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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878328

RESUMO

The arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important signaling pathway in the immune system of mammals. In addition to its physiological functions, the receptor mediates the immunotoxic actions of a diverse range of environmental contaminants that bind to and activate the AhR, including planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs or dioxin-like compounds) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). AhR-binding xenobiotics are immunotoxic not only to mammals but to teleost fish as well. To date, however, it is unknown if the AhR pathway is active in the immune system of fish and thus may act as molecular initiating event in the immunotoxicity of AhR-binding xenobiotics to fish. The present study aims to examine the presence of functional AhR signaling in immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Focus is given to the toxicologically relevant AhR2 clade. By means of RT-qPCR and in situ hybdridization, we show that immune cells of rainbow trout express ahr 2α and ahr 2ß mRNA; this applies for immune cells isolated from the head kidney and from the peripheral blood. Furthermore, we show that in vivo as well as in vitro exposure to the AhR ligand, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), causes upregulation of the AhR-regulated gene, cytochrome p4501a, in rainbow trout immune cells, and that this induction is inhibited by co-treatment with an AhR antagonist. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that functional AhR signaling exists in the immune cells of the teleost species, rainbow trout.

2.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(12): 2396-2408, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915480

RESUMO

In vitro metabolic stability assays using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isolated hepatocytes (RT-HEP) or hepatic S9 fractions (RT-S9) were introduced to provide biotransformation rate data for the assessment of chemical bioaccumulation in fish. The present study explored the suitability of the RT-HEP and RT-S9 assays for difficult test chemicals, and the in vitro-based predictions were compared to in silico-based predictions and in vivo-measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results show that volatile or reactive chemicals can be tested with minor modifications of the in vitro protocols. For hydrophobic chemicals, a passive dosing technique was developed. Finally, a design-of-experiment approach was used to identify optimal in vitro assay conditions. The modified assay protocols were applied to 10 fragrances with diverse physicochemical properties. The in vitro intrinsic clearance rates were higher in the S9 than in the hepatocyte assay, but the in vitro-in vivo (IVIV) predictions were comparable between the 2 assays. The IVIV predictions classified the test chemicals as nonbioaccumulative (BCF < 2000), which was in agreement with the in vivo data but in contrast to the in silico-based predictions. The findings from the present study provide strong evidence that the RT-HEP and RT-S9 assays can provide reliable estimates of in vivo biotransformation rates for test chemicals with difficult physicochemical properties. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:2396-2408. © 2020 SETAC.

3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111349, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573451

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution is an emerging contaminant in aquatic environments worldwide. Nonetheless, the developmental toxicity of MPs in the early life stages of fish and the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of polystyrene (PS) MPs on the early development of the marine model fish the medaka Oryzias melastigma. Our results showed that waterborne exposure to PS MPs significantly delayed the hatching time, altered the heartbeat and decreased the hatching rate of embryos. Furthermore, the genes involved in cardiac development, encoding for embryo-hatching enzymes, as well as inflammatory responses were significantly upregulated. The transcriptome results showed that mainly the pathways involved in metabolism, immune response, genetic information processing and diseases were significantly enriched. These results demonstrate that PS MPs negatively impact embryogenesis and the immune response of O. melastigma.


Assuntos
Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Microplásticos , Plásticos
4.
Environ Int ; 142: 105836, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563011

