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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729586

RESUMO

Nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and the condition is termed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It is assumed that in these patients HF is due primarily to LV diastolic dysfunction. The prognosis in HFpEF is almost as severe as in HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). In contrast to HFrEF where drugs and devices are proven to reduce mortality, in HFpEF there has been limited therapy available with documented effects on prognosis. This may reflect that HFpEF encompasses a wide range of different pathological processes, which multimodality imaging is well placed to differentiate. Progress in developing therapies for HFpEF has been hampered by a lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. The present expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) provides recommendations regarding how to determine elevated LV filling pressure in the setting of suspected HFpEF and how to use multimodality imaging to determine specific aetiologies in patients with HFpEF.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755422

RESUMO

Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) has the potential to reduce the risks of mortality and hospitalisation in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, real-world data indicate that many patients with HFrEF do not receive optimised GDMT, which involves several different medications, many of which require up-titration to target doses. There are many challenges to implementing GDMT, the most important being patient-related factors (comorbidities, advanced age, frailty, cognitive impairment, poor adherence, low socioeconomic status), treatment-related factors (intolerance, side-effects) and healthcare-related factors that influence availability and accessibility of HF care. Accordingly, international disparities in resources for HF management and limited public reimbursement of GDMT, coupled with clinical inertia for treatment intensification combine to hinder efforts to provide GDMT. In this review paper, authors aim to provide solutions based on available evidence, practical experience, and expert consensus on how to utilise evolving strategies, novel medications, and patient profiling to allow the more comprehensive uptake of GDMT. Authors discuss professional education, motivation, and training, as well as patient empowerment for self-care as important tools to overcome clinical inertia and boost GDMT implementation. We provide evidence on how multidisciplinary care and institutional accreditation can be successfully used to increase prescription rates and adherence to GDMT. We consider the role of modern technologies in advancing professional and patient education and facilitating patient-provider communication. Finally, authors emphasise the role of novel drugs (especially sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors), and a tailored approach to drug management as evolving strategies for the more successful implementation of GDMT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 218, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740359

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors for heart failure, the prevalence of which is increasing worldwide. The aim of the review is to highlight the current perspectives of the pathophysiology of heart failure as it pertains to type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the proposed mechanistic bases, explaining the myocardial damage induced by diabetes-related stressors and other risk factors, i.e., cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes. We highlight the complex pathology of individuals with type 2 diabetes, including the relationship with chronic kidney disease, metabolic alterations, and heart failure. We also discuss the current criteria used for heart failure diagnosis and the gold standard screening tools for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Currently approved pharmacological therapies with primary use in type 2 diabetes and heart failure, and the treatment-guiding role of NT-proBNP are also presented. Finally, the influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes as well as heart failure on COVID-19 severity is briefly discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prognóstico
4.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2289-2304, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674152

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Here we studied the effects of common comorbidities in severe COVID-19 on ACE2 expression. ACE2 levels (by enzyme activity and ELISA measurements) were determined in human serum, heart and lung samples from patients with hypertension (n = 540), heart transplantation (289) and thoracic surgery (n = 49). Healthy individuals (n = 46) represented the controls. Serum ACE2 activity was increased in hypertensive subjects (132%) and substantially elevated in end-stage heart failure patients (689%) and showed a strong negative correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction. Serum ACE2 activity was higher in male (147%), overweight (122%), obese (126%) and elderly (115%) hypertensive patients. Primary lung cancer resulted in higher circulating ACE2 activity, without affecting ACE2 levels in the surrounding lung tissue. Male sex resulted in elevated serum ACE2 activities in patients with heart transplantation or thoracic surgery (146% and 150%, respectively). Left ventricular (tissular) ACE2 activity was unaffected by sex and was lower in overweight (67%), obese (62%) and older (73%) patients with end-stage heart failure. There was no correlation between serum and tissular (left ventricular or lung) ACE2 activities. Neither serum nor tissue (left ventricle or lung) ACE2 levels were affected by RAS inhibitory medications. Abandoning of ACEi treatment (non-compliance) resulted in elevated blood pressure without effects on circulating ACE2 activities. ACE2 levels associate with the severity of cardiovascular diseases, suggestive for a role of ACE2 in the pathomechanisms of cardiovascular diseases and providing a potential explanation for the higher mortality of COVID-19 among cardiovascular patients. Abandoning RAS inhibitory medication worsens the cardiovascular status without affecting circulating or tissue ACE2 levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612556

