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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pain may decrease well-being in older adults by limiting social and leisure activities. However, some activities can exacerbate pain. We hypothesized that autonomously motivated goal engagement could ameliorate negative effects of pain on goal engagement and amplify positive effects of goal engagement on eudaemonic well-being (EWB). METHOD: Midlife and older women (N=200) were oversampled for chronic pain. Daily diaries (n=10,697) including goal lists and ratings, pain, and EWB were completed for 7 days every 3 months for 2 years. RESULTS: Pain was not a correlate of goal engagement. More engagement was associated with higher EWB when motivation was autonomous. However, more goal engagement correlated with lower EWB the next day and, when not autonomously motivated, higher pain. DISCUSSION: Goal engagement can benefit people with or without physical pain, but the motivation behind goal engagement is equally if not more important. Goals motivated by autonomous sources increase EWB and may protect against maladaptive patterns of activity associated with pain.

3.
Collabra Psychol ; 7(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969253

RESUMO

Concurrent and retrospective reports correspond for personality, affect, and coping. The present study described how autonomy, competence, and relatedness components of eudaemonic well-being (EWB) change over days and months and tested correspondences of daily and retrospective reports between and within people. Midlife and older (50-75 years) women (N = 200) completed online diaries daily for 1 week for 9 bursts over 2 years and answered questionnaires at the end of each burst (burst n = 1,529). Multilevel models partialed levels of variance and tested correspondence. Women varied in their daily experiences of EWB but did not vary substantially between bursts. Burst-level diary means and questionnaire responses corresponded between people, but changes within people were less strongly related. The daily, but not monthly, time scale of change is important for capturing within-person changes in EWB. Finding EWB change over months to years may depend on measurement designed to capture medium-term change.

4.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860906

RESUMO

Mild cognitive changes, including executive dysfunction, are seen in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Approximately 30% of individuals with PD develop Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been identified as a transitional state between normal cognition and dementia. Although PD-MCI and its cognitive correlates have been increasingly studied as a risk indicator for development of PDD, investigations into the PD-MCI construct have yielded heterogeneous findings. Thus, a typical PD-MCI cognitive profile remains undefined. The present meta-analysis examined published cross-sectional studies of PD-MCI and cognitively normal PD (PD-CN) groups to provide aggregated effect sizes of group test performance by cognitive domain. Subsequently, longitudinal studies examining PD-MCI to PDD progression were meta-analyzed. Ninety-two cross-sectional articles of PD-MCI vs. PD-CN were included; 5 longitudinal studies of PD-MCI conversion to PDD were included. Random effects meta-analytic models were constructed resulting in effect sizes (Hedges' g) for cognitive domains. Overall performance across all measures produced a large effect size (g = 0.83, 95% CI [0.79, 0.86], t2 = 0.18) in cross-sectional analyses, with cognitive screeners producing the largest effect (g = 1.09, 95% CI [1.00, 1.17], t2 = 0.19). Longitudinally, overall measures produced a moderate effect (g = 0.47, 95% CI [0.40, 0.53], t2 = 0.01), with measures of executive functioning exhibiting the largest effect (g = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.89], t2 = 0.01). Longitudinal effects were made more robust by low heterogeneity. This report provides the first comprehensive meta-analysis of PD-MCI cognitive outcomes and predictors in PD-MCI conversion to PDD. Limitations include heterogeneity of cross-sectional effect sizes and the potential impact of small-study effects. Areas for continued research include visuospatial skills and visual memory in PD-MCI and longitudinal examination of executive dysfunction in PD-MCI.

5.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(5): 436-445, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep is prevalent in older adulthood and particularly among women. Greater psychological well-being (PWB) is associated with better sleep, but intraindividual variability in PWB has not been examined. PURPOSE: The current study examined whether mean levels and variability in PWB were associated with sleep disturbances in midlife and older women. METHODS: Participants (N = 189) completed up to seven daily diaries and an end of the week assessment every 3 months for nine waves. Participants answered questions about their nightly sleep disturbances and reported their PWB using Ryff's six dimensions of PWB. RESULTS: Regression models indicated that greater variability in one aspect of PWB, positive relations with others, was related to greater sleep disturbance even after adjusting for mean levels of well-being. Greater variability in environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance were also associated with sleep disturbance, but these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for mean levels of well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that fluctuations in positive relations with others are related to sleep in adult women above and beyond mean levels of well-being. Results highlight the importance of considering variability in addition to mean levels of PWB.

6.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(5): 487-489, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901389

RESUMO

This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at segerstrom@uky.edu.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos
7.
Psychosom Med ; 82(8): 751-756, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Misestimation as a consequence of small sample sizes, small effect sizes, and noisy measurement may be particularly problematic in biomarker studies, the cost of which can adversely affect design decisions. This simulation study used real study designs reported in a meta-analysis of psychosocial correlates of the cortisol awakening response to investigate the probability that the results of these designs would yield misestimates in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: For each of the 212 designs, 100,000 simulated data sets were produced and the percentages of effects that were in the wrong direction and/or that differed by more than 0.10 from the true effect (b = 0.10) were calculated. RESULTS: As expected, small samples (n < 100) and noisy measurement contributed to higher probability of errors. The average probability of an effect being in the wrong direction was around 20%, with some designs reaching 40%; misestimation probabilities were around 40%, with some designs reaching 80%. This was true for all studies as well as those reporting statistically significant effects. CONCLUSION: Results call for better study designs, and this article provides suggestions for how to achieve more accurate estimates.