RESUMO

Estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EEDCs), such as ethinylestradiol (EE2), are well studied for their impact on the reproductive system of fish. EEDCs may also impact the immune system and, as a consequence, the disease susceptibility of fish. It is currently not yet known whether the low concentrations of EEDCs that are able to disrupt the reproductive system of trout are effective in disrupting the immune system and the fish host resistance towards pathogens, too, or whether such immunodisruptive effects would occur only at higher EEDC concentrations. Therefore, in the present study we compare the effect thresholds of low 17α-ethinylestradiol concentrations (1.5 and 5.5 EE2 ng/L) on the reproductive system, the immune system, the energy expenditures and the resistance of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against the parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae - the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids. The parasite infection was conducted without injection and under low pathogen exposure concentrations. The disease development was followed over 130 days post infection - in the presence or absence of EE2 exposure. The results show that the long-term EE2 exposure affected, at both concentrations, reproductive parameters like the mRNA levels of hepatic vitellogenin and estrogen receptors. At the same concentrations, EE2 exposure modulated the immune parameters: mRNA levels of several immune genes were altered and the parasite intensity as well as the disease severity (histopathology) were significantly reduced in EE2-exposed fish compared to infected control fish. The combination of EE2 exposure and parasite infection was energetically costly, as indicated by the decreased values of the swim tunnel respirometry. Although further substantiation is needed, our findings suggest that EE2 exerts endocrine disruptive and immunomodulating activities at comparable effect thresholds, since reproductive and immune parameters were affected by the same, low EE2 concentrations.

5.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 15)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532865

RESUMO

Fish gills are a structurally and functionally complex organ at the interface between the organism and the aquatic environment. Gill functions include the transfer of organic molecules, both natural ones and xenobiotic compounds. Whether the branchial exchange of organic molecules involves active transporters is currently not known. Here, we investigated the presence, diversity and functional activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in gills of juvenile rainbow trout. By means of RT-qPCR, gene transcripts of members from the abcb, abcc and abcg subfamilies were identified. Comparisons with mRNA profiles from trout liver and kidney revealed that ABC transporters known to have an apical localization in polarized epithelia, especially abcc2 and abcb1, were under-represented in the gills. In contrast, ABC transporters with mainly basolateral localization showed comparable gene transcript levels in the three organs. The most prominent ABC transporter in gills was an abcb subfamily member, which was annotated as abcb5 based on the synteny and phylogeny. Functional in vivo assays pointed to a role of branchial ABC transporters in branchial solute exchange. We further assessed the utility of primary gill cell cultures to characterize transporter-mediated branchial exchange of organic molecules, by examining ABC transporter gene transcript patterns and functional activity in primary cultures. The gill cultures displayed functional transport activity, but the ABC mRNA expression patterns were different to those of the intact gills. Overall, the findings of this study provide evidence for the presence of functional ABC transporter activity in gills of fish.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582181

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is one of the most serious infectious diseases negatively impacting farmed and wild salmonids throughout Europe and North America. PKD pathogenesis results in a massive B cell proliferation and dysregulation with aberrant immunoglobulin production and plasma cell differentiation along with a decrease in myeloid cells and inhibition of innate pathways. Despite the huge immunopathological reaction in the kidney during infection, under specific conditions, fish can survive and return to full fitness. Fish are unique in this ability to recover renal structure and functionality from extensive tissue damage in contrast to mammals. However, only limited knowledge exists regarding the host immune response coinciding with PKD recovery. Moreover, almost no studies of the immune response during disease recovery exist in fish. We utilized the rainbow trout-T. bryosalmonae system as an immunological model of disease recovery. Our results demonstrated that recovery is preceded by an intense immune response at the transcript level, decreasing parasite burden, and an increased degree of kidney inflammation. Later in the recovery phase, the immune response transpired with a significant decrease in lymphocytes and an increase in myeloid cells. These lymphocytes populations contained lower levels of B cells comparative to the control in the anterior and posterior kidney. Additionally, there was downregulation of several transcripts used as markers for plasma cells (blimp1, igt sec, igm sec, igd sec, and cd38) and T cell subsets (cd4, cd8α, cd8ß, and tcrß). The decrease in these T cell transcripts significantly correlated with decreasing parasite intensity. Alternatively, there was strong upregulation of pax-5 and igt mem. This suggests a change in B cell processes during the recovery phase relative to clinical PKD may be necessary for the host to re-establish homeostasis in terms of an arrest in the dominant antibody like response transitioning to a transcriptional profile associated with resting B cells. The knowledge generated here in combination with earlier studies illuminates the full power of analyzing the entire trajectory of disease from the normal healthy state to recovery enabling the measurement of an immune response to pinpoint a specific disease stage.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386103