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519177

RESUMO

The accepted use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology as a good alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure together with the improved survival of the LVAD-supported patients on the device and the scarcity of donor hearts has significantly increased the population of LVAD-supported patients. The expected and non-expected device-related and patient-device interaction complications impose a significant burden on the medical system exceeding the capacity of the LVAD implanting centres. The ageing of the LVAD-supported patients, mainly those supported with the 'destination therapy' indication, increases the risk for those patients to experience comorbidities common in the older population. The probability of an LVAD-supported patient presenting with medical emergency to a local emergency department, internal, or surgical ward of a non-LVAD implanting centre is increasing. The purpose of this trilogy is to supply the immediate tools needed by the non-LVAD specialized physician: ambulance clinicians, emergency ward physicians, general cardiologists, internists, anaesthesiologists, and surgeons, to comply with the medical needs of this fast-growing population of LVAD-supported patients. The different issues discussed will follow the patient's pathway from the ambulance to the emergency department and from the emergency department to the internal or surgical wards and eventually to the discharge home from the hospital back to the general practitioner. In this first part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, after the introduction on the assist devices technology in general, definitions and structured approach to the assessment of the LVAD-supported patient in the ambulance and emergency department is presented including cardiopulmonary resuscitation for LVAD-supported patients.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523254

RESUMO

The improvement in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology and scarcity of donor hearts have increased dramatically the population of the LVAD-supported patients and the probability of those patients to present to the emergency department with expected and non-expected device-related and patient-device interaction complications. The ageing of the LVAD-supported patients, mainly those supported with the 'destination therapy' indication, increases the risk for those patients to suffer from other co-morbidities common in the older population. In this second part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, definitions and structured approach to the LVAD-supported patient presenting to the emergency department with bleeding, neurological event, pump thrombosis, chest pain, syncope, and other events are presented. The very challenging issue of declaring death in an LVAD-supported patient, as the circulation is artificially preserved by the device despite no other signs of life, is also discussed in detail.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1577-1596, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482622

RESUMO

Circulating biomarkers and imaging techniques provide independent and complementary information to guide management of heart failure (HF). This consensus document by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) presents current evidence-based indications relevant to integration of imaging techniques and biomarkers in HF. The document first focuses on application of circulating biomarkers together with imaging findings, in the broad domains of screening, diagnosis, risk stratification, guidance of treatment and monitoring, and then discusses specific challenging settings. In each section we crystallize clinically relevant recommendations and identify directions for future research. The target readership of this document includes cardiologists, internal medicine specialists and other clinicians dealing with HF patients.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1610-1632, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498368

RESUMO

New biomarkers are being evaluated for their ability to advance the management of patients with heart failure. Despite a large pool of interesting candidate biomarkers, besides natriuretic peptides virtually none have succeeded in being applied into the clinical setting. In this review, we examine the most promising emerging candidates for clinical assessment and management of patients with heart failure. We discuss high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (Tn), procalcitonin, novel kidney markers, soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), neprilysin, adrenomedullin (ADM), and also discuss proteomics and genetic-based risk scores. We focused on guidance and assistance with daily clinical care decision-making. For each biomarker, analytical considerations are discussed, as well as performance regarding diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, we discuss potential implementation in clinical algorithms and in ongoing clinical trials.

12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585525

RESUMO

The growing population of left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-supported patients increases the probability of an LVAD- supported patient hospitalized in the internal or surgical wards with certain expected device related, and patient-device interaction complication as well as with any other comorbidities requiring hospitalization. In this third part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, definitions and structured approach to the hospitalized LVAD-supported patient are presented including blood pressure assessment, medical therapy of the LVAD supported patient, and challenges related to anaesthesia and non-cardiac surgical interventions. Finally, important aspects to consider when discharging an LVAD patient home and palliative and end-of-life approaches are described.

13.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211033177, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382462

RESUMO

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the impairment of kidney function defined as a serum creatinine increase of 25% or 44 µmol/L compared with baseline, usually occurring 24 to 48 hours after the use of intravenous contrast. Important risk factors for CIN include female sex, advanced age (>65 years), type 2 diabetes (T2D), kidney disease, advanced heart failure, and intravascular volume depletion. We herein present a male patient with T2D, moderately reduced renal function, no albuminuria, and a positive echocardiography stress test. He underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and two drug-eluting stents (in the left anterior descending coronary artery) and three bare-metal stents (in the right coronary artery) were implanted. Despite adequate rehydration (0.9% intravenous NaCl with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate) before and after the procedures, he developed irreversible kidney injury after coronary angiography and PCI. This case report demonstrates the unpredictable clinical course of CIN. Patients with T2D are at high risk for the occurrence of CIN, so careful clinical assessment is recommended with global renal functional reserve evaluation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1597-1609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409711

RESUMO

The accepted use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology as a good alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure together with the improved survival of patients on the device and the scarcity of donor hearts has significantly increased the population of LVAD supported patients. Device-related, and patient-device interaction complications impose a significant burden on the medical system exceeding the capacity of LVAD implanting centres. The probability of an LVAD supported patient presenting with medical emergency to a local ambulance team, emergency department medical team and internal or surgical wards in a non-LVAD implanting centre is increasing. The purpose of this paper is to supply the immediate tools needed by the non-LVAD specialized physician - ambulance clinicians, emergency ward physicians, general cardiologists, and internists - to comply with the medical needs of this fast-growing population of LVAD supported patients. The different issues discussed will follow the patient's pathway from the ambulance to the emergency department, and from the emergency department to the internal or surgical wards and eventually back to the general practitioner.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114268

