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1.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(5): 348-355.e5, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radium-223 is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). There are currently no markers for selecting patients most likely to complete radium-223 treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase IIIb, international, single-arm study, patients received radium-223, 55 kBq/kg, every 4 weeks for ≤6 cycles. Primary end points were safety and overall survival. In post hoc analyses patients were grouped according to number of radium-223 injections received (1-4 or 5-6). Associations between baseline covariates and number of injections were investigated. RESULTS: Of 696 eligible patients, 473 (68%) had received 5 to 6 radium-223 injections and 223 (32%) 1 to 4 injections. Patients with less pain (moderate-severe vs. none-mild, odds ratio [OR], 0.41; P < .0001), lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (≥2 vs. 0-1, OR, 0.51; P = .0074), lower prostate-specific antigen level (>141 µg/L vs. ≤141 µg/L, OR, 0.40; P < .0001), and higher hemoglobin level (<10 g/dL vs. ≥10 g/dL, OR, 0.50; P = .0206) were more likely to receive 5 to 6 than 1 to 4 injections. Median overall survival was not reached and was 6.3 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-7.4) in patients who had received 5 to 6 and 1 to 4 radium-223 injections, respectively. Adverse events were less common in patients who received 5 to 6 than 1 to 4 injections; anemia was reported in 87 (18%) and 64 (29%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with less advanced mCRPC are more likely to receive 5 to 6 radium-223 injections and to achieve better overall survival. Consideration of baseline and disease characteristics is recommended before initiation of radium-223 treatment.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 12, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radium-223, a targeted alpha therapy, is used to treat symptomatic patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases. Data for radium-223 in asymptomatic CRPC patients with bone metastases are lacking. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm phase 3b study. Patients with metastatic CRPC (malignant lymphadenopathy not exceeding 6 cm was allowed, visceral disease was excluded) received radium-223, 55 kBq/kg intravenously, every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Co-primary endpoints were safety and overall survival. Post hoc analyses were performed according to baseline asymptomatic or symptomatic disease status. Asymptomatic status was defined as no pain and no opioid use at baseline. RESULTS: Seven hundred eight patients received ≥1 radium-223 injection: 548 (77%) were symptomatic to various degrees, and 135 (19%) were asymptomatic. Asymptomatic patients had more favorable baseline disease characteristics than symptomatic. A lower proportion of asymptomatic versus symptomatic patients had received prior abiraterone (25% vs 35%) and prior docetaxel (52% vs 62%). A higher proportion of asymptomatic (71%) versus symptomatic (55%) patients completed radium-223 treatment. Overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.486), time to disease progression (HR 0.722) and time to first symptomatic skeletal event (HR 0.328) were better in asymptomatic than symptomatic patients. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) response rates were similar (46% vs 47%), and ALP normalization (44% vs 25%) and prostate-specific antigen response rates (21% vs 13%) were higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic patients. A lower proportion of asymptomatic patients reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, 61% vs 79%), grade 3-4 TEAEs (29% vs 40%) and drug-related TEAEs (28% vs 44%). There were two treatment-related deaths, both in patients with baseline symptomatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Using radium-223 earlier in the disease course, when patients are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, may enable patients to complete treatment and optimize treatment outcome compared to symptomatic patients, and therefore may allow sequencing with other life-prolonging therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT01618370 on June 13, 2012 and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2012-000075-16 on April 4, 2012.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Radioisótopos/administração & dosagem , Rádio (Elemento)/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/sangue , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radioisótopos/efeitos adversos , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Eur Urol ; 70(5): 875-883, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27344296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial enrolled metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with or without baseline opioid use. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) versus placebo in ALSYMPCA patients by baseline opioid use. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred and twenty one patients enrolled at 136 centers globally. INTERVENTION: Radium-223 (50 kBq/kg, intravenous injection) every 4 wk for six cycles or matching placebo, each plus best standard of care. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary endpoint (overall survival [OS]), main secondary efficacy endpoints, and safety were evaluated by baseline opioid use. Additional analyses included time to first opioid use, time to first external beam radiation therapy for bone pain, and safety of concomitant external beam radiation therapy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: At baseline, 408 (44%) patients had no pain and no analgesic use or mild pain with nonopioid therapy (World Health Organization ladder pain score 0-1 [nonopioid subgroup]), and 513 (56%) had moderate pain with occasional opioids or severe pain with regular daily opioids (World Health Organization ladder pain score 2-3 [opioid subgroup]). Radium-223 significantly prolonged OS versus placebo in nonopioid (hazard ratio [HR]=0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.93; p=0.013) and opioid (HR=0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.86; p=0.001) subgroups, and significantly reduced risk of symptomatic skeletal events versus placebo, regardless of baseline opioid use (nonopioid subgroup: HR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.82, p=0.002; opioid subgroup: HR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.98, p=0.038). Time to first opioid use for bone pain was significantly delayed with radium-223 versus placebo (HR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.46-0.85, p=0.002). Adverse event incidences were similar between opioid subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Radium-223 versus placebo significantly prolonged OS and reduced symptomatic skeletal event risk with a favorable safety profile in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of baseline opioid use. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this ALSYMPCA opioid subgroup analysis, baseline symptom levels did not appear to impact radium-223 dichloride efficacy or safety.