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease of salmonids, which is exacerbating with increasing water temperature. Its causative agent, the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, exploits freshwater bryozoans as primary hosts and salmonids as intermediate hosts. Our experiments showed that the manipulation of exposure concentrations of infective malacospores had relatively minor impacts for the disease outcomes in the fish host. In this study, brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different exposure concentrations of T. bryosalmonae malacospores: (a) a single low parasite concentration (LC), (b) a single high parasite concentration (HC) and (c) three times a low concentration (repeat exposure, RE). Parasite dynamics in the fish host and release of fish malacospores were quantified and fish kidney histopathology was evaluated to determine PKD pathogenesis. Infection prevalence was always lower in the LC group than in the other groups over the course of the study. While the parasite proliferation phase was slower in the LC group, the maximum parasite burden did not differ significantly amongst treatments. The onset of fish malacospore release (day 45 post-exposure), indicated by detection of T. bryosalmonae DNA in the tank water, occurred at the same time point for all groups. Reduced intensity of kidney pathological development was observed in the LC treatment indicating lower disease severity. While the LC treatment resulted in reduced outcomes across several infection parameters (infection prevalence, parasite proliferation, total fish malacospores released), the overall differences were small. The RE and HC treatment outcomes were for most parameters comparable. Our results suggest that repeated exposure, as is likely to occur in the wild during the summer months, might play a more important role in the dynamics of PKD as an emerging infectious disease than the actual concentration of spores.

8.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 66: 104859, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289358

RESUMO

Emission of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) especially from vehicle exhaust catalysts and pharmaceutics cause an increase in concentrations of this metal in aquatic environments. In this study, small (4-9 nm) uncoated and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Pt NPs were synthetized and their dispersion in different exposure media were evaluated. Pt NP uptake in two established fish cell lines were investigated and comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of Pt NPs and ions were assessed. The coated and uncoated Pt NPs dispersions in minimum essential medium (MEM) with fetal bovine serum (FBS) displayed high colloidal stability. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (STEM/EDX) indicated no detectable cellular uptake of Pt NPs in both cell line monolayers. But with ICP-MS analysis, trace amount of Pt content was determined in all digested monolayer cell samples. The cytotoxicity of both Pt NPs and Pt ions on both fish cell lines after 48 h exposure was investigated through three assays to monitor different endpoints of cytotoxicity. In all studied concentrations (0.325-200 mg/L) no significant cytotoxicity (p > .5) compared to controls were observed in the cells exposed to coated Pt NPs. Uncoated Pt NP and ion exposed cells indicated similar concentration dependent cytotoxicity on both cell lines.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110271, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044605

RESUMO

Pollution with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) is a global concern and particularly in coastal environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as the most toxic components of TPHs and they can also be derived from other sources. Fangcheng Port is considered as a representative emerging coastal city in China, but the status, sources, and hazards to organisms and humans with respect to contamination with PAHs and TPHs are unknown in the coastal regions of this area. Therefore, in this study, we cloned cytochrome P450 family genes (CYP1A1, CYP3A, and CYP4) and heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70) in the clam Meretrix meretrix as well as optimizing the method for measuring the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. These molecular indicators and four specific physiological indexes were found to be appropriate biomarkers for indicating the harmful effects of PAHs and TPHs on clams after exposure to the crude oil water-soluble fraction. In field monitoring surveys, we found that the 2- and 3-ring PAHs were dominant in the clams whereas the 4- to 6-ring PAHs were dominant in the sediments at each site. The PAH levels (3.63-12.77 ng/g wet weight) in wild clams were lower, whereas the TPH levels (13.25-70.50 µg/g wet weight) were higher compared with those determined previous in China and elsewhere. The concentrations of PAHs and TPHs in the sediments (19.20-4215.76 ng/g and 3.65-866.40 µg/g dry weight) were moderate compared with those in other global regions. Diagnostic ratio analysis demonstrated that the PAHs were derived mainly from pyrogenic sources. The TPHs may have come primarily from industrial effluents, land and maritime transportation, or fishing activities. The Integrated Biomarker Response version 2 indexes indicated that the clams collected from site S5 exhibited the most harmful effects due to contamination by PAHs and TPHs. Human health risk assessments demonstrated that the risks due to PAHs and TPHs following the consumption of clams can be considered acceptable. Our results suggest that continuous monitoring of contamination by PAHs and TPHs is recommended in this emerging coastal city as well as assessing their human health risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , China , Cidades , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113636, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780365