8.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(3): 262-266, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation in statistical models depends on sample size but also, critically, reliability of the measure. Physiometrics is the equivalent of psychometrics for measures such as sex hormones, catabolic hormones, and products of the immune system. METHOD: There are multiple ways to measure physiometrics, from simple correlation to complex generalizability theory designs. Depending on the design, these estimates can provide information about equivalency (e.g., the correlation between two measurements taken close together in time) or stability (e.g., the correlation between two measurements taken farther apart in time). RESULTS: The physiometrics of salivary measures including cortisol, α-amylase, testosterone, and cytokines range from highly stable, requiring only a single sample, to highly unstable, requiring multiple samples to achieve generalizability to longer periods of time. However, generalizability is relative to the study design, and only some designs call for stable and generalizable measures. CONCLUSION: Both dedicated physiometric studies and more reporting of physiometrics in psychoneuroendocrinology and psychoneuroimmunology will improve the quality of salivary bioscience study designs in the future.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Testosterona/metabolismo
9.
Collabra Psychol ; 6(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457933

RESUMO

Self-regulation refers to effortful control over one's thoughts, emotions, choices, impulses, and behaviors, and has implications for older adults' health. Executive function, physiological, and subjective indices have all been proposed to reflect self-regulation. Pairwise associations among these indices have been previously examined; however, a self-regulation constellation encompassing all of these indices has never been tested in older adults. The present study described the relationships among indices of self-regulation and tested their between- and within-person associations with upstream personality factors (conscientiousness) and downstream psychological and physical health in 149 older adults aged 60-93 years, assessed semi-annually for five years (up to 10 waves). Indices of self-regulation were only modestly correlated with each other but were each associated with health. Better executive function was associated with better psychological and physical health between and within people, whereas higher heart rate variability was associated with psychological health within people. Better subjective self-regulation had the most between- and within-person associations with better psychological and physical health. Conscientiousness was associated with subjective self-regulation and better psychological and physical health. These findings support the non-unitary nature of self-regulation in older adults and the health relevance of each of its indices between and within older adults. The aging process may change how the indices relate to each other, and older adults may draw more on certain self-regulatory components over others, given limited resources. Subjective self-regulation may be an important final common pathway to psychological and physical health in older adults.

10.
Psychol Aging ; 35(4): 591-603, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271069

RESUMO

Emotional approach coping involves active attempts at emotional expression and processing in response to stressful circumstances. This study tested whether dispositional emotional approach coping processes predict changes in physical and mental health in community-dwelling older adults, particularly within the context of higher perceived stress. To test this, older adults (N = 150) completed assessments of emotional expression and emotional processing at study entry. They also completed measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and ill-health (a composite of subjective and objective physical health indicators, which included blood draw for collection of biomarkers), every 6 months over 4.5 years. Emotional processing and emotional expression were not related significantly to ill-health at study entry. However, emotional processing (but not emotional expression) significantly predicted changes in ill-health. At higher levels of emotional processing, ill-health remained low and stable; at lower levels of emotional processing, ill-health increased over time. However, when perceived stress was high, higher emotional processing and emotional expression were related to lower depressive symptoms at study entry, but higher emotional processing was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Emotional approach coping processes evidence prospective relations with health outcomes, which are partially conditioned by stress perceptions. Emotional processing appears to have a protective impact against declining physical health. Predictive relationships for depressive symptoms are more complex. Older adults with chronically high perceived stress might benefit from interventions that target emotion-regulating coping processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Health Psychol Rev ; 14(2): 213-214, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212904
12.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 140-141, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140932

RESUMO

This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at segerstrom@uky.edu.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
13.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(3): 513-521, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846724