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Rádio (Elemento) , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radioisótopos/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos/efeitos adversos , Rádio (Elemento)/administração & dosagem , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol ; 92(6): 511-25, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22162370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular toxicity (TT) is a sporadic and challenging issue in pharmaceutical drug development. Efforts to develop TT screening assays or biomarkers have been overshadowed by consortium efforts to predict drug-induced toxicities such as hepatic injury, which are encountered more frequently. METHODS: To gauge the current state of the field and to prioritize future TT activities, the International Life Sciences Institute-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART) Technical Committee sponsored a survey to better understand the incidence and nature of TT findings encountered during drug development. RESULTS: Highlights from the 16 survey respondents include: (1) Although preclinical TT was encountered relatively infrequently, half of the participants observed repeated problems with TT during pharmaceutical development, (2) despite control measures such as use of sexually mature animals to diminish confounding effects of spurious lesions, interpretation of TT remains a challenge, (3) "traditional" evaluation tools such as hormonal monitoring and newer approaches such as -omics are utilized to investigate testicular changes, and (4) an understanding of the risk and relevance of TT findings is achieved through joint consideration of factors such as species specificity, potential mode of action, and safety margins. CONCLUSIONS: TT remains a relatively uncommon but persistent challenge in pharmaceutical development. Although current preclinical TT approaches appear to be effective in limiting the occurrence of pharmaceutical candidate attrition in clinical trials, improved biomarker or screening platforms would allow companies to identify TT at an earlier stage, thus decreasing the time and resources expended on safety evaluation of pharmaceutical candidates.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Urol ; 179(3): 1060-5, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18206950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the first choice therapy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Many men in their reproductive years are now using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6 months of treatment with 20 mg vardenafil, compared with 100 mg sildenafil and placebo, on semen characteristics and reproductive hormones in men with and without erectile dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, multicenter study. A total of 200 men with or without erectile dysfunction, able to produce semen samples without erectile dysfunction therapy, 25 to 64 years old, were randomized to daily treatment with vardenafil, sildenafil or placebo for 6 months. The primary variable was the percentage of vardenafil treated individuals with a 50% or greater decrease in mean sperm concentration from baseline to 6-month last observation carried forward, compared with placebo treated individuals. RESULTS: The between group difference (vardenafil minus placebo) in the percentage of patients with 50% or greater decrease in sperm concentration (baseline to 6 months last observation carried forward) was 0.07% (95% CI, -8.53% to 8.39%). Vardenafil also had no clinically significant effects on any other semen parameters, or on levels of reproductive hormones, when compared with placebo. Similar data were observed with sildenafil. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that vardenafil had no adverse effects on sperm concentration, compared with sildenafil and placebo, when administered daily at the maximum recommended dose for 6 months. Specifically, use of vardenafil for 6 months does not impair sperm concentration, total sperm count per ejaculate, or sperm morphology and motility. Levels of reproductive hormones were also unaffected.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônios Gonadais/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Purinas/farmacologia , Citrato de Sildenafila , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila
6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 163(1): 79-87, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16390893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction and depression are highly associated. Previous studies have shown benefits of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor treatment for erectile dysfunction associated with antidepressant therapy or subsyndromal depression. The present study assessed the safety and efficacy of vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction and untreated mild depression. METHOD: In this 12-week, multicenter, randomized, flexible-dose, parallel-group, double-blind study, 280 men with erectile dysfunction for at least 6 months and untreated mild major depression received placebo or vardenafil, 10 mg/day, for 4 weeks, with the option to titrate to 5 mg/day or 20 mg/day after each of two consecutive 4-week intervals. Endpoints included International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores. RESULTS: Vardenafil produced statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in all erectile function parameters. The International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain score was 22.9 with vardenafil compared to 14.9 with placebo. The HAM-D score was lower in the vardenafil group (7.9) than in the placebo group (10.1). Treatment with vardenafil was the most important predictor for return to normal erectile function. Improvement in International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain score was the most important predictor of remission in depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Vardenafil was well tolerated and highly efficacious in men with erectile dysfunction and untreated mild major depression. Significant improvements in erectile function and depression were observed in patients treated with vardenafil versus placebo. Erectile dysfunction treatment should be considered a component of therapy for men with depression and erectile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Placebos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazinas/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila
7.
J Urol ; 170(4 Pt 1): 1278-83, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14501741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: More than one-third of men may experience erectile dysfunction (ED) after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. The efficacy and safety of vardenafil, a potent, selective, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, was assessed for the treatment of ED after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind study 440 men with ED after nerve sparing radical prostatectomy were randomized to take placebo, or 10 or 20 mg vardenafil. Efficacy was measured after 12 weeks using the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function, diary questions measuring vaginal penetration and intercourse success rates, and a global assessment question (GAQ) on erection. RESULTS: Of the intent to treat population 70% had severe ED (erectile function less than 11) at baseline. After 12 weeks both vardenafil doses were significantly superior to placebo (p <0.0001) for all efficacy variables. Improved erections (based on GAQ) were reported by 65.2% and 59.4% of patients on 20 and 10 mg vardenafil, respectively, and by only 12.5% of patients on placebo (p <0.0001). Among men with bilateral neurovascular bundle sparing, positive GAQ responses were reported by 71.1% and 59.7% of patients on 20 and 10 mg vardenafil, respectively, versus 11.5% of those on placebo (p <0.0001). The average intercourse success rate per patient receiving 20 mg vardenafil was 74% in men with mild to moderate ED and 28% in men with severe ED, compared to 49% and 4% for placebo, respectively. Few adverse events were observed. They were generally mild to moderate headache, flushing and rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: In men with severe ED after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, vardenafil significantly improved key indices of erectile function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Sulfonas , Triazinas , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila
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