RESUMO

Little is known about sediment-bound exposure of fish to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) under field conditions. This study aimed to investigate potential routes of EDC exposure to fish and whether sediment-bound contaminants contribute towards exposure in fish. Tench (Tinca tinca) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) as a benthic and pelagic living fish species, respectively, were sampled at the Luppe River, previously described as a "hotspot" for accumulation of EDC in sediment. A field reference site, the Laucha River, additionally to fish from a commercial fish farm as reference were studied. Blackworms, Lumbriculus variegatus, which are a source of prey for fish, were exposed to sediment of the Luppe River and estrogenic activity of worm tissue was investigated using in vitro bioassays. A 153-fold greater estrogenic activity was measured using in vitro bioassays in sediment of the Luppe River compared the Laucha River. Nonylphenol (NP; 22 mg/kg) was previously identified as one of the main drivers of estrogenic activity in Luppe sediment. Estrogenic activity of Luppe exposed worm tissue (14 ng 17ß-estradiol equivalents/mg) indicated that food might act as secondary source to EDCs. While there were no differences in concentrations of NP in plasma of tench from the Luppe and Laucha, vitellogenin, a biomarker for exposure to EDCs, was induced in male tench and roach from the Luppe River compared to both the Laucha and cultured fish by a factor of 264 and 90, respectively. However, no histological alterations in testis of these fish were observed. Our findings suggest that sediments substantially contribute to the overall EDC exposure of both benthic and pelagic fish but that the exposure did not impact gonad status of the fish.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Estrogênios , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Masculino , Rios
11.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124943, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574443

RESUMO

Secondary sexual characteristics (SSCs) are important features that have evolved in many fish species because of inter-individual competition for mates. SSCs are crucial not only for sexual selection, but also for other components of the reproductive process and parental care. Externally, they are especially clear in males (for instance, tubercles, fatpad, anal finnage, colouration) but are also externally present in the females (for instance, ovipositor). These characters are under hormonal control and as such there has been much interest in incorporating them as measures in fish test methods to assess the potential endocrine activity of chemicals. Here we describe the external SSCs in typical laboratory test species for endocrine testing - fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). We also provide some examples and discuss the utility of SSC responses to the endocrine activity of chemicals in the field and the laboratory. This paper is not aimed to provide a comprehensive review of SSCs in fish but presents a view on the assessment of SSCs in regulatory testing. Due to the current regulatory importance of establishing an endocrine mode-of-action for chemicals, we also consider other, non-endocrine factors that may lead to SSC responses in fish. We conclude with recommendations for how the assessment of SSCs in fish could be usefully incorporated into the endocrine hazard and risk assessment of chemicals.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiologia , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Masculino , Vitelogeninas
12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124589, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437630