RESUMO

Personality, especially the dimensions of neuroticism and conscientiousness, has prospectively predicted the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such a relationship could be explained by personality and AD risk having a common cause such as a gene; by personality creating a predisposition for AD through health behavior or inflammation; by personality exerting a pathoplastic effect on the cognitive consequences of neuropathology; or by AD and personality change existing on a disease spectrum that begins up to decades before diagnosis. Using the 5-dimensional taxonomy of personality, the present review describes how these models might arise, the evidence for each, and how they might be distinguished from one another empirically. At present, the evidence is sparse but tends to suggest predisposition and/or pathoplastic relationships. Future studies using noninvasive assessment of neuropathology are needed to distinguish these 2 possibilities.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Personalidade , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Humanos , Personalidade/genética
14.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(3): 202-212, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain interferes with people's daily lives and often limits the extent to which they can pursue goals and engage in activities that promote well-being. However, people vary in how much interference they experience at a given level of pain. PURPOSE: The present study tested how optimism affects and is affected by pain interference and goal-directed activity among older women. METHODS: Every 3 months for 2 years, community-dwelling middle- and older-age women (N = 199) completed online daily diaries at home for a 7 day period, in which they reported their daily pain, pain interference, and goal-directed activity. Optimism was measured at the start and end of the study. Multilevel models tested the between- and within-person relationships among pain, optimism, and pain interference or goal-directed activity. Linear regression predicted change in optimism over 2 years from pain interference and goal-directed activity. RESULTS: Pain best predicted pain interference and optimism best predicted goal-directed activity. There were subtle interactions between optimism and pain-predicting interference and goal-directed activity. Accumulated goal-directed activity and pain interference across the study predicted longitudinal changes in optimism, with higher activity and lower pain interference predicting increased optimism over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism may play a protective role in disruptions caused by pain on a day-to-day basis, leading to increased goal-directed activity and possibly decreased pain interference. In turn, less interference and more goal-directed activity feed forward into increased optimism, resulting in a virtuous cycle that enhances optimism and well-being among older women.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Objetivos , Otimismo/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(1): 1-2, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811533

RESUMO

From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, but also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor Suzanne Segerstrom at segerstrom@uky.edu.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
16.
Cognit Ther Res ; 44(3): 659-667, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678928

RESUMO

Introduction: Distress has been assumed to result from exposure to repetitive thought (RT). However, if RT is viewed as internally generated stressors, both exposure and affective reactivity to RT could play roles in generating distress. Methods: Three studies (young adults, N=99; midlife women, N=111; older adults, N=159) assessed exposure and reactivity to daily RT and tested whether neuroticism was related to individual differences in both exposure and affective reactivity. Results: Across all 3 studies, reactivity effects on depressive symptoms exceeded those of exposure to RT, and neuroticism was associated with more exposure and greater affective reactivity. Furthermore, RT exposure and reactivity accounted for most when not all of the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions: Further consideration of both exposure and affective reactivity to RT can not only increase the explanatory power of this construct but also suggest effective targets for intervention.

17.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(6): 577-579, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414378

RESUMO

From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal was to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at segerstrom@uky.edu.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos
18.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(5): 455-456, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290077

RESUMO

From the Editors: This is the second column from the Statistics Guru. The Statistics Guru will appear in every issue. In these columns, we briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the journal. As such, the Statistics Guru can be seen both as an editorial amuse bouche and a set of guidelines for reporting data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. If you have ideas for a column, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at segerstrom@uky.edu.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medicina do Comportamento , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Psychol Neurosci ; 12(2): 224-235, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178982

RESUMO

Subjective cognitive complaints increase with age. Although subjective cognitive difficulties have been linked to cognitive impairment and psychological distress, some studies have failed to establish a link between subjective cognitive complaints and present or future cognitive impairment. The present study examined the interactive, longitudinal effects of age, psychological distress, and objective cognitive performance on subjective cognitive function. Older adults (N=147, Mage = 74.17) were assessed biannually for up to six years. Subjective cognitive function, psychological distress, and neuropsychological testing were obtained at each assessment. In multilevel models with single predictors, age, poorer average task-switching and poorer memory predicted worse subjective cognitive functioning. Both average levels and within-person deviations in distress predicted worse subjective cognitive function. There were two significant interactions: one between average distress and chronological age, and the other between average memory and within-person distress. Task switching performance and distress had an additive effect on subjective cognitive function. Both individual differences (i.e., between-person differences) and fluctuations over time (i.e., within-person changes) contributed to worse subjective cognitive function. Psychological distress may help explain the relationship between objective cognitive performance and subjective cognitive function and should be assessed when patient concerns about cognitive functioning arise.

20.
Psychophysiology ; 56(9): e13388, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049991

RESUMO

Self-regulatory (SR) ability is an important resource for managing pain, but chronic pain patients experience chronic self-regulatory fatigue even when they are not in pain. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain inhibition are two mechanisms that differentiate people with and without chronic pain. It was hypothesized that trait SR ability would be associated with higher PPT and better pain inhibition and that PPT and pain inhibition would be lower following high versus low SR fatigue. Three studies tested these hypotheses. Study 1 had 240 pain-free undergraduates complete measures of trait SR ability and PPT; 122 also provided data on pain inhibition. Study 2 had 38 of Study 1's participants return for two additional sessions in which they underwent PPT testing under conditions of high or low SR fatigue (within-person, counterbalanced). Study 3 repeated these procedures with pain inhibition as the outcome (n = 39). Results revealed that individual differences in SR ability were not associated with PPT or pain inhibition (all ps > 0.05). Within people, neither PPT (F(1, 36) = 1.57, p = 0.22) nor pain inhibition (F(1, 37) = 1.79, p = 0.19) were significantly different under conditions of low versus high SR fatigue. Results do not support the hypotheses that PPT or pain inhibition associate with individual differences in trait SR ability or transient changes in state SR fatigue in the absence of pain. Instead, the SR deficits in chronic pain patients may arise from the experience of chronic pain.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Individualidade , Inibição Psicológica , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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