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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1260-1268, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the expression of the CCL24 chemokine in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to evaluate the possible pathogenic implications of the CCL24/CCR3 axis using both in vitro and in vivo models. We further investigated the efficacy of an anti-CCL24 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CM-101, in inhibiting cell activation as well as dermal and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in experimental animal models. METHODS: We used ELISA and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to determine CCL24 levels in serum and CCL24/CCR3 expression in skin biopsies of SSc patients. Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with CCL24 or SSc serum with or without CM-101 were used to follow cell activation and differentiation. Prevention and treatment in vivo bleomycin (BLM)-induced models were used to evaluate experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis progression following treatment with the CM-101 mAb. RESULTS: CCL24 circulating levels were significantly elevated in SSc patients. CCL24/CCR3 expression was strongly increased in SSc skin. Blockade of CCL24 with CM-101 significantly reduced the activation of dermal fibroblasts and their transition to myofibroblasts induced by SSc serum. CM-101 was also able to significantly inhibit endothelial cell activation induced by CCL24. In BLM-induced experimental animal models, CM-101 profoundly inhibited both dermal and pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: CCL24 plays an important role in pathological processes of skin and lung inflammation and fibrosis. Inhibition of CCL24 by CM-101 mAb can be potentially beneficial for therapeutic use in SSc patients.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(9): 1678, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334871

RESUMO

Mutations in the depalmitoylation enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), result in the early onset neurodegenerative disease known as Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Here, we provide proteomic evidence suggesting that PPT1 deficiency could be considered as a ciliopathy. Analysis of membrane proteins from brain enriched for acylated proteins from neonate Ppt1 knock out and control mice revealed a list of 88 proteins with differential expression levels. Amongst them, we identified Rab3IP, which regulates ciliogenesis in concert with Rab8 and Rab11. Immunostaining analysis revealed that PPT1 is localized in the cilia. Indeed, an unbiased proteomics analysis on isolated cilia revealed 660 proteins, which differed in their abundance levels between wild type and Ppt1 knock out. We demonstrate here that Rab3IP, Rab8 and Rab11 are palmitoylated, and that palmitoylation of Rab11 is required for correct intracellular localization. Cells and brain preparations from Ppt1-/- mice exhibited fewer cells with cilia and abnormally longer cilia, with both acetylated tubulin and Rab3IP wrongly distributed along the length of cilia. Most importantly, the analysis revealed a difference in the distribution and levels of the modified proteins in cilia in the retina of mutant mice versus the wildtype, which may be important in the early neurodegenerative phenotype. Overall, our results suggest a novel link between palmitoylated proteins, cilial organization and the pathophysiology of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipoilação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Células NIH 3T3 , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Retina/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/deficiência
3.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146466, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731412

RESUMO

Mutations in the depalmitoylating enzyme gene, PPT1, cause the infantile form of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL), an early onset neurodegenerative disease. During recent years there have been different therapeutic attempts including enzyme replacement. Here we show that PPT1 is palmitoylated in vivo and is a substrate for two palmitoylating enzymes, DHHC3 and DHHC7. The palmitoylated protein is detected in both cell lysates and medium. The presence of PPT1 with palmitoylated signal peptide in the cell medium suggests that a subset of the protein is secreted by a nonconventional mechanism. Using a mutant form of PPT1, C6S, which was not palmitoylated, we further demonstrate that palmitoylation does not affect intracellular localization but rather that the unpalmitoylated form enhanced the depalmitoylation activity of the protein. The calculated Vmax of the enzyme was significantly affected by the palmitoylation, suggesting that the addition of a palmitate group is reminiscent of adding a noncompetitive inhibitor. Thus, we reveal the existence of a positive feedback loop, where palmitoylation of PPT1 results in decreased activity and subsequent elevation in the amount of palmitoylated proteins. This positive feedback loop is likely to initiate a vicious cycle, which will enhance disease progression. The understanding of this process may facilitate enzyme replacement strategies.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo , Acilação , Humanos , Mutação , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética
4.
Front Neurosci ; 9: 53, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25788872

RESUMO

The intricate formation of the cerebral cortex requires a well-coordinated series of events, which are regulated at the level of cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Whereas cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate cortical development are well-studied, the non-cell autonomous mechanisms remain poorly understood. A non-biased screen allowed us to identify Autotaxin (ATX) as a non-cell autonomous regulator of neural stem cells. ATX (also known as ENPP2) is best known to catalyze lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) production. Our results demonstrate that ATX affects the localization and adhesion of neuronal progenitors in a cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous manner, and strikingly, this activity is independent from its catalytic activity in producing LPA.

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