RESUMO

Vitellogenin (VTG), a well-established biomarker for the diagnosis of endocrine activity in fish, is used in multiple OECD test guidelines (TG) to identify activities of chemicals on hormonal pathways. However, the synthesis of VTG may not only be modified by typical endocrine-related pathways, but also through non-endocrine-mediated processes. In particular, hepatotoxicity, i.e. toxicant-induced impairment of liver structure and function, might influence VTG as a biomarker, since VTG is synthesized in hepatocytes. An intimate understanding of the interplay between endocrine-related and non-endocrine-related pathways influencing VTG production is crucial for the avoidance of erroneous diagnoses in hazard assessment for regulatory purposes of chemical compounds. In order to investigate whether hepatotoxicity may interfere with hepatic VTG synthesis, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to three well-known hepatotoxicants, acetaminophen, isoniazid and acetylsalicylic acid, according to OECD TG 230. Various hepatotoxicity- and endocrine system-related endpoints were recorded: mRNA expression of selected endocrine- and hepatotoxicity-related marker genes in the liver; VTG levels in head/tail homogenates; and liver histopathology. All three test compounds induced significant, but mild single cell necrosis of hepatocytes and transcriptional changes of hepatotoxicity-related marker genes, thus confirming hepatotoxic effects. A positive correlation between hepatotoxicity and reduced hepatic VTG synthesis was not observed, with the single exception of a weak increase in female zebrafish exposed to APAP. This suggests that - in studies conducted according to OECD TG 229 or 230 - it is unlikely that hepatotoxic chemicals will interfere with the hepatic capacity for VTG synthesis.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Aspirina/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Isoniazida/toxicidade , Vitelogeninas/biossíntese , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/biossíntese
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508435

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease of salmonids caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which plays a major role in the decrease of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Switzerland. Strong evidence demonstrated that water temperature modulates parasite infection. However, less knowledge exists on how seasonal water temperature fluctuations influence PKD manifestation under field conditions, how further environmental factors such as water quality may modulate the disease, and whether these factors coalesce with temperatures role possibly giving rise to cumulative effects on PKD. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the correlation between seasonal course of water temperature and PKD prevalence and intensity in wild brown trout populations, (2) assess if other factors such as water quality or ecomorphology correlate with the infection, and (3) quantitatively predict the implication of these factors on PKD prevalence with a statistical model. Young-of-the-year brown trout were sampled in 45 sites through the Canton of Vaud (Switzerland). For each site, longitudinal time series of water temperature, water quality (macroinvertebrate community index, presence of wastewater treatment plant effluent) and ecomorphological data were collected and correlated with PKD prevalence and intensity. 251 T. bryosalmonae-infected trout of 1,118 were found (overall prevalence 22.5%) at 19 of 45 study sites (42.2%). Relation between PKD infection and seasonal water temperature underlined that the mean water temperature for June and the number of days with mean temperature ≥15°C were the most significantly correlated parameters with parasite prevalence and intensity. The presence of a wastewater treatment plant effluent was significantly correlated with the prevalence and infection intensity. In contrast, macroinvertebrate diversity and river ecomorphology were shown to have little impact on disease parameters. Linear and logistic regressions highlighted quantitatively the prediction of PKD prevalence depending on environmental parameters at a given site and its possible increase due to rising temperatures. The model developed within this study could serve as a useful tool for identifying and predicting disease hot spots. These results support the importance of temperature for PKD in salmonids and provides evidence for a modulating influence of additional environmental stress factors.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1007-1017, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449978

RESUMO

Pathogenic disease is a major factor affecting the aquaculture of the rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, an important commercial species inhabiting the nearshore waters of the Western Pacific Ocean. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as critical components of innate immunity, have been considered as promising antibiotic substitutes. The aims of this study were 1) to identify major AMPs in the rockfish, 2) to assess their antimicrobial activity and 3) to evaluate their potential therapeutic application. Six AMPs were identified, Hepcidin 1, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2), Piscidin, Moronecidin, NK-lysin and ß-defensin through analysis of the liver transcriptome of S. marmoratus. The transcriptional expression profiles of these AMPs were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). These AMPs showed tissue-specific distribution patterns, and S. marmoratus displays a time-, dose- and tissue-dependent expression of AMPs in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. While the synthetic peptides of LEAP-2 and Moronecidin exerted broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against important aquatic pathogens in vitro by directly disrupting microbial membrane, and no cytotoxicity against murine hepatic cells was observed at the effective concentrations from 5 µM to 40 µM. The existence of multiple AMPs and their distinct tissue distribution patterns and inducible expression patterns suggests a sophisticated, highly redundant, and multilevel network of antimicrobial defensive mechanisms of S. marmoratus. Therefore, S. marmoratus-derived AMPs appear to be potential therapeutic applications against pathogen infections in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Perciformes/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004835

