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3.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(5): 736-745, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300202

RESUMO

Hospital readmissions remain a continued challenge in the care of patients with heart failure (HF). This study aims to examine the rates, temporal trends, predictors and causes of 30-day unplanned readmissions after admission with HF. Patients hospitalized with a primary or secondary diagnosis of HF in the U.S. Nationwide Readmission Database were included. We examined the incidence, trends, predictors and causes of unplanned all-cause readmissions at 30-days. A total of 2,635,673 and 8,342,383 patients were included in the analyses for primary and secondary diagnoses of HF, respectively. The 30-day unplanned readmission rate was 15.1% for primary HF and 14.6% for secondary HF. Predictors of readmission in primary HF included renal failure (OR 1.27 (1.25 to 1.28)), cancer (OR 1.26 (1.22 to 1.29)), receipt of circulatory support (OR 2.81 (1.64 to 4.81)) and discharge against medical advice (OR 2.29 (2.20 to 2.39)). In secondary HF, the major predictors were receipt of circulatory support (OR 1.43 (1.12 to 1.84)) and discharge against medical advice (OR 2.01 95%CI (1.95 to 2.07)). In primary HF 52.4% of patients were readmitted for a noncardiac cause while for secondary HF 73.9% were readmitted for a noncardiac cause. For secondary HF, the strongest predictor of readmission was discharge against medical advice (OR 2.06 95%CI 2.01 to 2.12, p < 0.001). Early unplanned readmissions are common among patients hospitalized with HF, and a majority of readmissions are due to causes other than HF. Our results highlight the need to better manage comorbidities in patients with HF.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 827-843, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243866

RESUMO

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening condition typically presenting as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the last month of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in women without another known cause of heart failure. This updated position statement summarizes the knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PPCM. As shortness of breath, fatigue and leg oedema are common in the peripartum period, a high index of suspicion is required to not miss the diagnosis. Measurement of natriuretic peptides, electrocardiography and echocardiography are recommended to promptly diagnose or exclude heart failure/PPCM. Important differential diagnoses include pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease during pregnancy, and pre-existing heart disease. A genetic contribution is present in up to 20% of PPCM, in particular titin truncating variant. PPCM is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but also with a high probability of partial and often full recovery. Use of guideline-directed pharmacological therapy for HFrEF is recommended in all patients respecting contraindications during pregnancy/lactation. The oxidative stress-mediated cleavage of the hormone prolactin into a cardiotoxic fragment has been identified as a driver of PPCM pathophysiology. Pharmacological blockade of prolactin release using bromocriptine as a disease-specific therapy in addition to standard therapy for heart failure treatment has shown promising results in two clinical trials. Thresholds for devices (implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy and implanted long-term ventricular assist devices) are higher in PPCM than in other conditions because of the high rate of recovery. The important role of education and counselling around contraception and future pregnancies is emphasised.

6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(13): 1396-1398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161936
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111153

RESUMO

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein synthesized mostly by the liver. As a result of gene mutations or as an ageing-related phenomenon, TTR molecules may misfold and deposit in the heart and in other organs as amyloid fibrils. Cardiac involvement in TTR-related amyloidosis (ATTR) manifests typically as left ventricular pseudohypertrophy and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. ATTR is an underdiagnosed disorder as well as a crucial determinant of morbidity and mortality, thus justifying the current quest for a safe and effective treatment. Therapies targeting cardiac damage and its direct consequences may yield limited benefit, mostly related to dyspnoea relief through diuretics. For many years, liver or combined heart and liver transplantation have been the only available treatments for patients with mutations causing ATTR, including those with cardiac involvement. The therapeutic options now include several pharmacological agents that inhibit hepatic synthesis of TTR, stabilize the tetramer, or disrupt fibrils. Following the positive results of a phase 3 trial on tafamidis, and preliminary findings on patisiran and inotersen in patients with ATTR-related neuropathy and cardiac involvement, we provide an update on this rapidly evolving field, together with practical recommendations on the management of cardiac involvement.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e028122, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the novel cardiac output response to stress (CORS), test in the current diagnostic pathway for heart failure and the opportunities and challenges to potential implementation in primary care. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews which were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically using an inductive approach. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthcare professionals (six males, eight females) from primary (general practitioners (GPs), nurses, healthcare assistant, practice managers) and secondary care (consultant cardiologists). RESULTS: Four themes relating to opportunities and challenges surrounding the implementation of the new diagnostic technology were identified. These reflected that the adoption of CORS test would be an advantage to primary care but the test had barriers to implementation which include: establishment of clinical utility, suitability for immobile patients and cost implication to GP practices. CONCLUSION: The development of a simple non-invasive clinical test to accelerate the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care maybe helpful to reduce unnecessary referrals to secondary care. The CORS test has the potential to serve this purpose; however, factors such as cost effectiveness, diagnostic accuracy and seamless implementation in primary care have to be fully explored.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(2): 449-454, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788904

RESUMO

AIMS: N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plays an important role in diagnosis and management of heart failure. The aim of the present study was to assess haemodynamic response to exercise and to evaluate the relationship between NT-proBNP, cardiac function, and exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-centre, cross-sectional pilot study recruited 17 patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (age 67 ± 7 years) and 20 healthy volunteers (age 65 ± 12 years). The NT-proBNP was measured in the heart failure group. All participants completed maximal graded cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing coupled with gas exchange (using metabolic analyser for determination of exercise tolerance, i.e. peak O2 consumption) and continuous haemodynamic measurements (i.e. cardiac output and cardiac power output) using non-invasive bioreactance technology. Heart failure patients demonstrated significantly lower peak exercise cardiac function and exercise tolerance than healthy controls, i.e. cardiac power output (5.0 ± 2.0 vs. 3.2 ± 1.2 W, P < 0.01), cardiac output (18.2 ± 6.3 vs. 13.5 ± 4.0 L/min, P < 0.01), heart rate (148 ± 23.7 vs. 111 ± 20.9 beats/min, P < 0.01), and oxygen consumption (24.3 ± 9.5 vs. 16.8 ± 3.8 mL/kg/min, P < 0.01). There was no significant relationship between NT-proBNP and cardiac function at rest, i.e. cardiac power output (r = -0.28, P = 0.28), cardiac output (r = -0.18, P = 0.50), and oxygen consumption (r = -0.18, P = 0.50), or peak exercise, i.e. cardiac power output (r = 0.18, P = 0.49), cardiac output (r = 0.13, P = 0.63), and oxygen consumption (r = -0.05, P = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of a significant and strong relationship between the NT-proBNP and measures of cardiac function and exercise tolerance may suggest that natriuretic peptides should be considered with caution in interpretation of the severity of cardiac dysfunction and functional capacity in chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Precursores de Proteínas
16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(8): 644-645, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789673
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(2): 137-155, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600580

RESUMO

The vast majority of acute heart failure episodes are characterized by increasing symptoms and signs of congestion with volume overload. The goal of therapy in those patients is the relief of congestion through achieving a state of euvolaemia, mainly through the use of diuretic therapy. The appropriate use of diuretics however remains challenging, especially when worsening renal function, diuretic resistance and electrolyte disturbances occur. This position paper focuses on the use of diuretics in heart failure with congestion. The manuscript addresses frequently encountered challenges, such as (i) evaluation of congestion and clinical euvolaemia, (ii) assessment of diuretic response/resistance in the treatment of acute heart failure, (iii) an approach towards stepped pharmacologic diuretic strategies, based upon diuretic response, and (iv) management of common electrolyte disturbances. Recommendations are made in line with available guidelines, evidence and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Consenso , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
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