU/L × 104; P < 0.001). PI and PAI-1 were higher in A versus B (PI: 19.61 ± 4.08 versus 14.91 ± 1.66 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 7.75 ± 1.04 versus 4.57 ± 0.72 mU/L; P < 0.001) and in C versus D (PI: 15.14 ± 2.20 versus 7.58 ± 2.05 mU/L; P < 0.001, PAI-1: 4.78 ± 0.98 versus 3.49 ± 1.04 mU/L; P < 0.001). Si correlated with PAI-1 in T2D patients and nondiabetics, albeit stronger in T2D. Binary logistic regression identified insulin, PAI-1, and Si as independent predictors for ATIS in T2D patients and nondiabetics. The results imply that insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia might exert their atherogenic impact through the impaired fibrinolysis.

16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 52(10): 1437-46, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24988247

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most important cardiovascular syndromes associated with high cardiovascular morbidity, and is the major cause of admission in emergency departments worldwide. The clinical complexity of AHF has significantly increased, mostly due to the comorbidities: diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, peripheral vascular disease, renal insufficiency and anemia. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated a frequent association of AHF and diabetes. Since AHF is a very heterogeneous condition, it is important to identify clinical and laboratory parameters useful for risk stratification of these populations. Hyperglycemia may be one of the most convenient, since it is widely measured, easily interpreted, and inexpensive. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), arrhythmias and poor compliance to chronic medications are considered to be the most frequent precipitating factors of AHF in diabetics. Several studies identified diabetes as the most prominent independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic heart failure (HF) patients. The following parameters were identified as the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with AHF and diabetes: older age, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, ACS, non-compliance, history of hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%, serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, marked elevation of natriuretic peptides, hyponatremia, treatment at admission without ACE inhibitors/ARBs/ß-blockers, and no percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a treatment modality. The most frequent cause of AHF is ACS, both with ST segment elevation (STEMI) or without (NSTEMI). Hyperglycemia is very common in these patients and although frequently unrecognized and untreated, has a large in-hospital and mortality significance.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
17.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 52(10): 1499-505, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24887961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is a protein widely distributed in the heart, brain and blood vessels, and has a regulatory role in inflammation, immunology and cancer. Many studies demonstrated that the increased level of galectin-3 is associated with progressive fibrosis and stiffening of the myocardium. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of galectin-3 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or arterial hypertension (HT). METHODS: Study population included 189 patients, with no coronary artery disease, divided into three groups: group 1 (T2D), group 2 (T2D+HT), and group 3 (HT). All subjects underwent routine laboratory tests, as well as specific biomarkers assessment [galectin-3, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), N- terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)]. Cardiological evaluation included physical examination, transthoracic tissue Doppler echocardiography and stress echocardiography. RESULTS: The results of this study demonstrated significantly increased levels of galectin-3, blood glucose, and HbA1c in group 2. Also, echocardiographicaly, left ventricular (LV) diameters and IVS thickness were increased in this group of patients. Furthermore, in the same cohort a positive correlation between galectin-3 and NT-pro BNP, and galectin-3 and LV mass were demonstrated. In addition, a negative correlation between galectin-3 and LV end-diastolic diameter was revealed. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that levels of galectin-3 were higher in patients with both T2D and HT, and correlated with LV mass, indicating the potential role of this biomarker for early detection of myocardial structural and functional alterations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2014: 589360, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778649

RESUMO

We analyzed the level of (a) CXCR3(+) (Th1) and CCR4(+) (Th2) T memory cells (b) interferon- γ inducible chemokine (IP-10)(Th1) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)(Th2), in 51 first degree relatives (FDRs) of type 1 diabetics (T1D) (17 high risk FDRs (GADA(+), IA-2(+)) and 34 low risk FDRs (GADA(-), IA-2(-))), 24 recent-onset T1D (R-T1D), and 18 healthy subjects. T memory subsets were analyzed by using four-color immunofluorescence staining and flowcytometry. IP-10 and TARC were determined by ELISA. High risk FDRs showed higher levels of CXCR3(+) and lower level of CCR4(+) T memory cells compared to low risk FDRs (64.98 ± 5.19 versus 42.13 ± 11.11; 29.46 ± 2.83 versus 41.90 ± 8.58%, resp., P < 0.001). Simultaneously, both IP-10 and TARC levels were increased in high risk versus low risk FDRs (160.12 ± 73.40 versus 105.39 ± 71.30; 438.83 ± 120.62 versus 312.04 ± 151.14 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis identified the level of CXCR3(+) T memory cells as predictors for high risk FDRs, together with high levels of IP-10. The results imply that, in FDRs, the risk for T1D might be strongly influenced by enhanced activity of Th1 and diminished activity of Th2 autoimmune response.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 11(4): 3586-98, 2014 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24686488

RESUMO

Increased body weight as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D) are found to be associated with increased incidence of hypertension, although the mechanisms facilitating hypertension in T2D or nondiabetic individuals are not clear. Therefore, in this study we compared the levels of insulin resistance (IR:OGIS), plasma insulin (PI:RIA) levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α: ELISA), being risk factors previously found to be associated with hypertension, in T2D patients showing increased body weight (obese and overweight, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) with hypertension (group A, N = 30), or without hypertension (group B, N = 30), and in nonobese (BMI < 25 kg/m²), normotensive controls (group C, N = 15). We found that OGIS index was the lowest (A: 267 ± 35.42 vs. B: 342.89 ± 32.0, p < 0.01) and PI levels were the highest (A: 31.05 ± 8.24 vs. B: 17.23 ± 3.23, p < 0.01) in group A. In addition, IL-6 levels were higher in group A (A: 15.46 ± 5.15 vs. B: 11.77 ± 6.09; p < 0.05) while there was no difference in TNF-α levels. Our results have shown that appearance of hypertension in T2D patients with increased body weight was dependent on further increase in IR which was associated with the rise in pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine. The results imply that lifestyle intervention aimed to decrease IR might be beneficial in reducing the risk for hypertension in those T2D individuals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2013: 401609, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23843789

RESUMO

We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS) and (b) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with atherothrombotic infarction (ATI) (group A), lacunar infarction (LI) (B), or without stroke (C) and in nondiabetics with ATI (D), LI (E), or without stroke (F). ATI and LI were confirmed by brain imaging IS levels were determined by minimal model (Si index), and the enzyme activity by spectrophotometry. In T2D patients, Si was lower in A and B versus C (1.14 ± 0.58, 1.00 ± 0.26 versus 3.14 ± 0.62 min(-1)/mU/l × 10(4), P < 0.001) and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38 ± 0.77, 3.03 ± 0.72 versus 6.03 ± 1.69 min(-1)/mU/l × 10(4), P < 0.001). Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96 ± 3.56, 22.51 ± 1.23 versus 25.12 ± 1.67; GR: 44.37 ± 3.58, 43.50 ± 2.39 versus 48.58 ± 3.67 U/gHb; P < 0.001) and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75 ± 3.02, 25.57 ± 1.92 versus 28.56 ± 3.91; GR: 48.27 ± 6.81, 49.17 ± 6.24 versus 53.67 ± 3.96 U/gHb; P < 0.001). Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes.

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