RESUMO

Freshwater fish are threatened by the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. The purpose of this study was to unravel the molecular and organism level reactions of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two such stressors that occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. Fish were infected with either the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease (PKD), or exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE2) an estrogenic endocrine disrupting compound, or to a combination of both (PKD × EE2). PKD is a slow progressive chronic disease here we focused on a later time point (130-day post-infection (d.p.i.)) when parasite intensity in the fish kidney has already started to decrease. At 130 d.p.i., RNA-seq technology was applied to the posterior kidney, the main target organ for parasite development. This resulted with 280 (PKD), 14 (EE2) and 444 (PKD × EE2) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) observed in the experimental groups. In fish exposed to the combination of stressors (PKD × EE2), a number of pathways were regulated that were neither observed in the single stressor groups. Parasite infection, alone and in combination with EE2, only resulted in a low intensity immune response that negatively correlated with an upregulation of genes involved in a variety of metabolic and inflammation resolution processes. This could indicate a trade-off whereby the host increases investment in recovery/resolution processes over immune responses at a later stage of disease. When PKD infection took place under simultaneous exposure to EE2 (PKD × EE2), parasite intensity decreased and pathological alterations in the posterior kidney were reduced in comparison to the PKD only condition. These findings suggest that EE2 modulated these response profiles in PKD infected fish, attenuating the disease impact on the fish.


Assuntos
Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/induzido quimicamente
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934780

RESUMO

The effects of thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (THDCs) on eye development of zebrafish were investigated. We expected THDC exposure to cause transcriptional changes of vision-related genes, which find their phenotypic anchoring in eye malformations and dysfunction, as observed in our previous studies. Zebrafish were exposed from 0 to 5 days post fertilization (dpf) to either propylthiouracil (PTU), a thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, or tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which interacts with thyroid hormone receptors. Full genome microarray analyses of RNA isolated from eye tissue revealed that the number of affected transcripts was substantially higher in PTU- than in TBBPA-treated larvae. However, multiple components of phototransduction (e.g., phosphodiesterase, opsins) were responsive to both THDC exposures. Yet, the response pattern for the gene ontology (GO)-class "sensory perception" differed between treatments, with over 90% down-regulation in PTU-exposed fish, compared to over 80% up-regulation in TBBPA-exposed fish. Additionally, the reversibility of effects after recovery in clean water for three days was investigated. Transcriptional patterns in the eyes were still altered and partly overlapped between 5 and 8 dpf, showing that no full recovery occurred within the time period investigated. However, pathways involved in repair mechanisms were significantly upregulated, which indicates activation of regeneration processes.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Olho/embriologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Propiltiouracila/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 90: 165-175, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248359

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids is a disease of economic and environmental concern caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Finer details of the immune repertoire during T. bryosalmonae infection have been elucidated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In contrast, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the immune response of the wild fish host in Europe, the brown trout (Salmo trutta) to this parasite. The first aim of this study is to examine the brown trout immune response to T. bryosalmonae and compare it with the published information on rainbow trout as two species that have undergone a different coevolution with the parasite. According to ecoimmunology terminology, infected organisms may manage infection by reducing the damage caused by parasites (tolerance) or by limiting parasite burden (resistance). The second aim of this study is to investigate tolerance/resistance patterns of these species during PKD infection. Our results suggest subtle differences in sequential aspects of the immune response and of immune genes that correlate with parasite intensity for the brown trout, in contrast to rainbow trout, in terms of the B cell response and Th-like interplay that may be linked to PKD pathogenesis. These differences in the immune response also correlate with species-specific differences in tolerance/resistance patterns, in that brown trout had increased tolerance but rainbow trout had greater resistance to infection. The variance in tolerance/resistance investment resulted in a different evolutionary outcome for each host-parasite interaction. A greater exploration of these concepts and an association of immune mechanisms could open an additional gateway for interpreting fish host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Nefropatias/imunologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Resistência à Doença , Europa (Continente) , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunidade Inata , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 680-694, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359755