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertensive disorders occur in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). How often hypertensive disorders co-exist, and to what extent they impact outcomes, is less clear. We describe differences in phenotype and outcomes in women with PPCM with and without hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme PPCM Registry enrolled women with PPCM from 2012-2018. Three groups were examined: (i) women without hypertension (PPCM-noHTN); (ii) women with hypertension but without pre-eclampsia (PPCM-HTN); (iii) women with pre-eclampsia (PPCM-PE). Maternal (6-month) and neonatal outcomes were compared. Of 735 women included, 452 (61.5%) had PPCM-noHTN, 99 (13.5%) had PPCM-HTN and 184 (25.0%) had PPCM-PE. Compared to women with PPCM-noHTN, women with PPCM-PE had more severe symptoms (New York Heart Association class IV in 44.4% vs. 29.9%, P < 0.001), more frequent signs of heart failure (pulmonary rales in 70.7% vs. 55.4%, P = 0.002), a higher baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (32.7% vs. 30.7%, P = 0.005) and a smaller left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (57.4 ± 6.7 mm vs. 59.8 ± 8.1 mm, P = 0.001). There were no differences in the frequencies of death from any cause, rehospitalization for any cause, stroke, or thromboembolic events. Compared to women with PPCM-noHTN, women with PPCM-PE had a greater likelihood of left ventricular recovery (LVEF ≥ 50%) (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.57) and an adverse neonatal outcome (composite of termination, miscarriage, low birth weight or neonatal death) (adjusted odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.66-4.87). CONCLUSION: Differences exist in phenotype, recovery of cardiac function and neonatal outcomes according to hypertensive status in women with PPCM.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(8): 1260-1275, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184823

RESUMO

In 2015, the first large-scale placebo-controlled trial designed to assess cardiovascular safety of glucose-lowering with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition in type 2 diabetes mellitus raised hypotheses that the class could favourably modify not only risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but also hospitalization for heart failure, and the development or worsening of nephropathy. By the start of 2021, results from 10 large SGLT2 inhibitor placebo-controlled clinical outcome trials randomizing ∼71 000 individuals have confirmed that SGLT2 inhibitors can provide clinical benefits for each of these types of outcome in a range of different populations. The cardiovascular and renal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors appear to be larger than their comparatively modest effect on glycaemic control or glycosuria alone would predict, with three trials recently reporting that clinical benefits extend to individuals without diabetes mellitus who are at risk due to established heart failure, or albuminuric chronic kidney disease. This European Society of Cardiology position paper summarizes reported results from these 10 large clinical outcome trials considering separately each of the different types of cardiorenal benefit, summarizes key molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms, and provides a synopsis of metabolic effects and safety. We also describe ongoing placebo-controlled trials among individuals with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and among individuals with chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sódio , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 872-881, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932268

RESUMO

Despite guideline recommendations and available evidence, implementation of treatment in heart failure (HF) is poor. The majority of patients are not prescribed drugs at target doses that have been proven to positively impact morbidity and mortality. Among others, tolerability issues related to low blood pressure, heart rate, impaired renal function or hyperkalaemia are responsible. Chronic kidney disease plays an important role as it affects up to 50% of patients with HF. Also, dynamic changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate may occur during the course of HF, resulting in inappropriate dose reduction or even discontinuation of decongestive or neurohormonal modulating therapy in clinical practice. As patients with HF are rarely naïve to pharmacologic therapies, the challenge is to adequately prioritize or select the most appropriate up-titration schedule according to patient profile. In this consensus document, we identified nine patient profiles that may be relevant for treatment implementation in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction. These profiles take into account heart rate (<60 bpm or >70 bpm), the presence of atrial fibrillation, symptomatic low blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 or >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) or hyperkalaemia. The pre-discharge patient, frequently still congestive, is also addressed. A personalized approach, adjusting guideline-directed medical therapy to patient profile, may allow to achieve a better and more comprehensive therapy for each individual patient than the more traditional, forced titration of each drug class before initiating treatment with the next.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Consenso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Volume Sistólico
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 854-871, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010472

RESUMO

Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an invasive procedure, globally most often used for the monitoring of heart transplant (HTx) rejection. In addition, EMB can have an important complementary role to the clinical assessment in establishing the diagnosis of diverse cardiac disorders, including myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, drug-related cardiotoxicity, amyloidosis, other infiltrative and storage disorders, and cardiac tumours. Improvements in EMB equipment and the development of new techniques for the analysis of EMB samples have significantly improved diagnostic precision of EMB. The present document is the result of the Trilateral Cooperation Project between the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Japanese Heart Failure Society. It represents an expert consensus aiming to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date perspective on EMB, with a focus on the following main issues: (i) an overview of the practical approach to EMB, (ii) an update on indications for EMB, (iii) a revised plan for HTx rejection surveillance, (iv) the impact of multimodality imaging on EMB, and (v) the current clinical practice in the worldwide use of EMB.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Biópsia , Endocárdio , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Japão , Miocárdio
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