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of feed contamination with zearalenone (ZEN) at the current European Commission (EC) guidance value (2 mg⋅kg-1 feed) on the growth and health of rainbow trout, we performed a long-term feeding trial under aquaculture conditions. It started with the external feeding of the fish larvae, and continued for 96 weeks, at which point the fish had reached market size. To assess the growth of fish and their feeding efficiency throughout this period, the fish were regularly weighed and measured, and their feed consumption was monitored. Additionally, to investigate potential health effects, after 72 weeks of the exposure to ZEN, the fishes' blood was analyzed for major hematological and biochemical indices, and their head kidney, spleen, and liver were examined for morphological, histopathological, cytological, and molecular changes. Finally, to gain insight into the metabolism and distribution of ZEN in fish, the content of free and glucuronidated forms of ZEN and its major metabolites was measured in the intestine, liver, and muscles of the exposed fish. The feed-borne exposure of rainbow trout to ZEN at a dose of 2 mg⋅kg-1 feed resulted in higher feeding efficiency and growth rate, most probably due to the anabolic properties of the ZEN metabolite. Importantly for the consumers of fish, despite absorption and metabolism of ZEN in the digestive system of the fish that had been exposed for 72 weeks, the residuals of ZEN were not transferred to the fishes' muscles, which rules out a potential risk to human health related to the consumption of fish meat. However, the increased growth of fish fed with the contaminated feed may come at some cost, as the exposure to ZEN was associated with modulation of key components of the adaptive and innate immune systems. Moreover, the trunk kidney of ZEN-fed fish showed massive inflammation that was likely caused by pathogen infection. These findings raise concerns about fish health under the current recommended EC guidance values.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Zearalenona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Rim Cefálico/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Baço/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Zearalenona/administração & dosagem
20.
PeerJ ; 6: e5956, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479904

RESUMO

Many ecosystems are influenced simultaneously by multiple stressors. One important environmental stressor is aquatic pollution via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. WWTP effluents may contribute to eutrophication or contain anthropogenic contaminants that directly and/or indirectly influence aquatic wildlife. Both eutrophication and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants may affect the dynamics of fish-parasite systems. With this in mind, we studied the impact of WWTP effluents on infection of brown trout by the parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD). PKD is associated with the long-term decline of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Switzerland. We investigated PKD infection of brown trout at two adjacent sites (≈400 m apart) of a Swiss river. The sites are similar in terms of ecology except that one site receives WWTP effluents. We evaluated the hypothesis that fish inhabiting the effluent site will show greater susceptibility to PKD in terms of prevalence and disease outcome. We assessed susceptibility by (i) infection prevalence, (ii) parasite intensity, (iii) host health in terms of pathology, and (iv) estimated apparent survival rate. At different time points during the study, significant differences between sites concerning all measured parameters were found, thus providing evidence of the influence of effluents on parasitic infection of fish in our study system. However, from these findings we cannot determine if the effluent has a direct influence on the fish host via altering its ability to manage the parasite, or indirectly on the parasite or the invertebrate host via increasing bryozoa (the invertebrate host) reproduction. On a final note, the WWTP adhered to all national guidelines and the effluent only resulted in a minor water quality reduction assessed via standardized methods in this study. Thus, we provide evidence that even a subtle decrease in water quality, resulting in small-scale pollution can have consequences for wildlife.

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